This is a tool that recovers WPA2 Enterprise Wifi Credentials from a machine.
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This is a tool that recovers WPA2 Enterprise Wifi Credentials from a machine.

What does this do?

  • This tool recovers enterprise WPA2 MGT PEAP credentials from Windows machines
  • This repo has basic documentation on the format Windows stores the credentials in

Please note:

  • This solution has only been tested successfully on Windows 10. Additional testing to verify if this solution works on older versions of Windows is required.

How do I use this?

  • Compile it yourself using Visual Studio Community Edition (free download)
  • Alternately, grab the latest release from the releases section
  • The executable needs to be run multiple times
  • You need to run the executable as the NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM user to decrypt the first layer of encryption
  • After that, it needs to be run in the context of the user who owns the WiFi network

How do I run the executable as NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM ?

  • Download psexec which is part of the Sysinternals Suite from Microsoft
  • Open an administartive command prompt window
  • Type the following to get a system level command prompt psexec -s -i cmd
  • Type whoami to confirm that the command prompt is running as system
  • Execute the application using the system level command prompt

How are WPA2 MGT (Enterprise PEAP) Credentials stored in Windows 10?

  • There are a few edge cases, such as accessing a Wireless profile via the lock screen, however, this is the most typical case.
  • A user (e.g. Administrator) is logged into a PC.
  • The user connects to the WiFi access point and enters their credentials
  • The following ondisk directory structure is created:
    • C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Wlansvc\Profiles\Interfaces\{interfaceID}\{profileID}.xml
  • The following registry entry is created to store the enterprise credentials
    • HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Wlansvc\UserData\Profiles\{profileID}\
    • Sometimes it is stored in: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Wlansvc\UserData\Profiles\{profileID}\
    • Sometimes it is stored in: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Wlansvc\Profiles\{profileID}\
    • The "MSMUserData" binary value contains the encrypted credentials
    • In Windows 10, the first layer can be decrypted using the following C# code, run in the context of the system user:
      • ProtectedData.Unprotect(<data>, null, DataProtectionScope.LocalMachine);
    • This will decrypt and the result will be a blog of binary data, looking at the data, it's easy to spot the domain and username in clear text.
    • The username comes directly after the following bytes { 0x04, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00 }, and terminates after a null byte if it is encrypted.
      • If the blob isn't encrypted with the user's credentials, then the username will be after { 0x03, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x20, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00 } in plain text, then a series of null bytes, followed by a clear text password, then a series of null bytes and possibly a domain, if you reach 0x01 then there is no domain.
    • The domain comes after a bunch of the username, there will be a series of null bytes. If you reach a 0xE6 character, then there is no domain present in the credentials.
    • The password is then encrypted again using the same C# call, however, it is encrypted using the context of the user who first connected to the wireless network (or the user who first logged in after the connection was made)
    • The encrypted password section starts with (and includes) the following bytes { 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xD0, 0x8C, 0x9D, 0xDF, 0x01 }
    • Decrypting this section gives the password in clear text, it also appears as though some additional null bytes may be present at the end, so they should be stripped.

What about WPA2 PSK (Pre Shared Key)?

  • You don't need a special tool to recover those
  • Open an admin command prompt
  • Type: netsh wlan show profile to list all of the wireless profiles
  • Type: netsh wlan show profile name="<name from the list of profiles>" key=clear which will reveal the PSK
  • For reference, the pre shared key is stored directly in the following location: C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Wlansvc\Profiles\Interfaces\{interfaceID}\{profileID}.xml
  • The pre shared key needs to be converted from HEX into binary format, and then it can be decrypted using ProtectedData.Unprotect(<data>, null, DataProtectionScope.LocalMachine); in the context of a system user.

What if I need a certificate to connect to a Wireless network?

  • I don't know -- more research to come
  • The certificate might actually be stored in the same blob

What about Windows 7 or earlier?

  • I need to do more research to figure this out
  • I made the program generic enough that it should catch the keys from earlier versions of Windows, however, I haven't officially tested it
  • I think they may be stored in HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE instead of HKEY_CURRENT_USER, but I haven't confirmed this yet

I have made an improvement, what do I do?

  • Make a pull request on the repo
  • I will review the pull request
  • If it's good to go, I will merge it