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C# behaviour tree library with a fluent API
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README.md

Fluent-Behaviour-Tree

C# behaviour tree library with a fluent API.

For a background and walk-through please see the accompanying article.

Understanding Behaviour Trees

Here are some resources to help you understand behaviour trees:

Installation

In the Visual Studio Package Manager Console:

PM> Install-Package FluentBehaviourTree

Or clone or download the code from the github repository.

Creating a Behaviour Tree

A behaviour tree is created through BehaviourTreeBuilder. The tree is returned when the Build function is called.

using FluentBehaviourTree;

...

IBehaviourTreeNode tree;

public void Startup()
{
	var builder = new BehaviourTreeBuilder();
	this.tree = builder
		.Sequence("my-sequence")
			.Do("action1",  t => 
			{
				// Action 1.
				return BehaviourTreeStatus.Success;
			})
			.Do("action2", t => 
			{
				// Action 2.
				return BehaviourTreeStatus.Success;
			})
		.End()
		.Build();
}

Tick the behaviour tree on each update of your game loop:

public void Update(float deltaTime)
{
	this.tree.Tick(new TimeData(deltaTime));
}

Behaviour Tree Status

Behaviour tree nodes return the following status codes:

  • Success: The node has finished what it was doing and succeeded.
  • Failure: The node has finished, but failed.
  • Running: The node is still working on something.

Node Types

Action / Leaf-Node

Call the Do function to create an action node at the leaves of the behavior tree.

.Do("do-something", t => 
{
	// ... do something ...
	// ... query the entity, query the environment then take some action ...
	return BehaviourTreeStatus.Success;
}); 

The return value defines the status of the node. Return Success, Failure or Running.

Sequence

Runs each child node in sequence. Fails for the first child node that fails. Moves to the next child when the current running child succeeds. Stays on the current child node while it returns running. Succeeds when all child nodes have succeeded.

.Sequence("my-sequence")
	.Do("action1", t => 
	{
		// Sequential action 1.
		return BehaviourTreeStatus.Success; // Run this.
	}) 
	.Do("action2", t => 
	{
		// Sequential action 2.
		return BehaviourTreeStatus.Success; // Then run this.
	})
.End()

Parallel

Runs all child nodes in parallel. Continues to run until a required number of child nodes have either failed or succeeded.

int numRequiredToFail = 2;
int numRequiredToSucceed = 2;

.Parallel("my-parallel", numRequiredToFail, numRequiredToSucceed)
	.Do("action1", t => 
	{
		// Parallel action 1.
		return BehaviourTreeStatus.Running;
	})
	.Do("action2", t => 
	{
		// Parallel action 2.
		return BehaviourTreeStatus.Running;
	})		
.End()

Selector

Runs child nodes in sequence until it finds one that succeeds. Succeeds when it finds the first child that succeeds. For child nodes that fail it moves forward to the next child node. While a child is running it stays on that child node without moving forward.

.Selector("my-selector")
	.Do("action1", t => 
	{
		// Action 1.
		return BehaviourTreeStatus.Failure; // Fail, move onto next child.
	}); 
	.Do("action2", t => 
	{
		// Action 2.
		return BehaviourTreeStatus.Success; // Success, stop here.
	})		
	.Do("action3", t => 
	{
		// Action 3.
		return BehaviourTreeStatus.Success; // Doesn't get this far. 
	})		
.End()

Condition

The condition function is syntactic sugar for the Do function. It allows return of a boolean value that is then converted to a success or failure. It is intended to be used with Selector.

.Selector("my-selector")
	.Condition("condition1", t => SomeBooleanCondition())	// Predicate that returns *true* or *false*. 
	.Do("action1", t => SomeAction())					// Action to run if the predicate evaluates to *true*. 
.End()

Inverter

Inverts the success or failure of the child node. Continues running while the child node is running.

.Inverter("inverter1")
	.Do("action1", t => BehaviourTreeStatus.Success) // *Success* will be inverted to *failure*.
.End() 


.Inverter("inverter1")
	.Do("action1", t => BehaviourTreeStatus.Failure) // *Failure* will be inverted to *success*.
.End() 

Nesting Behaviour Trees

Behaviour trees can be nested to any depth, for example:

.Selector("parent")
	.Sequence("child-1")
		...
		.Parallel("grand-child")
			...
		.End()
		...
	.End()
	.Sequence("child-2")
		...
	.End()
.End()

Splicing a Sub-tree

Separately created sub-trees can be spliced into parent trees. This makes it easy to build behaviour trees from reusable components.

private IBehaviourTreeNode CreateSubTree()
{
	var builder = new BehaviourTreeBuilder();
	return builder
		.Sequence("my-sub-tree")
			.Do("action1", t => 
			{
				// Action 1.
				return BehaviourTreeStatus.Success;
			})
			.Do("action2", t => 
			{
				// Action 2.
				return BehaviourTreeStatus.Success;
			}); 
		.End()
		.Build();
}

public void Startup()
{
	var builder = new BehaviourTreeBuilder();
	this.tree = builder
		.Sequence("my-parent-sequence")
			.Splice(CreateSubTree()) // Splice the child tree in.
			.Splice(CreateSubTree()) // Splice again.
		.End()
		.Build();
}