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Project Bedrock #4772

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davidfowl opened this issue Aug 3, 2017 · 126 comments

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@davidfowl
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@davidfowl davidfowl commented Aug 3, 2017

Project Bedrock

Project bedrock is about further decoupling the components of Kestrel so that we can use it as the foundation for our non-http networking stack.
We want to build on the primitives, patterns and cross cutting concerns that exist today in ASP.NET Core applications. The goal is to enable higher level frameworks (like SignalR or WCF and even ASP.NET Core itself) to build on top of abstractions that don't tie them to a specific connection implementation (OWIN for Connections). As an example, it allows SignalR to run both on top of TCP or Websockets without having to understand what the underlying transport is. We also want to enable building raw low level protocol servers to handle things like MQTT for IOT scenarios.

There are 3 main actors in this server side programming model:

  • Applications/Middleware/Frameworks - The application code that handles connections and implement protocol parsing logic or other logic that modifies the stream of data (http, TLS as an example)
  • Transports - Transports provide an implementation of an IFeatureCollection that implements the underlying connection semantics. In short, transports provide a concrete implementation of the ConnectionContext that flows through the dispatcher to the application.
  • Dispatchers - The dispatcher is the component that brings the transport layer and application layer together. Its job is to manage the lifetime of the transport connection and application running on top. The dispatcher will expose the IConnectionBuilder for a particular binding relevant to the transport. For example, the http dispatcher will expose the IConnectionBuilder based on a particular route, while the TCP dispatcher will expose an IConnectionBuilder based on an ip address and port.

Applications/Middleware/Frameworks

At the center of this work is a new set of primitives that represent an underlying connection:

public abstract class ConnectionContext
{
    public abstract string ConnectionId { get; set; }

    public abstract IFeatureCollection Features { get; }
    
    public abstract IDuplexPipe Transport { get; set; }

    public abstract IDictionary<object, object> Items { get; set; }
}
public interface IConnectionIdFeature
{
    string ConnectionId { get; set; }
}
public interface IConnectionTransportFeature
{
    IDuplexPipe Transport { get; set; }
}
public interface IConnectionItemsFeature
{
    IDictionary<object, object> Items { get; set; }
}

The ConnectionContext is the "HttpContext" of the connection universe. It's an abstraction that represents a persistent connection of some form. This could
be a TCP connection, a websocket connection or something more hybrid (like a connection implemented over a non duplex protocol like server sent events + http posts). The feature collection
is there for the same reason it's there on the HttpContext, the server or various pieces of "middleware" can add, augment or remove features
from the connection which can enrich the underlying abstraction. The 2 required features are the IConnectionTransportFeature and the IConnectionIdFeature.

Next, we introduce the abstraction for executing a connection.

public delegate Task ConnectionDelegate(ConnectionContext connection);

The ConnectionDelegate represents a function that executes some logic per connection. That Task return represents the
connection lifetime. When it completes, the application is finished with the connection and the server is free to close it.

In order to build up a pipeline, we need a builder abstraction and a pipeline. The IConnectionBuilder (similar to the IApplicationBuilder) represents
a sockets pipeline. The middleware signature is Func<ConnectionDelegate, ConnectionDelegate> so callers can decorate the next ConnectionDelegate
in the chain similar to http middleware in ASP.NET Core.

public interface IConnectionBuilder
{
    IServiceProvider ApplicationServices { get; }

    IConnectionBuilder Use(Func<ConnectionDelegate, ConnectionDelegate> middleware);

    ConnectionDelegate Build();
}

These are the fundamental building blocks for building connection oriented applications. This will live in the Microsoft.AspNetCore.Connections.Abstractions package.

This refactoring will enable a few things:

  • Kestrel's ASP.NET Core implementation will be re-platted on top of this new infrastructure which means it will be fully decoupled from Kestrel.
  • Kestrel's connection adapter pipeline will be changed to use the IConnectionBuilder instead. This means that things like TLS , windows auth and connection logging can be separate middleware components.
  • SignalR will be built on top of this making it possible to run SignalR on any connection based infrastructure.

Transports

Transports are responsible for providing the initial IFeatureCollection implementation for the connection and providing a stream of bytes to the application.

Libuv and System.Net.Sockets

Today we have 2 transport implementations that reside in Kestrel, a System.Net.Sockets and libuv implementation. We plan to keep these 2 because they both offer different sets of features. Libuv can listen on file handles, named pipes, unix domain sockets, and tcp sockets while System.Net.Sockets just has a tcp socket implementation (and unix domain sockets)

WebSockets

We want to enable people to build websocket based frameworks without dealing with low level details like connection management and buffering. As such, we will provide a web socket transport that exposes these connection primitives. This currently lives in the Microsoft.AspNetCore.Http.Connectons package.

Other HTTP transports

SignalR in the past has provided multiple transport implementations historically for browsers that didn't support websockets. These are not full duplex transports but are implemented as such by round tripping a connection id over http requests. We will also provide implementations transports for long polling and server sent events. These implementations will require a special client library that understands the underlying non-duplex protocol. These currently lives in the Microsoft.AspNetCore.Http.Connectons and Microsoft.AspNetCore.Http.Connectons.Client packages.

QUIC

QUIC is a quickly emerging standard that is looking to improve perceived performance of connection-oriented web applications that are currently using TCP. When QUIC comes around we'll want to be able to support it with the same abstraction.

Dispatchers

ASP.NET Core

ASP.NET Core will serve as the basis for our HTTP dispatcher. There will be a RequestDelegate implementation that serves as the dispatcher built on top of routing.

using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Builder;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Hosting;
using Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection;
using SocketsSample.EndPoints;
using SocketsSample.Hubs;

namespace SocketsSample
{
    public class Startup
    {
        public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
        {
            services.AddConnections();
        }

        public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IHostingEnvironment env)
        {
            if (env.IsDevelopment())
            {
                app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
            }

            app.UseConnections(routes =>
            {
                // Handle mqtt connections over websockets on the /mqtt path
                routes.MapWebSocket("mqtt", connectionBuilder =>
                {
                    connectionBuilder.UseMQTT<MQTTHandler>();
                });

                // Handle SignalR chat connections on the /chat path (multiple transports)
                routes.MapConnections("chat", connectionBuilder =>
                {
                    connectionBuilder.UseSignalR<Chat>();
                });
            });
        }
    }
}

Kestrel

Kestrel was originally built as an http server for ASP.NET Core. Since then it's evolved to into a bunch of separate components but has still been hyper focused on http scenarios. As part of this work, there are further refactorings that will happen and kestrel will serve as the generic sockets server that will support multiple protocols. We want to end up with layers that look something like this:

  • Microsoft.AspNetCore.Server.Kestrel.Core - Dispatcher implementation
  • Microsoft.AspNetCore.Server.Kestrel.Https - Deprecate this package in favor of (Microsoft.AspNetCore.Protocols.Tls)
  • Microsoft.AspNetCore.Server.Kestrel.Transport.Abstractions - Abstractions for plugging different transports into kestrel
  • Microsoft.AspNetCore.Server.Kestrel.Transport.Libuv - Libuv transport (tcp, pipes, unix sockets)
  • Microsoft.AspNetCore.Server.Kestrel.Transport.Sockets - System.Net.Sockets transport
  • Microsoft.AspNetCore.Server.Kestrel - Meta package for ASP.NET Core to avoid breaking changes

We should introduce the following packages:

  • Microsoft.AspNetCore.Protocols.Http - Http ConnectionDelegate middleware
  • Microsoft.AspNetCore.Protocols.Http2 - Http2 ConnectionDelegate middleware (do we merge Http and Http2?)
  • Microsoft.AspNetCore.Protocols.Tls - TLS ConnectionDelegate middleware

Here's what the Kestrel for TCP could look like wired up to the generic host:

var host = new HostBuilder()
            .ConfigureServer(options =>
            {
                // Listen on (*, 5001), then get access to the ISocketBuilder for this binding
                options.Listen(IPAddress.Any, 5001, connectionBuilder =>
                {
                   // This is the SignalR middleware running directly on top of TCP
                   connectionBuilder.UseHub<Chat>();
                });
                
                // Listen on (localhost, 8001), then get access to the ISocketBuilder for this binding
                options.Listen("localhost", 8001, connectionBuilder =>
                {
                   // Accept connections from an IOT device using the MQTT protocol
                   connectionBuilder.UseMQTT<MQTTHandler>();
                });
                
                options.Listen("localhost", 5000, connectionBuilder => 
                {
                    // TLS required for this end point (this piece of middleware isn't terminal)
                    connectionBuilder.UseTls("testCert.pfx", "testPassword");
                    
                    // ASP.NET Core HTTP running inside of a Connections based server
                    connectionBuilder.UseHttpServer(async context =>
                    {
                        await context.Response.WriteAsync("Hello World");
                    });
                });
            })
            .Build();

host.Run();
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@aL3891 aL3891 commented Aug 3, 2017

It would be really cool to have something equivalent to Transports on the client side as well, so that you could basically have a more abstract HttpClient with a switchable underlying transport mechanism

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@mkrtich-m mkrtich-m commented Aug 3, 2017

@davidfowl what do you think about performance hit after introducing such an abstraction?

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@galvesribeiro galvesribeiro commented Aug 4, 2017

@davidfowl Great work! I only have one concern...

Since the abstractions will not be aspnet-only, don't you think instead of using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Sockets.Abstractions we could use just Microsoft.Sockets.Abstractions for the core abstractions?

I agree that Kestrel and AspNet abstractions should have the respective names, but I think those abstractions are very... Abstracted and like you mentioned, are there to plug and manage very low level primitives.

Great work! Looking forward for it! :)

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@dls314 dls314 commented Aug 4, 2017

Similarly, Microsoft.AspNetCore.Sockets.Tls => Microsoft.Sockets.Tls would make sense, but I want the feature more than a name.

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@shaggygi shaggygi commented Aug 4, 2017

@davidfowl What if we needed to read data from USB or serial ports instead of sockets, would that be a scenario where we would have to create a specific Transport?

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@galvesribeiro galvesribeiro commented Aug 4, 2017

@dls314

but I want the feature more than a name.

Me too. But I would like to have the package semantics more clear. Better to suggest it now then after the release :)

@shaggygi

What if we needed to read data from USB or serial ports instead of sockets, would that be a scenario where we would have to create a specific Transport?

I guess that is the purpose of the transports.

At least that is what I understood from this part:

Transports provide an implementation of an IFeatureCollection that implements the underlying connection semantics.

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@no1melman no1melman commented Aug 4, 2017

Does that mean you could push message transport (msmq, rabbitMq, kafka) further down the stack? I suppose those transports would sit at the same abstraction level as SignalR....

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@davidfowl davidfowl commented Aug 4, 2017

@aL3891

It would be really cool to have something equivalent to Transports on the client side as well, so that you could basically have a more abstract HttpClient with a switchable underlying transport mechanism

I've been thinking about a client story as well that gels with this. SignalR has the beginnings of it, but I left it out of this spec.

@galvesribeiro

Since the abstractions will not be aspnet-only, don't you think instead of using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Sockets.Abstractions we could use just Microsoft.Sockets.Abstractions for the core abstractions?

This is something we've struggled with in the past, but AspNetCore will mean more than just our existing HTTP stack, it's the server stack in general. We won't be putting anything in the root namespace (i.e. Microsoft.Sockets). Naming needs some work though, sockets isn't great.

@shaggygi

@davidfowl What if we needed to read data from USB or serial ports instead of sockets, would that be a scenario where we would have to create a specific Transport?

Yes that would be a transport.

@no1melman

Does that mean you could push message transport (msmq, rabbitMq, kafka) further down the stack? I suppose those transports would sit at the same abstraction level as SignalR....

I don't fully understand the question. A transport can be anything but I wouldn't start implementing HTTP over a message bus 😄 .

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@no1melman no1melman commented Aug 4, 2017

I was just thinking that you could make the message queue as the transport, much like you would with signalR, then you're abstracted away from mechanism.

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@galvesribeiro galvesribeiro commented Aug 4, 2017

@davidfowl well, if now AspNetCore will become a reference to all the server technologies in .Net and not just web stack anymore, them I'm all for it! :)

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@wholroyd wholroyd commented Aug 4, 2017

I am thoroughly upset by the complete lack of references to The Flintstones in this issue.

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@benaadams benaadams commented Aug 4, 2017

if now AspNetCore will become a reference to all the server technologies in .Net and not just web stack anymore, them I'm all for it! :)

Async Serving Power

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@davidfowl davidfowl commented Aug 4, 2017

@no1melman

I was just thinking that you could make the message queue as the transport, much like you would with signalR, then you're abstracted away from mechanism.

SignalR didn't make a message queue the transport, those were fundamentally different abstractions.

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@markrendle markrendle commented Aug 4, 2017

@davidfowl

Naming needs some work though, sockets isn't great.

Microsoft.AspNetCore.Bungholes

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@NinoFloris NinoFloris commented Aug 4, 2017

I really wouldn't mind a better name, shorter and without confusion to old full framework tech for AspNetCore. Especially if it's going to be the reference name for the server stack in general.

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@KPixel KPixel commented Aug 4, 2017

Regarding the name, I agree that, considering how low-level and ubiquitous this API would be, removing "AspNetCore" is a good idea.

I think the most fitting keyword to describe it is "Network".
So, maybe Microsoft.Network?
Or just Microsoft.Net (like System.Net) but it sounds like "Microsoft .NET" :)

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@benaadams benaadams commented Aug 4, 2017

Microsoft.Network

Well... its wouldn't be strictly true the Transport abstraction is quite flexible; so you could write a stdin/out or filestream Transport and pipe to the program or read and write http from filestream. Or examples earlier it could be from usb or serial port...

Transport is like a driver

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@aL3891 aL3891 commented Aug 4, 2017

Microsoft.Bedrock? :)
Its a cool name imo

It could also be Microsoft.Transport, also fits pretty well conceptually

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@KPixel KPixel commented Aug 4, 2017

Network is also a fairly generic term outside of computer science. One of its definition is: "A group or system of interconnected people or things."
So, when you connect something with something else, you create a network.

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@dls314 dls314 commented Aug 4, 2017

It may be nice to identify connections by T instead of string. Perhaps IConnectionIdFeature w/ properly comparable T?

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@KPixel KPixel commented Aug 4, 2017

My guess is that the ConnectionId is a string to simplify passing it around.
If you make it a T, you will need to provide a Comparer (like you mentioned) but also a Serializer. That's a lot of complexity.
Can you give a compelling scenario where it would be much better to use something else than a string?

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@galvesribeiro galvesribeiro commented Aug 4, 2017

It may be nice to identify connections by T instead of string. Perhaps IConnectionIdFeature w/ properly comparable T?

Make sense... Would avoid allocations with unnecessary .ToString() calls.

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@benaadams benaadams commented Aug 4, 2017

Socket generally has a very focused use; could it be more general like Connection? (Also matching the ConnectionContext) of which Socket can be of of the many Connection types.

e.g.

public delegate Task ConnectionDelegate(ConnectionContext connection);
public interface IConnectionBuilder
{
    IServiceProvider ApplicationServices { get; }
    IConnectionBuilder Use(Func<ConnectionDelegate, ConnectionDelegate> middleware);
    ConnectionDelegate Build();
}
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@shaggygi shaggygi commented Aug 4, 2017

I like @benaadams Connection suggestion. What about namespace System.IO.Connection?

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@dls314 dls314 commented Aug 4, 2017

Can you give a compelling scenario where it would be much better to use something else than a string?

I'm not sure I can. My thought is that the connection id might often be used as a hash key and with some T you could get away without a string.GetHashCode call.

If not T how about going to int?

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@dls314 dls314 commented Aug 4, 2017

I like @benaadams Connection suggestion. What about namespace System.IO.Connection?

Avoid the eponymous namespace's class ambiguity with System.IO.Connections?

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@galvesribeiro galvesribeiro commented Aug 4, 2017

Can you give a compelling scenario where it would be much better to use something else than a string?

and

My thought is that the connection id might often be used as a hash key and with some T you could get away without a string.GetHashCode call

If you are going to use a Hash function with this value and you are using your own T type as the Id, its is your responsibility to override GetHashCode() like in everywhere else you would and want to avoid collisions. I don't see why we need enforce an string, int, or whatever type.

Why don't let the user use whatever type they want?

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@galvesribeiro galvesribeiro commented Aug 4, 2017

Also yeah, @benaadams suggestion looks great. By using Socket the user expect a very specific semantics while Connection is more abstract and fits better with the context of those abstractions.

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@aL3891 aL3891 commented Aug 4, 2017

Can you give a compelling scenario where it would be much better to use something else than a string?

One could argue that byte[] would be better in some cases like when you're dealing with ip addresses, if not T, maybe that's an option

Another reason why something other than a string would be nice is if you have multiple components to the connection (like an ip and port), I mean you can encode that as a string of course but then that has to be parsed, if it where possible to have T as the "adress" It would open up to a lot of flexibility

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@benaadams benaadams commented Aug 5, 2017

T ConnectionId makes it a bit generically nasty

public abstract class ConnectionContext<T>
{
    public abstract T ConnectionId { get; set; }
    public abstract IFeatureCollection Features { get; }
    public abstract IPipe Transport { get; set; }
}

public interface IConnectionIdFeature<T>
{
    T ConnectionId { get; set; }
}

public interface IConnectionTransportFeature
{
    public abstract PipeFactory PipeFactory { get; set; }
    public abstract IPipe Transport { get; set; }
}

public delegate Task ConnectionDelegate<T>(ConnectionContext<T> connection);

public interface IConnectionBuilder<T>
{
    IServiceProvider ApplicationServices { get; }
    IConnectionBuilder Use(Func<ConnectionDelegate<T>, ConnectionDelegate<T>> middleware);
    ConnectionDelegate<T> Build();
}

Also there is no compile time enforcement making the T in IConnectionIdFeature agree with anything else; even though you now need it everywhere?

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@JanEggers JanEggers commented Nov 29, 2018

@davidfowl any updates on this since 2.2 is out?

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@benaadams benaadams commented Nov 29, 2018

since 2.2 is out?

🤔 Don't think it is yet?

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@JanEggers JanEggers commented Nov 29, 2018

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@grahamehorner grahamehorner commented Nov 29, 2018

@JanEggers it looks like it, but it's just tagged as 2.2.0 can't find any release?

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@JanEggers JanEggers commented Nov 29, 2018

anyway I was just hoping for some news specificly about a client side implementation of Connections.Abstractions.

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@davidfowl davidfowl commented Nov 29, 2018

No we haven't made any progress in 2.2

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@VladimirMakaev VladimirMakaev commented Dec 4, 2018

It's very sad :( I was telling developers wait for 2.2 and you'll be able to remove that ugly code that works with sockets directly.

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@davidfowl davidfowl commented Dec 5, 2018

Well, actually, there's a public API that you can use today, it's just tied to Kestrel in it's current state.

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@VladimirMakaev VladimirMakaev commented Dec 5, 2018

@davidfowl I've tried to use KestrelServer class directly to implement something like a tcp echo server. The problem is that it's still coupled to HTTP. When I was sending a request from browser it kinda worked. But when using telnet it closes connection and doesn't keep it. I assume it's dropping it cause of some mandatory HTTP headers are not sent or just because it depends on a request -> response thing without keeping persistent connections. If you can share a sample with an implementation similar to what you have here https://github.com/davidfowl/TcpEcho but using Kestrel that would be great.

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@davidfowl davidfowl commented Dec 5, 2018

@aspnet-hello aspnet-hello transferred this issue from aspnet/KestrelHttpServer Dec 13, 2018
@aspnet-hello aspnet-hello added this to the 3.0.0 milestone Dec 13, 2018
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@AceHack AceHack commented Mar 9, 2019

Any progress in 3.0?

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@AceHack AceHack commented Mar 9, 2019

I would like to port https://github.com/AceHack/MultiplexedWebSockets to use bedrock in whatever way makes most sense. I have a version I'm working on that uses https://github.com/Microsoft/bond any suggestions?

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@BGEggen BGEggen commented Mar 15, 2019

@davidfowl I really liked the simplicity of your example > See https://github.com/davidfowl/MultiProtocolAspNetCore

Any tips or hints as to how to implement TLS for something that's not coupled to HTTPS (for example, a TCP device that encrypts the delivery of its data using TLS)?

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@ReubenBond ReubenBond commented Mar 20, 2019

My WIP PR here replats Orleans' networking on top of the pubternal 'Bedrock' APIs and adds client support. Orleans has external clients, but silos also need to communicate with each other (most distributed systems have this requirement) so support for client networking is strongly desired.

Perhaps Bedrock could become a Microsoft.Extensions lib & TLS can be a piece of that pipeline (with client support), eg: Microsoft.Extensions.{Transport,Connection,Networking}.Abstractions.

Here are the core interfaces I'm using in addition to what @davidfowl specified above:

// Client side
public interface IConnectionFactory
{
    Task<ConnectionContext> ConnectAsync(string endPoint);
}

// Server side
public interface IConnectionListenerFactory
{
    IConnectionListener Create(string endPoint, ConnectionDelegate connectionDelegate);
}

public interface IConnectionListener
{
    Task BindAsync();
    Task UnbindAsync();
    Task StopAsync();
}

Those are subject to change & perhaps 'Transport' is more appropriate than 'Connection' in those names.

ASP.NET uses an IEndpointInformation interface instead of the string which my PR currently uses. I don't hold a strong opinion, but IEndpointInformation felt awkward to me. We may change that before merging.

@anurse anurse added the release-3.0 label Mar 21, 2019
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@fubar-coder fubar-coder commented Mar 27, 2019

Is it correct that I, when I want to use TLS, have to do the following steps:

  1. Wrap the pipes into a stream
  2. Use SslStream
  3. Wrap the stream into pipes

I hoped that I could avoid this pipe <-> stream <-> pipe conversion.

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@anurse anurse commented Mar 27, 2019

Closing this because the core of bedrock is in Kestrel. We still have a number of reactions we want to make (#4623 for example) but those should be tracked in separate issues.

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