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AssetGraph-based build system for web apps and web pages.

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AssetGraph-builder

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AssetGraph-based build system (mostly) for single-page web applications.

Looking for a Grunt integration? Try grunt-reduce

Features

  • Requires no build manifest. All information about your project is gathered from the HTML/CSS/JavaScript itself. Just tell it where to find your HTML file(s), and it will find the referenced JavaScript, CSS, etc.
  • Reads your web application from one directory, manipulates and optimizes it, then writes the resulting build to a separate directory with everything included.
  • Supports a multitude of asset/relation types, even shortcut icons, AlphaImageLoader images, conditional comments, fonts linked via @font-face { src: url(...) }, .htc files linked via CSS behavior properties.
  • Bundles JavaScript and CSS.
  • Removes duplicate images, JavaScript, CSS, etc.
  • Supports automatic optimization and custom processing of images using pngquant, pngcrush, optipng, jpegtran, and GraphicsMagick.
  • Minifies/packs JavaScript, CSS, and HTML (uses UglifyJS and cssmin, and jsdom).
  • Supports require.js define and require statements, rolls up the dependency graph like the require.js optimizer does (still missing some features though). Understands the require.js config options baseUrl and paths.
  • Sprites background images (see assetgraph-sprite).
  • Inlines CSS background-images less than 8192 bytes and provides an alternative stylesheet for older IE versions via conditional comments.
  • Inlines CSS and Javascript with total size less than 4096 bytes to reduce HTTP requests.
  • Adds a cache manifest to each HTML page if --manifest is specified.
  • Compiles less to CSS and strips out the in-browser less compiler.
  • Renames JavaScript, CSS, images etc. to a 10-char MD5 prefix + the original extension so they can be served with a far-future expiry time.
  • Supports a special syntax for getting the url of static assets from JavaScript code (GETSTATICURL). These are also modelled as relations so the target files will be included in the build and thus renamed so they can be served with a far-future expiry time.
  • Helps getting your static assets on a CDN by rewriting the references to them (controlled by the --cdnroot and --cdnoutroot switches).
  • Supports internationalization of HTML, JavaScript, SVG, and Knockout.js templates (support for more template formats will be added on demand).
  • Very customizable, the entire build script is only around 100 lines of code due to the reliance on high level AssetGraph transforms.

Installation

Optional first step: To take full advantage of the image processing and optimization features, you need several libraries and command line utilities installed. On Ubuntu you can grab them all by running:

sudo apt-get install -y libcairo2-dev libjpeg8-dev libgif-dev optipng pngcrush pngquant libpango1.0-dev graphicsmagick libjpeg-turbo-progs inkscape

Then make sure you have node.js and npm installed, then run:

$ npm install -g assetgraph-builder

Now you'll have the buildProduction script in your PATH.

Example usage

Build a single page application:

buildProduction --outroot path/to/production --root path/to/dev path/to/dev/index.html

This will load path/to/dev/index.html, follow all local relations to JavaScript, CSS, etc., perform the above mentioned optimizations, then output the result to the directory path/to/production.

Create a CDN-enabled build:

buildProduction --outroot path/to/production --root path/to/dev path/to/dev/index.html \
                --cdnroot http://xxxxxx.cloudfront.net/static/cdn \
                --cdnoutroot path/to/production/static/cdn

This will produce a build that assumes that the contents of path/to/production/static/cdn are available at http://xxxxxx.cloudfront.net/static/cdn. We recommend putting the entire contents of path/to/production online and pointing your CloudFront (or other CDN provider) distribution at the root of your origin server. As long as you serve /static and everything below it with a far-future expires, you won't need to touch your CDN config or manually upload anything to your CDN provider.

Replacing require.js with almond.js on build

Simply add a data-almond-attribute to the script tag that has require.js as it's source. The value should be the path to almond.js like so:

<script data-main="app/main" data-almond="path/to/almond.js" src="path/to/require.js"></script>

When you do this you should not use require as an external script loader, since almond does not support this.

Referring to static files in JavaScript using GETSTATICURL

Sometimes you need to load a template or a JSON file from your JavaScript, and you want the file to be included in the build so it's renamed to <md5Prefix>.<extension> etc. Simply putting something like var url = 'foo.json'; $.ajax(url, ...) in your code won't make buildProduction aware that foo.json is a url -- it's indistinguishable from a regular string.

However, if you wrap GETSTATICURL(...) around your url, it will be modelled as a relation, and the target asset will be included in the build. Note that relative urls will be resolved from the url of the containing HTML asset, not the JavaScript asset (otherwise it wouldn't work without buildProduction as there's no way to get retrieve the url of the JavaScript being executed in a browser).

Example:

var url = GETSTATICURL('foo.json');
$.ajax(url, ...);

... which will produce something like this after being run through buildProduction:

var url = 'static/96b1d5a6ba.json';
$.ajax(url, ...);

GETSTATICURL includes support for wildcards for cases where you need to pull in multiple static files in one go:

var url = GETSTATICURL('myData/*.json', name);

This will glob for myData/*.json and include all the found files in the build. The additional parameters passed to GETSTATICURL will be used as the wildcard values and can be any JavaScript expression. If myData contains a.json and b.json, the output of buildProduction would look something like this:

var url = {a: "static/a65f5a6f5.json", b: "static/c628491b44.json"}[name];

The wildcards are expanded using node-glob, so all constructs supported by minimatch are supported, except ?, because it's interpreted as a GET parameter delimiter.

For GETSTATICURL to work in development mode the function needs to be declared. The buildDevelopment script adds a bootstrapper script that includes GETSTATICURL, but you can also put this into your main HTML before all your other scripts:

<script id="bootstrapper">
    window.GETSTATICURL = function (url) { // , placeHolderValue1, placeHolderValue2, ...
        var placeHolderValues = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments, 1);
        return url.replace(/\*\*?|\{[^\}]*\}/g, function () {
            return placeHolderValues.shift();
        });
    };
</script>

buildProduction will remove the script with id="bootstrapper" so it doesn't clutter your production code.

Image optimization and processing

The buildProduction switch --optimizeimages turns on automatic lossless optimization of all images of the relevant type in the graph.

Additionally, you can specify individual processing instructions for each image using custom GET parameters. For example you might want to reduce the palette of an image to a specific number of colors or apply a specific compression level:

<img src="myImage.png?pngquant=37">
<img src="myOtherImage.png?optipng=-o7&amp;pngcrush=-rem,tEXT">

The image processing is supported everywhere you can refer to an image, including background-image properties in CSS, shortcut icon links etc.

Additionally, all GraphicsMagick operations (as exposed by the gm module) are supported:

body {
    background-image: url(foo.png?resize=500,300&flip&magnify&pngcrush);
}

This allows you to only check your original images into version control and have your build system create the scaled/processed/derived ones dynamically.

The processing instructions are executed using the same engine that powers express-processimage and livestyle with the --processimage switch. You can use one of those to have the image processing instructions applied on your development setup.

Internationalization

AssetGraph-builder supports internationalization of strings in your HTML and JavaScript code via a custom syntax. The approach is to do as much as possible at "compile time". For each language you want to support, buildProduction outputs a separate html file, eg. index.en_us.html, index.da.html, and so on. If you're using the TR/TRPAT syntax for getting language-specific strings within JavaScript, buildProduction will also output multiple versions of your JavaScript, one per language, and it will be wired up so that eg. index.da.html will refer to the Danish JavaScript file.

The i18n feature is optional. Enable it by specifying the --locales switch with a comma-separated list of locale ids to compile, for example --locales en_us,da,fr,de.

The translations themselves reside in separate JSON files with an i18n extension. Example syntax (foo.i18n):

{
    "myKeyName": {
        "en": "The value in English",
        "da": "Værdien på dansk"
    },
    "myOtherKeyName": {
        "en": "The other value in English",
        "da": "Den anden værdi på dansk"
    },
    "advancedKeyWithPlaceholders": {
        "en": "Showing {0}-{1} of {2} records",
        "da": "Der er {2} i alt, viser fra nr. {0} til nr. {1}"
    },
    "IAmSoXToday": {
        "en": "I am so {0} today",
        "da": "Jeg er så {0} i dag"
    },
    "TheColor": {
        "en": "blue",
        "da": "blå"
    }
}

JavaScript i18n syntax

In JavaScript code you can use the TR function for getting a locale string and TRPAT for getting a function that accepts the placeholder values and returns a locale string.

For these functions to work in development, you currently have to use buildDevelopment tool (still to be documented) to inject some bootstrapper code that implements them. The bootstrapper will be removed by buildProduction.

The second argument for TR and TRPAT is optional. It will be used as the default translated value if the key isn't found in an .i18n file. This is very useful when you haven't yet translated your project. That way you don't need to create the .i18n files before you actually have something to put in them.

JavaScript example:

INCLUDE('foo.i18n');

// This alerts "The value in English" or "Værdien på dansk" depending on which build you're running:
alert(TR('myKeyName', 'the default value'));

// This alerts "Showing 1-50 of 100 records" or "Der er 100 i alt, viser fra nr. 1 til nr. 50":
var foo = 1, bar = 50;
alert(TRPAT('advancedKeyWithPlaceholders', 'the default value')(foo, bar, 100));

var myRenderer = TRPAT('advancedKeyWithPlaceholders', 'the default value');
// This also alerts "Showing 1-2 of 3 records" or "Der er 100 i alt, viser fra nr. 1 til nr. 50":
alert(myRenderer(1, 50, 100));

In production this compiles into (English version):

alert('The value in English');
var foo = 1, bar = 50;
alert('Showing ' + foo + '-' + bar + ' of 100 records');

var myRenderer = function (a0, a1, a2) {return 'Showing ' + a0 + '-' + a1 + ' of ' + a2 + ' records'};
alert(myRenderer(1, 50, 100));

And the Danish version:

alert('Værdien på dansk');
var foo = 1, bar = 50;
alert('Der er 100 i alt, viser fra nr. ' + foo + ' til nr. ' + bar);

var myRenderer = function (a0, a1, a2) {return 'Der er ' + a3 + ' i alt, viser nr. ' + a0 + ' til nr. ' + a1;};
alert(myRenderer(1, 50, 100));

As the translation files consist of plain JSON, translated values do not have to be strings. This enables more advanced features, that you would otherwise have to implement with string concatenation. The feature is best explained with an example. Let's say we would like to translate certain e-mail folder names, but otherwise default to their real name. That could be achieved the following way.

The translation file:

{
    "FolderName": {
        "en": {
            "Inbox" : "Inbox",
            "Draft" : "Draft",
            "Sent" : "Sent Mail"
        },
        "da": {
            "Inbox" : "Indbakke",
            "Draft" : "Kladder",
            "Trash" : "Sendte e-mails"
        }
    }
}

The code translating the e-mail folder names:

var folderTranslations = TR("FolderName", {
    "Inbox" : "Inbox",
    "Draft" : "Draft",
    "Sent" : "Sent Mail"
});

return folderTranslations[folderName] || folderName;

The TR function call extracts the internationalized FolderName structure or uses the provided default. Then we look for the folder name in the translation structure, if it is found we return it; otherwise we just return the folder name.

HTML i18n syntax

Simple example:

<p><span data-i18n="myKeyName">The default text</span></p>

Span tags that only have a data-i18n attribute are removed, so the above compiles to:

<p>The value in English</p>

If you put the data-i18n attribute on a different tag (eg. <div> or <h2>) or use a span with additional attributes, the tag itself will be preserved, and only the data-i18n attribute will be removed:

 <span class="foo" data-i18n="myKeyName">The default text</span>

Which compiles into:

 <span class="foo">The value in English</span>

Non-text node elements inside the default text are interpreted as placeholders numbered from left to right:

 <span data-i18n="advancedKeyWithPlaceholders">Showing <span>1</span> to <span>50</span> of <span>100</span></span>

In the Danish version the above compiles to:

 Der er <span>100</span> i alt, viser nr. <span>1</span> til nr. <span>50</span>.

For HTML attributes there's a more elaborate, Knockout.js-ish syntax for the data-i18n attribute:

<div title="The default value" data-i18n="text: 'myKeyName', attr: {title: 'myOtherKeyName'}">The default value</span>

Which compiles to this in English:

<div title="The other value in English">The value in English</span>

I18n of HTML chunks in JavaScript

There's a special syntax for handling chunks of translated HTML in JavaScript:

var myHtmlString = TRHTML('<div data-i18n="IAmSoXToday">I am so <span data-i18n="TheColor" style="color: blue;">blue</span> today</div>');

These HTML chunks behave like described in the "HTML i18n syntax" section above. The above would compile to the following in the Danish production build:

var myHtmlString = TRHTML('<div>Jeg er så <span style="color: blue;">blå</span> i dag</div>');

It also works in combination with GETTEXT in case you prefer to maintain the HTML in a separate file:

var myHtmlString = TRHTML(GETTEXT('my/file.html'));

License

AssetGraph-builder is licensed under a standard 3-clause BSD license -- see the LICENSE-file for details.

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