Skip to content
Switch branches/tags
Go to file
Cannot retrieve contributors at this time

Roadmap for Python 3-only support

author: Tom Robitaille

date-created: 2016 July 13

date-last-revised: 2018 Mar 19

date-accepted: 2016 August 22

type: Process

status: Accepted


The purpose of this APE is to set out a roadmap for future releases of the Astropy core package, in particular to identify the process for switching to releases that support only Python 3 and ending support for Python 2.7 in December 2019.

Detailed description

Python 2.7 will cease to be supported on January 1st 2020. As a result, a number of scientific Python projects, including IPython, Matplotlib, Sympy, and others have now signed the Python 3 statement which states that scientific Python packages will drop support for Python 2 no later than 2020. For instance, the IPython developers have now released IPython 5.0, which will be the last major release to support Python 2. This APE proposes that the Astropy project should also sign the Python 3 statement, and provides a target roadmap for future releases.

It is important to note that ending support for Python 2 by the end of 2019 does not mean that Python 2 users will no longer be able to install or use Astropy from 2020 onwards. Existing Astropy releases will remain available indefinitely. Instead, the proposed roadmap means that only new features developed after mid-2017 will be available only to Python 3 users, and that we will not fix bugs for Python 2 after 2019.


At the time of writing, the following releases have been made since (and including) v1.0:

Version Release date Notes
v1.0 - LTS February 19, 2015 Supported with bug fixes until June 2017
v1.1 December 11, 2015  
v1.2 June 23, 2016  

The proposed roadmap for future releases is the following:

Version Planned release date Notes
v1.3 December 2016  
v2.0 - LTS June 2017 Supported with bug fixes until end of 2019
v3.0 December 2017 First release to support only Python 3+
v3.1 November 2018 (Gap due to changes in release phase)
v3.2 May 2019  
v4.0 - LTS November 2019 Supported with bug fixes for two years

Note that v1.0, v2.0, and v4.0 are marked as long-term support releases (LTS), which means that they are typically supported with bug fixes for at least two years. The above roadmap proposes that the last Python 2-compatible release will be v2.0, which we will support with bug fixes until the end of 2019. In the mean time, v3.0, to be released in December 2017, will be the first release that does not support Python 2.

Note that v3.0 would not be an LTS release, since we would otherwise need to maintain two LTS releases in parallel. This is a one-off deviation from the version numbering policy outlined in APE 2, and subsequent releases will follow the pattern established by APE 2.

In order to decide which Python 3.x releases to support, we would follow the Python support calendar: the Python 3.x versions supported by an Astropy release would be the versions supported by the Python developers. Using the current Python support calendar, this would mean that the following Astropy versions would support the following Python 3.x versions:

Version Minimum required Python version
v2.0 - LTS Python 2.7 or Python 3.4+
v3.0 Python 3.5+
v3.1 Python 3.5+
v3.2 Python 3.5+
v3.3 Python 3.6+
v4.0 - LTS Python 3.6+


In practice, dropping Python 2.7 support will involve, amongst other things:

  • Removing the bundled six package, and updating all the code that used astropy.extern.six to use the Python 3 syntax directly.
  • Removing Python 2.7 from the configuration for the continuous integration services (such as Travis and AppVeyor at the time of writing)
  • Making sure that the documentation on ReadTheDocs is built using Python 3.x
  • Removing any backports that may exist for Python 2.7 compatibility
  • Updating the documentation to remove any mention of Python 2.7, as well as making sure that Python 3.x is not presented as a special case.
  • Removing Python 2 and 2.7 from the PyPI classifiers


There are a few challenges to consider with the plan outlined above:

Developers will need to use Python 3

Once we make the switch to a Python 3-only code base, between v2.0 and v3.0, people will no longer be able to contribute code to Astropy without using Python 3. This means that even though users can in theory wait until the end of 2019 to switch to Python 3, developers and contributors will need to make the switch (at least for their Astropy development environment) as soon as 2017.

Packages on PyPI

If we upload Astropy v3.0 to PyPI, and it does not support Python 2, then if Python 2.7 users try and pip install Astropy, the install or import will fail (with the current version of pip). This is because PyPI does not compare the current Python version to the PyPI meta-data for the package (which may indicate for example whether the package is Python 2-compatible), and will download Astropy v3.0 regardless of the active Python version.

PEP 345 defines the Requires-Python metadata field for Python packages, which can be used to explicitly specify which Python versions a package is compatible with. Support for this was added to setuptools v24.2 via the python_requires keyword argument to setup:


This metadata is not yet exposed by the Python Package Index (PyPI) but it is being worked on. Finally, support for this was implemented into pip on August 11th 2016, which means that versions of pip released after this date will support this, and will have been around in the wild for a little more than a year before Astropy v3.0 (the first release incompatible with Python 2) is out. Nevertheless, a fraction of Python 2 users may still be using old versions of pip by then and run the risk of installing a version of Astropy not compatible with Python 2.

One possible solution is described in the Jupyter roadmap, which is to upload tar files that have a -py3.x suffix (one file per Python 3.x version, e.g. astropy-3.0-py3.5.tar.gz). We could choose to do this if we believe that the fraction of users with old pip installations is too high.

We will re-assess this in the weeks coming up to the v3.0 release. If we believe that enough users have a recent enough pip installation, then we simply need to include python_requires='>=3' in the metadata for the v3.0 release. Otherwise, we can additionally make sure we add the -py3.x suffix to the files we upload to PyPI. By that time, the IPython 6.0 release (incompatible with Python 2) will be out, so we will also have the benefit of seeing how that release went and whether it caused any issues for users.

Note that this will not be an issue for users using other package managers (either built in to their operating system, or e.g. conda), since these are normally always explicit about Python version requirements.

Current pull requests

The pull request(s) that will remove Python 2 compatibility may create conflicts with many of the open pull requests at the time - therefore it would make sense to try and make sure the number of open pull requests at the time is down to a minimum. This may be easiest to do straight after the v2.0 release, according to the calendar above.

Maintenance of v2.0 LTS

According to the proposed release calendar, the v2.0 LTS release would be supported until the end of 2019. However, soon after the v2.0 release, the Astropy code will no longer be Python 2-compatible. As a result, pull requests that subsequently fix bugs in Astropy in master will in some cases not be easily backportable. One possible solution would be to also accept bug fixes in the v2.0.x branch and forward-port them to master.


There are several benefits to following the plan proposed above:

  • Maintaining a Python 3-only code base will be significantly easier, because developers won't have to know both 2.x and 3.x (and the six package).
  • We will be able to start using Python 3-only features internally, including for example function annotations (e.g., for units), matrix multiplication (e.g., for coordinates; note that this will only be possible with Python 3.5+, which in part drives that as minimum version for astropy 3.0)
  • Since we will need to keep adding Python 3.x releases to the continuous integration over the coming years, we will at least be able to remove Python 2.7, making sure that the number of builds does not grow out of control.
  • Since developers/contributors will need to switch to using Python 3 for Astropy development, we will be training more people to do this transition, who will then be able to help their colleagues also make the transition.


An alternative plan would be to continue making major releases that support Python 2 until 2019, for example:

Version Planned release date Notes
v1.3 December 2016  
v2.0 - LTS June 2017 Supported with bug fixes until end of 2019
v2.1 December 2017  
v2.2 June 2018  
v2.3 December 2018  
v2.4 June 2019 Last release to support Python 2.7
v3.0 - LTS December 2019 Supported with bug fixes for two years

This would allow more time for the PyPI limitations mentioned above to be resolved and more time for developers to make the transition to Python 3. On the other hand, if we want users to all be using Python 3 by 2020, then it does not make sense to delay the proposed release plan in this way, since the developers and infrastructure need to be ready for Python 3-only releases before the users are. This APE therefore does not recommend this alternative.

Decision rationale

This APE was advertised on the astropy-dev mailing list, the "Python users in Astronomy" Facebook group, and twitter, with a roughly 3 week comment period. No objections were raised by the community, and the proposal received positive feedback (some of which led to minor adjustments particularly regarding the PyPI issues). Because of this apparent support by the community and agreement from the coordination committee with the goals of this APE, it was accepted Aug 22, 2016.

Updates after acceptance of the APE

In further discussions (, it was noted that one should not aim to support versions of Python that will reach end of life during the time an astropy version is supported. In particular, Python 3.3 would reach end-of-life only 3 months after the nominal astropy 2.0 release. Hence, all minimum versions of Python 3 were increased by one minor version.

After v3.0, a decision was made to adjust the release calendar by +3 months. The table above has been updated appropriately. v3.3 was also removed on this basis, as the timing for the end of Python 2.x support is better aligned with an end-of-2019 4.0 release.

This APE is superceded by APE18, which contains the version support plan for versions from 4.0 on.