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"""
Pyperclip
A cross-platform clipboard module for Python, with copy & paste functions for plain text.
By Al Sweigart al@inventwithpython.com
BSD License
Usage:
import pyperclip
pyperclip.copy('The text to be copied to the clipboard.')
spam = pyperclip.paste()
if not pyperclip.is_available():
print("Copy functionality unavailable!")
On Windows, no additional modules are needed.
On Mac, the pyobjc module is used, falling back to the pbcopy and pbpaste cli
commands. (These commands should come with OS X.).
On Linux, install xclip or xsel via package manager. For example, in Debian:
sudo apt-get install xclip
sudo apt-get install xsel
Otherwise on Linux, you will need the gtk or PyQt5/PyQt4 modules installed.
gtk and PyQt4 modules are not available for Python 3,
and this module does not work with PyGObject yet.
Note: There seems to be a way to get gtk on Python 3, according to:
https://askubuntu.com/questions/697397/python3-is-not-supporting-gtk-module
Cygwin is currently not supported.
Security Note: This module runs programs with these names:
- which
- where
- pbcopy
- pbpaste
- xclip
- xsel
- klipper
- qdbus
A malicious user could rename or add programs with these names, tricking
Pyperclip into running them with whatever permissions the Python process has.
"""
__version__ = '1.7.0'
import contextlib
import ctypes
import os
import platform
import subprocess
import sys
import time
import warnings
from ctypes import c_size_t, sizeof, c_wchar_p, get_errno, c_wchar
# `import PyQt4` sys.exit()s if DISPLAY is not in the environment.
# Thus, we need to detect the presence of $DISPLAY manually
# and not load PyQt4 if it is absent.
HAS_DISPLAY = os.getenv("DISPLAY", False)
EXCEPT_MSG = """
Pyperclip could not find a copy/paste mechanism for your system.
For more information, please visit https://pyperclip.readthedocs.io/en/latest/introduction.html#not-implemented-error """
PY2 = sys.version_info[0] == 2
STR_OR_UNICODE = unicode if PY2 else str # For paste(): Python 3 uses str, Python 2 uses unicode.
ENCODING = 'utf-8'
# The "which" unix command finds where a command is.
if platform.system() == 'Windows':
WHICH_CMD = 'where'
else:
WHICH_CMD = 'which'
def _executable_exists(name):
return subprocess.call([WHICH_CMD, name],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE) == 0
# Exceptions
class PyperclipException(RuntimeError):
pass
class PyperclipWindowsException(PyperclipException):
def __init__(self, message):
message += " (%s)" % ctypes.WinError()
super(PyperclipWindowsException, self).__init__(message)
def _stringifyText(text):
if PY2:
acceptedTypes = (unicode, str, int, float, bool)
else:
acceptedTypes = (str, int, float, bool)
if not isinstance(text, acceptedTypes):
raise PyperclipException('only str, int, float, and bool values can be copied to the clipboard, not %s' % (text.__class__.__name__))
return STR_OR_UNICODE(text)
def init_osx_pbcopy_clipboard():
def copy_osx_pbcopy(text):
text = _stringifyText(text) # Converts non-str values to str.
p = subprocess.Popen(['pbcopy', 'w'],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE, close_fds=True)
p.communicate(input=text.encode(ENCODING))
def paste_osx_pbcopy():
p = subprocess.Popen(['pbpaste', 'r'],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE, close_fds=True)
stdout, stderr = p.communicate()
return stdout.decode(ENCODING)
return copy_osx_pbcopy, paste_osx_pbcopy
def init_osx_pyobjc_clipboard():
def copy_osx_pyobjc(text):
'''Copy string argument to clipboard'''
text = _stringifyText(text) # Converts non-str values to str.
newStr = Foundation.NSString.stringWithString_(text).nsstring()
newData = newStr.dataUsingEncoding_(Foundation.NSUTF8StringEncoding)
board = AppKit.NSPasteboard.generalPasteboard()
board.declareTypes_owner_([AppKit.NSStringPboardType], None)
board.setData_forType_(newData, AppKit.NSStringPboardType)
def paste_osx_pyobjc():
"Returns contents of clipboard"
board = AppKit.NSPasteboard.generalPasteboard()
content = board.stringForType_(AppKit.NSStringPboardType)
return content
return copy_osx_pyobjc, paste_osx_pyobjc
def init_gtk_clipboard():
global gtk
import gtk
def copy_gtk(text):
global cb
text = _stringifyText(text) # Converts non-str values to str.
cb = gtk.Clipboard()
cb.set_text(text)
cb.store()
def paste_gtk():
clipboardContents = gtk.Clipboard().wait_for_text()
# for python 2, returns None if the clipboard is blank.
if clipboardContents is None:
return ''
else:
return clipboardContents
return copy_gtk, paste_gtk
def init_qt_clipboard():
global QApplication
# $DISPLAY should exist
# Try to import from qtpy, but if that fails try PyQt5 then PyQt4
try:
from qtpy.QtWidgets import QApplication
except:
try:
from PyQt5.QtWidgets import QApplication
except:
from PyQt4.QtGui import QApplication
app = QApplication.instance()
if app is None:
app = QApplication([])
def copy_qt(text):
text = _stringifyText(text) # Converts non-str values to str.
cb = app.clipboard()
cb.setText(text)
def paste_qt():
cb = app.clipboard()
return STR_OR_UNICODE(cb.text())
return copy_qt, paste_qt
def init_xclip_clipboard():
DEFAULT_SELECTION='c'
PRIMARY_SELECTION='p'
def copy_xclip(text, primary=False):
text = _stringifyText(text) # Converts non-str values to str.
selection=DEFAULT_SELECTION
if primary:
selection=PRIMARY_SELECTION
p = subprocess.Popen(['xclip', '-selection', selection],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE, close_fds=True)
p.communicate(input=text.encode(ENCODING))
def paste_xclip(primary=False):
selection=DEFAULT_SELECTION
if primary:
selection=PRIMARY_SELECTION
p = subprocess.Popen(['xclip', '-selection', selection, '-o'],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE,
close_fds=True)
stdout, stderr = p.communicate()
# Intentionally ignore extraneous output on stderr when clipboard is empty
return stdout.decode(ENCODING)
return copy_xclip, paste_xclip
def init_xsel_clipboard():
DEFAULT_SELECTION='-b'
PRIMARY_SELECTION='-p'
def copy_xsel(text, primary=False):
text = _stringifyText(text) # Converts non-str values to str.
selection_flag = DEFAULT_SELECTION
if primary:
selection_flag = PRIMARY_SELECTION
p = subprocess.Popen(['xsel', selection_flag, '-i'],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE, close_fds=True)
p.communicate(input=text.encode(ENCODING))
def paste_xsel(primary=False):
selection_flag = DEFAULT_SELECTION
if primary:
selection_flag = PRIMARY_SELECTION
p = subprocess.Popen(['xsel', selection_flag, '-o'],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE, close_fds=True)
stdout, stderr = p.communicate()
return stdout.decode(ENCODING)
return copy_xsel, paste_xsel
def init_klipper_clipboard():
def copy_klipper(text):
text = _stringifyText(text) # Converts non-str values to str.
p = subprocess.Popen(
['qdbus', 'org.kde.klipper', '/klipper', 'setClipboardContents',
text.encode(ENCODING)],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE, close_fds=True)
p.communicate(input=None)
def paste_klipper():
p = subprocess.Popen(
['qdbus', 'org.kde.klipper', '/klipper', 'getClipboardContents'],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE, close_fds=True)
stdout, stderr = p.communicate()
# Workaround for https://bugs.kde.org/show_bug.cgi?id=342874
# TODO: https://github.com/asweigart/pyperclip/issues/43
clipboardContents = stdout.decode(ENCODING)
# even if blank, Klipper will append a newline at the end
assert len(clipboardContents) > 0
# make sure that newline is there
assert clipboardContents.endswith('\n')
if clipboardContents.endswith('\n'):
clipboardContents = clipboardContents[:-1]
return clipboardContents
return copy_klipper, paste_klipper
def init_dev_clipboard_clipboard():
def copy_dev_clipboard(text):
text = _stringifyText(text) # Converts non-str values to str.
if text == '':
warnings.warn('Pyperclip cannot copy a blank string to the clipboard on Cygwin. This is effectively a no-op.')
if '\r' in text:
warnings.warn('Pyperclip cannot handle \\r characters on Cygwin.')
fo = open('/dev/clipboard', 'wt')
fo.write(text)
fo.close()
def paste_dev_clipboard():
fo = open('/dev/clipboard', 'rt')
content = fo.read()
fo.close()
return content
return copy_dev_clipboard, paste_dev_clipboard
def init_no_clipboard():
class ClipboardUnavailable(object):
def __call__(self, *args, **kwargs):
raise PyperclipException(EXCEPT_MSG)
if PY2:
def __nonzero__(self):
return False
else:
def __bool__(self):
return False
return ClipboardUnavailable(), ClipboardUnavailable()
# Windows-related clipboard functions:
class CheckedCall(object):
def __init__(self, f):
super(CheckedCall, self).__setattr__("f", f)
def __call__(self, *args):
ret = self.f(*args)
if not ret and get_errno():
raise PyperclipWindowsException("Error calling " + self.f.__name__)
return ret
def __setattr__(self, key, value):
setattr(self.f, key, value)
def init_windows_clipboard():
global HGLOBAL, LPVOID, DWORD, LPCSTR, INT, HWND, HINSTANCE, HMENU, BOOL, UINT, HANDLE
from ctypes.wintypes import (HGLOBAL, LPVOID, DWORD, LPCSTR, INT, HWND,
HINSTANCE, HMENU, BOOL, UINT, HANDLE)
windll = ctypes.windll
msvcrt = ctypes.CDLL('msvcrt')
safeCreateWindowExA = CheckedCall(windll.user32.CreateWindowExA)
safeCreateWindowExA.argtypes = [DWORD, LPCSTR, LPCSTR, DWORD, INT, INT,
INT, INT, HWND, HMENU, HINSTANCE, LPVOID]
safeCreateWindowExA.restype = HWND
safeDestroyWindow = CheckedCall(windll.user32.DestroyWindow)
safeDestroyWindow.argtypes = [HWND]
safeDestroyWindow.restype = BOOL
OpenClipboard = windll.user32.OpenClipboard
OpenClipboard.argtypes = [HWND]
OpenClipboard.restype = BOOL
safeCloseClipboard = CheckedCall(windll.user32.CloseClipboard)
safeCloseClipboard.argtypes = []
safeCloseClipboard.restype = BOOL
safeEmptyClipboard = CheckedCall(windll.user32.EmptyClipboard)
safeEmptyClipboard.argtypes = []
safeEmptyClipboard.restype = BOOL
safeGetClipboardData = CheckedCall(windll.user32.GetClipboardData)
safeGetClipboardData.argtypes = [UINT]
safeGetClipboardData.restype = HANDLE
safeSetClipboardData = CheckedCall(windll.user32.SetClipboardData)
safeSetClipboardData.argtypes = [UINT, HANDLE]
safeSetClipboardData.restype = HANDLE
safeGlobalAlloc = CheckedCall(windll.kernel32.GlobalAlloc)
safeGlobalAlloc.argtypes = [UINT, c_size_t]
safeGlobalAlloc.restype = HGLOBAL
safeGlobalLock = CheckedCall(windll.kernel32.GlobalLock)
safeGlobalLock.argtypes = [HGLOBAL]
safeGlobalLock.restype = LPVOID
safeGlobalUnlock = CheckedCall(windll.kernel32.GlobalUnlock)
safeGlobalUnlock.argtypes = [HGLOBAL]
safeGlobalUnlock.restype = BOOL
wcslen = CheckedCall(msvcrt.wcslen)
wcslen.argtypes = [c_wchar_p]
wcslen.restype = UINT
GMEM_MOVEABLE = 0x0002
CF_UNICODETEXT = 13
@contextlib.contextmanager
def window():
"""
Context that provides a valid Windows hwnd.
"""
# we really just need the hwnd, so setting "STATIC"
# as predefined lpClass is just fine.
hwnd = safeCreateWindowExA(0, b"STATIC", None, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
None, None, None, None)
try:
yield hwnd
finally:
safeDestroyWindow(hwnd)
@contextlib.contextmanager
def clipboard(hwnd):
"""
Context manager that opens the clipboard and prevents
other applications from modifying the clipboard content.
"""
# We may not get the clipboard handle immediately because
# some other application is accessing it (?)
# We try for at least 500ms to get the clipboard.
t = time.time() + 0.5
success = False
while time.time() < t:
success = OpenClipboard(hwnd)
if success:
break
time.sleep(0.01)
if not success:
raise PyperclipWindowsException("Error calling OpenClipboard")
try:
yield
finally:
safeCloseClipboard()
def copy_windows(text):
# This function is heavily based on
# http://msdn.com/ms649016#_win32_Copying_Information_to_the_Clipboard
text = _stringifyText(text) # Converts non-str values to str.
with window() as hwnd:
# http://msdn.com/ms649048
# If an application calls OpenClipboard with hwnd set to NULL,
# EmptyClipboard sets the clipboard owner to NULL;
# this causes SetClipboardData to fail.
# => We need a valid hwnd to copy something.
with clipboard(hwnd):
safeEmptyClipboard()
if text:
# http://msdn.com/ms649051
# If the hMem parameter identifies a memory object,
# the object must have been allocated using the
# function with the GMEM_MOVEABLE flag.
count = wcslen(text) + 1
handle = safeGlobalAlloc(GMEM_MOVEABLE,
count * sizeof(c_wchar))
locked_handle = safeGlobalLock(handle)
ctypes.memmove(c_wchar_p(locked_handle), c_wchar_p(text), count * sizeof(c_wchar))
safeGlobalUnlock(handle)
safeSetClipboardData(CF_UNICODETEXT, handle)
def paste_windows():
with clipboard(None):
handle = safeGetClipboardData(CF_UNICODETEXT)
if not handle:
# GetClipboardData may return NULL with errno == NO_ERROR
# if the clipboard is empty.
# (Also, it may return a handle to an empty buffer,
# but technically that's not empty)
return ""
return c_wchar_p(handle).value
return copy_windows, paste_windows
def init_wsl_clipboard():
def copy_wsl(text):
text = _stringifyText(text) # Converts non-str values to str.
p = subprocess.Popen(['clip.exe'],
stdin=subprocess.PIPE, close_fds=True)
p.communicate(input=text.encode(ENCODING))
def paste_wsl():
p = subprocess.Popen(['powershell.exe', '-command', 'Get-Clipboard'],
stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
stderr=subprocess.PIPE,
close_fds=True)
stdout, stderr = p.communicate()
# WSL appends "\r\n" to the contents.
return stdout[:-2].decode(ENCODING)
return copy_wsl, paste_wsl
# Automatic detection of clipboard mechanisms and importing is done in deteremine_clipboard():
def determine_clipboard():
'''
Determine the OS/platform and set the copy() and paste() functions
accordingly.
'''
global Foundation, AppKit, gtk, qtpy, PyQt4, PyQt5
# Setup for the CYGWIN platform:
if 'cygwin' in platform.system().lower(): # Cygwin has a variety of values returned by platform.system(), such as 'CYGWIN_NT-6.1'
# FIXME: pyperclip currently does not support Cygwin,
# see https://github.com/asweigart/pyperclip/issues/55
if os.path.exists('/dev/clipboard'):
warnings.warn('Pyperclip\'s support for Cygwin is not perfect, see https://github.com/asweigart/pyperclip/issues/55')
return init_dev_clipboard_clipboard()
# Setup for the WINDOWS platform:
elif os.name == 'nt' or platform.system() == 'Windows':
return init_windows_clipboard()
if platform.system() == 'Linux':
with open('/proc/version', 'r') as f:
if "Microsoft" in f.read():
return init_wsl_clipboard()
# Setup for the MAC OS X platform:
if os.name == 'mac' or platform.system() == 'Darwin':
try:
import Foundation # check if pyobjc is installed
import AppKit
except ImportError:
return init_osx_pbcopy_clipboard()
else:
return init_osx_pyobjc_clipboard()
# Setup for the LINUX platform:
if HAS_DISPLAY:
try:
import gtk # check if gtk is installed
except ImportError:
pass # We want to fail fast for all non-ImportError exceptions.
else:
return init_gtk_clipboard()
if _executable_exists("xsel"):
return init_xsel_clipboard()
if _executable_exists("xclip"):
return init_xclip_clipboard()
if _executable_exists("klipper") and _executable_exists("qdbus"):
return init_klipper_clipboard()
try:
# qtpy is a small abstraction layer that lets you write applications using a single api call to either PyQt or PySide.
# https://pypi.python.org/pypi/QtPy
import qtpy # check if qtpy is installed
except ImportError:
# If qtpy isn't installed, fall back on importing PyQt4.
try:
import PyQt5 # check if PyQt5 is installed
except ImportError:
try:
import PyQt4 # check if PyQt4 is installed
except ImportError:
pass # We want to fail fast for all non-ImportError exceptions.
else:
return init_qt_clipboard()
else:
return init_qt_clipboard()
else:
return init_qt_clipboard()
return init_no_clipboard()
def set_clipboard(clipboard):
'''
Explicitly sets the clipboard mechanism. The "clipboard mechanism" is how
the copy() and paste() functions interact with the operating system to
implement the copy/paste feature. The clipboard parameter must be one of:
- pbcopy
- pbobjc (default on Mac OS X)
- gtk
- qt
- xclip
- xsel
- klipper
- windows (default on Windows)
- no (this is what is set when no clipboard mechanism can be found)
'''
global copy, paste
clipboard_types = {'pbcopy': init_osx_pbcopy_clipboard,
'pyobjc': init_osx_pyobjc_clipboard,
'gtk': init_gtk_clipboard,
'qt': init_qt_clipboard, # TODO - split this into 'qtpy', 'pyqt4', and 'pyqt5'
'xclip': init_xclip_clipboard,
'xsel': init_xsel_clipboard,
'klipper': init_klipper_clipboard,
'windows': init_windows_clipboard,
'no': init_no_clipboard}
if clipboard not in clipboard_types:
raise ValueError('Argument must be one of %s' % (', '.join([repr(_) for _ in clipboard_types.keys()])))
# Sets pyperclip's copy() and paste() functions:
copy, paste = clipboard_types[clipboard]()
def lazy_load_stub_copy(text):
'''
A stub function for copy(), which will load the real copy() function when
called so that the real copy() function is used for later calls.
This allows users to import pyperclip without having determine_clipboard()
automatically run, which will automatically select a clipboard mechanism.
This could be a problem if it selects, say, the memory-heavy PyQt4 module
but the user was just going to immediately call set_clipboard() to use a
different clipboard mechanism.
The lazy loading this stub function implements gives the user a chance to
call set_clipboard() to pick another clipboard mechanism. Or, if the user
simply calls copy() or paste() without calling set_clipboard() first,
will fall back on whatever clipboard mechanism that determine_clipboard()
automatically chooses.
'''
global copy, paste
copy, paste = determine_clipboard()
return copy(text)
def lazy_load_stub_paste():
'''
A stub function for paste(), which will load the real paste() function when
called so that the real paste() function is used for later calls.
This allows users to import pyperclip without having determine_clipboard()
automatically run, which will automatically select a clipboard mechanism.
This could be a problem if it selects, say, the memory-heavy PyQt4 module
but the user was just going to immediately call set_clipboard() to use a
different clipboard mechanism.
The lazy loading this stub function implements gives the user a chance to
call set_clipboard() to pick another clipboard mechanism. Or, if the user
simply calls copy() or paste() without calling set_clipboard() first,
will fall back on whatever clipboard mechanism that determine_clipboard()
automatically chooses.
'''
global copy, paste
copy, paste = determine_clipboard()
return paste()
def is_available():
return copy != lazy_load_stub_copy and paste != lazy_load_stub_paste
# Initially, copy() and paste() are set to lazy loading wrappers which will
# set `copy` and `paste` to real functions the first time they're used, unless
# set_clipboard() or determine_clipboard() is called first.
copy, paste = lazy_load_stub_copy, lazy_load_stub_paste
__all__ = ['copy', 'paste', 'set_clipboard', 'determine_clipboard']
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