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Web Components for Rails.


Do you need an interactive user interface for your Rails application? A cool Rich Client Application with dashboards, portlets and AJAX, Drag&Drop and jQuery?

Is your controller gettin' fat? And your partial-helper-AJAX pile is getting out of control?

Do you want a framework to make the implementation easier? You want Apotomo.


Apotomo is based on Cells, the popular View Components framework for Rails.

It gives you widgets and encapsulation, bubbling events, AJAX page updates, rock-solid testing and more. Check out for a bunch of tutorials and a nice web 2.0 logo.


Easy as hell.

Rails 3

gem install apotomo

Rails 2.3

gem install apotomo -v 0.1.4

Don't forget to load the gem in your app, either in your Gemfile or environment.rb.


A shitty example is worse a shitty framework, so let's choose wisely…

Say you had a blog application. The page showing the post should have a comments block, with a list of comments and a form to post a new comment. Submitting should validate and send back the updated comments list, via AJAX.

Let's wrap that comments block in a widget.


Go and generate a widget stub.

$ rails generate apotomo:widget CommentsWidget display write --haml
  create  app/cells/
  create  app/cells/comments_widget
  create  app/cells/comments_widget.rb
  create  app/cells/comments_widget/display.html.haml
  create  app/cells/comments_widget/write.html.haml
  create  test/widgets/comments_widget_test.rb

Nothing special.

Plug it in

You now tell your controller about the new widget.

class PostsController < ApplicationController
  include Apotomo::Rails::ControllerMethods

  has_widgets do |root|
    root << widget('comments_widget', 'post-comments', :post => @post)

The widget is named post-comments. We pass the current post into the widget - the block is executed in controller instance context, that's were @post comes from. Handy, isn't it?

Render the widget

Rendering usually happens in your controller view, views/posts/show.haml, for instance.

%h1 @post.title


  = render_widget 'post-comments'

Write the widget

A widget is like a cell which is like a mini-controller.

class CommentsWidget < Apotomo::Widget
  responds_to_event :submit, :with => :write

  def display
    @comments = param(:post).comments # the parameter from outside.

Having display as the default state when rendering, this method collects comments to show and renders its view.

And look at line 2 - if encountering a :submit event we invoke write, which is simply another state. How cool is that?

  def write
    @comment = => param(:post))
    @comment.update_attributes param(:comment)  # like params[].

    update :state => :display

The event is processes with three steps in our widget:

  • create the new comment

  • re-render the display state

  • update itself on the page.

Apotomo helps you focusing on your app and takes away the pain of action dispatching and page updating.

Triggering events

So how and where is the :submit event triggered?

Take a look at the widget's view display.html.haml.

= widget_div do
    - for c in @comments
      %li c.text

  - form_for :comment, @comment, :html => {"data-event-url" => url_for_event(:submit)} do |f|
    = f.error_messages
    = f.text_field :text

    = submit_tag "Don't be shy, comment!"

That's a lot of familiar view code, almost looks like a partial.

The view also contains a bit of JavaScript.

  var form = $("##{widget_id} form");

  form.submit(function() {
    $.ajax({url: form.attr("data-event-url"), data: form.serialize()})
    return false;

Triggering happens by sending an AJAX request to an address that the Apotomo helper url_for_event generated for us.

Event processing

Now what happens when the event request is sent? Apotomo - again - does three things for you, it

  • accepts the request on a special event route it adds to your app

  • triggers the event in your ruby widget tree, which will invoke the #process state in our comment widget

  • sends back the page updates your widgets rendered

JavaScript Agnosticism

In this example, we use jQuery for triggering. We could also use Prototype, RightJS, YUI, or a self-baked framework, that's up to you.

Also, updating the page is in your hands. Where Apotomo provides handy helpers as #replace, you could also emit your own JavaScript.

Look, replace basically generates

$("post-comments").replaceWith(<the rendered view>);

If that's not what you want, do

def write
  if param(:comment)[:text].explicit?
    render :text => 'alert("Hey, you wanted to submit a pervert comment!");'

Apotomo doesn't depend on any JS framework - you choose!


Apotomo comes with its own test case and assertions to build rock-solid web components.

class CommentsWidgetTest < Apotomo::TestCase
  has_widgets do |root|
    root << widget(:comments_widget, 'me', :post => @pervert_post)

  def test_render
    render_widget 'me'
    assert_select "li#me"

    trigger :submit, :comment => {:text => "Sex on the beach"}
    assert_response 'alert("Hey, you wanted to submit a pervert comment!");'

You can render your widgets, spec the markup, trigger events and assert the event responses, so far. If you need more, let us know!

More features

There's even more, too much for a simple README.


Deriving your widget from StatefulWidget gives you free statefulness.


Widgets can range from small standalone components to nested widget trees like complex dashboards.

Bubbling events

Events bubble up from their triggering source to root and thus can be observed, providing a way to implement loosely coupled, distributable components.


Widgets encourage encapsulation and help having different developers working on different components without getting out of bounds.

Give it a try- you will love the power and simplicity of real web components!

Bugs, Community

Please visit, the official project page with lots of examples.

If you have questions, visit us in the IRC channel #cells at

If you wanna be cool, subscribe to our feed!


Copyright © 2007-2010 Nick Sutterer <> under the MIT License

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