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This file describes types of cartridge images supported by the Atari800
emulator.
There are:
- raw images - files that contain only dump of cartridge memory
- CART files - images with additional 16-byte header, which contains type
of the cartridge
For raw images you usually have to select the cartridge type each time
you insert an image. To make it easier, you only select from types of same
image size. If there's only one supported type that matches file's length
(currently only for 2 KB cartridges), that type is selected automatically.
The advantage of using CART files is that you don't have to select
the cartridge type, because it is stored inside the file.
The CART format has been introduced in Atari800 0.8.0, when there were
only 4 supported cartridge types. The format has not changed, only new types
have been added.
The format is:
first 4 bytes containing 'C' 'A' 'R' 'T'.
next 4 bytes containing cartridge type in MSB format (see the table below).
next 4 bytes containing cartridge checksum in MSB format (ROM only).
next 4 bytes are currently unused (zero).
followed immediately with the ROM data: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 40, etc. kilobytes.
The recommended file name extension for CART files is CAR.
Currently supported cartridge types:
+----+-----------+------+-----------------------------------------------+---+
| Id | Machine | Size | Name | E |
|----+-----------+------+-----------------------------------------------+---+
| 1 | 800/XL/XE | 8 | Standard 8 KB cartridge | |
| 2 | 800/XL/XE | 16 | Standard 16 KB cartridge | |
| 3 | 800/XL/XE | 16 | OSS two chip 16 KB cartridge (034M) | |
| 4 | 5200 | 32 | Standard 32 KB 5200 cartridge | |
| 5 | 800/XL/XE | 32 | DB 32 KB cartridge | |
| 6 | 5200 | 16 | Two chip 16 KB 5200 cartridge | |
| 7 | 5200 | 40 | Bounty Bob Strikes Back 40 KB 5200 cartridge | |
| 8 | 800/XL/XE | 64 | 64 KB Williams cartridge | |
| 9 | 800/XL/XE | 64 | Express 64 KB cartridge | |
| 10 | 800/XL/XE | 64 | Diamond 64 KB cartridge | |
| 11 | 800/XL/XE | 64 | SpartaDOS X 64 KB cartridge | |
| 12 | 800/XL/XE | 32 | XEGS 32 KB cartridge | |
| 13 | 800/XL/XE | 64 | XEGS 64 KB cartridge (banks 0-7) | |
| 14 | 800/XL/XE | 128 | XEGS 128 KB cartridge | |
| 15 | 800/XL/XE | 16 | OSS one chip 16 KB cartridge | |
| 16 | 5200 | 16 | One chip 16 KB 5200 cartridge | |
| 17 | 800/XL/XE | 128 | Decoded Atrax 128 KB cartridge | |
| 18 | 800/XL/XE | 40 | Bounty Bob Strikes Back 40 KB cartridge | |
| 19 | 5200 | 8 | Standard 8 KB 5200 cartridge | |
| 20 | 5200 | 4 | Standard 4 KB 5200 cartridge | |
| 21 | 800 | 8 | Right slot 8 KB cartridge | |
| 22 | 800/XL/XE | 32 | 32 KB Williams cartridge | |
| 23 | 800/XL/XE | 256 | XEGS 256 KB cartridge | |
| 24 | 800/XL/XE | 512 | XEGS 512 KB cartridge | |
| 25 | 800/XL/XE | 1024 | XEGS 1 MB cartridge | |
| 26 | 800/XL/XE | 16 | MegaCart 16 KB cartridge | |
| 27 | 800/XL/XE | 32 | MegaCart 32 KB cartridge | |
| 28 | 800/XL/XE | 64 | MegaCart 64 KB cartridge | |
| 29 | 800/XL/XE | 128 | MegaCart 128 KB cartridge | |
| 30 | 800/XL/XE | 256 | MegaCart 256 KB cartridge | |
| 31 | 800/XL/XE | 512 | MegaCart 512 KB cartridge | |
| 32 | 800/XL/XE | 1024 | MegaCart 1 MB cartridge | |
| 33 | 800/XL/XE | 32 | Switchable XEGS 32 KB cartridge | |
| 34 | 800/XL/XE | 64 | Switchable XEGS 64 KB cartridge | |
| 35 | 800/XL/XE | 128 | Switchable XEGS 128 KB cartridge | |
| 36 | 800/XL/XE | 256 | Switchable XEGS 256 KB cartridge | |
| 37 | 800/XL/XE | 512 | Switchable XEGS 512 KB cartridge | |
| 38 | 800/XL/XE | 1024 | Switchable XEGS 1 MB cartridge | |
| 39 | 800/XL/XE | 8 | Phoenix 8 KB cartridge | |
| 40 | 800/XL/XE | 16 | Blizzard 16 KB cartridge | |
| 41 | 800/XL/XE | 128 | Atarimax 128 KB Flash cartridge | p |
| 42 | 800/XL/XE | 1024 | Atarimax 1 MB Flash cartridge | p |
| 43 | 800/XL/XE | 128 | SpartaDOS X 128 KB cartridge | |
| 44 | 800/XL/XE | 8 | OSS 8 KB cartridge | |
| 45 | 800/XL/XE | 16 | OSS two chip 16 KB cartridge (043M) | |
| 46 | 800/XL/XE | 4 | Blizzard 4 KB cartridge | |
| 47 | 800/XL/XE | 32 | AST 32 KB cartridge | |
| 48 | 800/XL/XE | 64 | Atrax SDX 64 KB cartridge | |
| 49 | 800/XL/XE | 128 | Atrax SDX 128 KB cartridge | |
| 50 | 800/XL/XE | 64 | Turbosoft 64 KB cartridge | |
| 51 | 800/XL/XE | 128 | Turbosoft 128 KB cartridge | |
| 52 | 800/XL/XE | 32 | Ultracart 32 KB cartridge | |
| 53 | 800/XL/XE | 8 | Low bank 8 KB cartridge | |
| 54 | 800/XL/XE | 128 | SIC! 128 KB cartridge | p |
| 55 | 800/XL/XE | 256 | SIC! 256 KB cartridge | p |
| 56 | 800/XL/XE | 512 | SIC! 512 KB cartridge | p |
| 57 | 800/XL/XE | 2 | Standard 2 KB cartridge | |
| 58 | 800/XL/XE | 4 | Standard 4 KB cartridge | |
| 59 | 800 | 4 | Right slot 4 KB cartridge | |
| 60 | 800/XL/XE | 32 | Blizzard 32 KB cartridge | |
| 61 | 800/XL/XE | 2048 | MegaMax 2 MB cartridge | |
| 62 | 800/XL/XE | 128M | The!Cart 128 MB cartridge | p |
| 63 | 800/XL/XE | 4096 | Flash MegaCart 4 MB cartridge | p |
| 64 | 800/XL/XE | 2048 | MegaCart 2 MB cartridge | |
| 65 | 800/XL/XE | 32M | The!Cart 32 MB cartridge | p |
| 66 | 800/XL/XE | 64M | The!Cart 64 MB cartridge | p |
| 67 | 800/XL/XE | 64 | XEGS 64 KB cartridge (banks 8-15) | |
| 68 | 800/XL/XE | 128 | Atrax 128 KB cartridge | |
| 69 | 800/XL/XE | 32 | aDawliah 32 KB cartridge | |
| 70 | 800/XL/XE | 64 | aDawliah 64 KB cartridge | |
+----+-----------+------+-----------------------------------------------+---+
Id is the cartridge type code stored in the CART file.
Machine indicates if the cartridge is for Atari 8-bit Home Computers
(400/800 and XL/XE) or the Atari 5200 Game System.
Size is length of image in kilobytes, unless the value ends with "M", which
means it is in megabytes.
E (for Emulation) describes state of emulation support of the cartridge in
Atari800. "p" means the cartridge is emulated partially (some features
missing), no value means emulation of all features.
Below are descriptions of all types. For bank-switched cartridges banks
are numbered in the order they appear in the image file, starting with 0.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 1: Standard 8 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Standard 8 KB cartridge, that occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000
and $BFFF.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 2: Standard 16 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Standard 16 KB cartridge, that occupies 16 KB of address space between
$8000 and $BFFF.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 3: OSS two chip 16 KB cartridge (034M) |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
NOTE: This cartridge image format has been obsoleted by Type 45 because its
order of banks is incorrect (i.e. the order in a physical cartridge's ROM
chips is different). This format is still supported by the CART file format
for backward compatibility.
The cartridge occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000 and $BFFF. Its
memory is divided into 4 banks, 4 KB each. Bank number 3 (the last one) is
always mapped to $B000-$BFFF. Bank in $A000-$AFFF is selected by an access to
$D500-$D5FF. Only 4 lowest bits of address are significant:
- $D5x0 selects bank 0.
- $D5x1 is not useful - it selects banks 0 and 1 (the bytes are binary AND of
the corresponding bytes from banks 0 and 1).
- $D5x3 or $D5x7 selects bank 1.
- $D5x4 selects bank 2.
- $D5x5 is not useful - it selects banks 1 and 2 (the bytes are binary AND of
the corresponding bytes from banks 1 and 2).
- $D5x2 or $D5x6 is not useful. It disables ROM (there are $FF bytes in
$A000-$AFFF).
- $D5x8-$D5xF disables whole cartridge (enables computer's memory in address
space between $A000 and $BFFF).
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 4: Standard 32 KB 5200 cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Standard 32 KB cartridge for Atari 5200, that occupies 32 KB of address
space between $4000 and $BFFF.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 5: DB 32 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A 32 KB bank-switched cartridge. There are 4 banks. Bank 3 is mapped to
$A000-$BFFF. Bank in $8000-$9FFF is selected by an access to $D500-$D5FF.
Two lowest bits of address select bank 0, 1, 2 or 3.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 6: Two chip 16 KB 5200 cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
In Atari 5200 there's 32 KB of address space reserved for the cartridge
($4000-$BFFF). A two chip 16 KB cartridge is mapped that way:
- First 8 KB are mapped into lower 16 KB. Since an address line is not
connected, $4000-$5FFF and $6000-$7FFF contain same data, which is first
half of the cartridge image.
- Similarly, second 8 KB are mapped into upper 16 KB.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 7: Bounty Bob Strikes Back 40 KB 5200 cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The cartridge with "Bounty Bob Strikes Back" game uses very strange
bank switching method:
- Four 4 KB banks (0,1,2,3) are mapped into $4000-$4FFF. An access to $4FF6
selects bank 0, $4FF7 - bank 1, $4FF8 - bank 2, $4FF9 - bank 3.
- Four 4 KB banks (4,5,6,7) are mapped into $5000-$5FFF. An access to $5FF6
selects bank 4, $5FF7 - bank 5, $5FF8 - bank 6, $5FF9 - bank 7.
- The remaining 8 KB is mapped to upper 16 KB of cartridge address space
in Atari 5200. That is, $8000-$9FFF and $A000-$BFFF contain same data.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 8: 64 KB Williams cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The cartridge has 8 banks mapped to $A000-$BFFF. An access to $D500 selects
bank 0, $D501 - bank 1, etc. An access to $D508-$D50F disables
the cartridge.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 9: Express 64 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The cartridge has 8 banks mapped to $A000-$BFFF. An access to $D577 selects
bank 0, $D576 - bank 1, etc. An access to $D578-$D57F disables
the cartridge.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 10: Diamond 64 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The cartridge has 8 banks mapped to $A000-$BFFF. An access to $D5D7 selects
bank 0, $D5D6 - bank 1, etc. An access to $D5D8-$D5DF disables
the cartridge.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 11: SpartaDOS X 64 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The cartridge has 8 banks mapped to $A000-$BFFF. It also contains an
additional cartridge slot which allows to plug a second cartridge in.
An access to $D5E7 selects bank 0, $D5E6 - bank 1, etc. down to $D5E0. An
access to $D5E8-$D5EB disables the SDX cartridge and enables the second
cartridge. An access to $D5EC-$D5EF disables both cartridges.
Accesses to all addresses on page D5 always reaches the second cartridge,
even if it is disabled by SpartaDOS or if the SpartaDOS cartridge itself is
enabled.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 12: XEGS 32 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 16 KB of address space between $8000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 4 banks, 8 KB each.
Bank 3 (the last one) is always mapped to $A000-$BFFF. Two lowest bits of
a byte written to $D500-$D5FF select the bank mapped to $8000-$9FFF.
The initially selected bank is random, although it seems that 0 gets chosen
the most often. Atari800 always selects bank 0 initially.
Reference:
http://www.atarimax.com/jindroush.atari.org/acarts.html#xegs
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 13: XEGS 64 KB cartridge (banks 0-7) |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
One of the two variants of the 64 KB XEGS cartridge, that's built on either
a C100649 board with the W1 solder point not connected, or a C026449 board
with pin 9 of the 74LS374 chip unconnected.
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 16 KB of address space between $8000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 8 banks, 8 KB each.
Bank 7 (the last one) is always mapped to $A000-$BFFF. Three lowest bits of
a byte written to $D500-$D5FF select the bank mapped to $8000-$9FFF.
The initially selected bank is random, although it seems that 0 gets chosen
the most often. Atari800 always selects bank 0 initially.
Reference:
http://www.atarimax.com/jindroush.atari.org/acarts.html#xegs
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 14: XEGS 128 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Built on either a C100649 board with the W1 solder point connected, or a
C026449 board.
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 16 KB of address space between $8000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 16 banks, 8 KB each.
Bank 15 (the last one) is always mapped to $A000-$BFFF. Four lowest bits of
a byte written to $D500-$D5FF select the bank mapped to $8000-$9FFF.
The initially selected bank is random, although it seems that 0 gets chosen
the most often. Atari800 always selects bank 0 initially.
Reference:
http://www.atarimax.com/jindroush.atari.org/acarts.html#xegs
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 15: OSS one chip 16 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
There are two types of OSS 16KB cartridges; this is the later, simpler one.
Used by BASIC XL 1.03, Action! 3.6, MAC/65 1.1 and BASIC XE 4.1 (and possibly
also by later versions of the above software).
It consists of one 16 KB ROM chip.
The cartridge occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000 and $BFFF. Its
memory is divided into 4 banks, 4 KB each. Bank number 0 (the first one) is
always mapped to $B000-$BFFF. Bank in $A000-$AFFF is selected by an access to
$D500-$D5FF. Only bits 0 and 3 of address are significant:
- A3=0, A0=0 - selects bank 1
- A3=0, A0=1 - selects bank 3
- A3=1, A0=0 - disables cartridge (enables computer's memory in address space
between $A000 and $BFFF)
- A3=1, A0=1 - selects bank 2
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 16: One chip 16 KB 5200 cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
16 KB cartridge for Atari 5200, that occupies 16 KB of address space
between $8000 and $BFFF.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 17: Decoded Atrax 128 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The Atrax cartridge has its address and data lines intermixed as a kind of
copy protection - dumping a ROM chip directly would result in a dump that
would need decoding before reading data. This cartridge type represents
a decoded ROM dump, for example as a result of dumping by reading the
cartridge using an Atari computer. The original, non-decoded dump is
represented by Type 68: Atrax 128 KB cartridge.
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 16 banks, 8 KB each.
If a byte written to $D500-$D5FF has highest bit set, the cartridge is
disabled. Otherwise four lowest bits select the bank mapped to $A000-$BFFF.
Reference:
http://atarionline.pl/forum/comments.php?DiscussionID=2861&page=11#CommentBody_91383
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 18: Bounty Bob Strikes Back 40 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The cartridge with "Bounty Bob Strikes Back" game uses very strange
bank switching method:
- Four 4 KB banks (0,1,2,3) are mapped into $8000-$8FFF. An access to $8FF6
selects bank 0, $8FF7 - bank 1, $8FF8 - bank 2, $8FF9 - bank 3.
- Four 4 KB banks (4,5,6,7) are mapped into $9000-$9FFF. An access to $9FF6
selects bank 4, $9FF7 - bank 5, $9FF8 - bank 6, $9FF9 - bank 7.
- The remaining 8 KB is mapped to $A000-$BFFF.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 19: Standard 8 KB 5200 cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Standard 8 KB cartridge for Atari 5200, mapped into $8000-$9FFF
and $A000-$BFFF.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 20: Standard 4 KB 5200 cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Standard 4 KB cartridge for Atari 5200, mapped into $8000-$8FFF,
$9000-$9FFF, $A000-$AFFF and $B000-$BFFF.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 21: Right slot 8 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
8 KB cartridge for Atari 800, mapped into $8000-$9FFF. Atari 800 was
the only 8-bit Atari with a Right Cartridge slot, in addition
to the Left Cartridge slot as present on all 8-bit Ataris.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 22: 32 KB Williams cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The cartridge has 4 banks mapped to $A000-$BFFF. An access to $D500 selects
bank 0, $D501 - bank 1, etc. An access to $D508-$D50F disables
the cartridge.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 23: XEGS 256 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
An extension to the standard XEGS cartridge, apparently sold by Nir Dary
in the 1990s/2000s.
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 16 KB of address space between $8000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 32 banks, 8 KB each.
The last bank is always mapped to $A000-BFFF. Five lowest bits of
a byte written to $D500-$D5FF select the bank mapped to $8000-$9FFF.
The initially selected bank is currently not known, although it's probable
that it's the same as in standard XEGS cartridges, ie. random. Atari800
always selects bank 0 initially.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 24: XEGS 512 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
An extension to the standard XEGS cartridge, apparently sold by Nir Dary
in the 1990s/2000s.
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 16 KB of address space between $8000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 64 banks, 8 KB each.
The last bank is always mapped to $A000-$BFFF. Six lowest bits of
a byte written to $D500-$D5FF select the bank mapped to $8000-$9FFF.
The initially selected bank is currently not known, although it's probable
that it's the same as in standard XEGS cartridges, ie. random. Atari800
always selects bank 0 initially.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 25: XEGS 1 MB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
An extension to the standard XEGS cartridge, apparently sold by Nir Dary
in the 1990s/2000s.
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 16 KB of address space between $8000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 128 banks, 8 KB each.
The last bank is always mapped to $A000-$BFFF. Seven lowest bits of
a byte written to $D500-$D5FF select the bank mapped to $8000-$9FFF.
The initially selected bank is currently not known, although it's probable
that it's the same as in standard XEGS cartridges, ie. random. Atari800
always selects bank 0 initially.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 26: MegaCart 16 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A 16 KB cartridge, that occupies 16 KB of address space between $8000
and $BFFF, and can be disabled by writing a byte with bit 7 set to
$D500-$D5FF.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 27: MegaCart 32 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A bank-switched cartridge that occupies 16 KB of address space between
$8000 and $BFFF. It is controlled by a byte written to $D500-$D5FF. Bit 0
selects one of two available banks, bit 7 disables the cartridge.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 28: MegaCart 64 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A bank-switched cartridge that occupies 16 KB of address space between
$8000 and $BFFF. It is controlled by a byte written to $D500-$D5FF. Bits 0-1
select one of four available banks, bit 7 disables the cartridge.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 29: MegaCart 128 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A bank-switched cartridge that occupies 16 KB of address space between
$8000 and $BFFF. It is controlled by a byte written to $D500-$D5FF. Bits 0-2
select one of 8 available banks, bit 7 disables the cartridge.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 30: MegaCart 256 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A bank-switched cartridge that occupies 16 KB of address space between
$8000 and $BFFF. It is controlled by a byte written to $D500-$D5FF. Bits 0-3
select one of 16 available banks, bit 7 disables the cartridge.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 31: MegaCart 512 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A bank-switched cartridge that occupies 16 KB of address space between
$8000 and $BFFF. It is controlled by a byte written to $D500-$D5FF. Bits 0-4
select one of 32 available banks, bit 7 disables the cartridge.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 32: MegaCart 1 MB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A bank-switched cartridge that occupies 16 KB of address space between
$8000 and $BFFF. It is controlled by a byte written to $D500-$D5FF. Bits 0-5
select one of 64 available banks, bit 7 disables the cartridge.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 33: Switchable XEGS 32 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
An extension to the standard XEGS cartridge, apparently sold by Nir Dary
in the 1990s/2000s.
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 16 KB of address space between $8000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 4 banks, 8 KB each.
Bank 3 (the last one) is always mapped to $A000-$BFFF. Two lowest bits of
a byte written to $D500-$D5FF select the bank mapped to $8000-$9FFF,
bit 7 disables the cartridge.
The initially selected bank is currently not known, although it's probable
that it's the same as in standard XEGS cartridges, ie. random. Atari800
always selects bank 0 initially.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 34: Switchable XEGS 64 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
An extension to the standard XEGS cartridge, apparently sold by Nir Dary
in the 1990s/2000s.
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 16 KB of address space between $8000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 8 banks, 8 KB each.
Bank 7 (the last one) is always mapped to $A000-$BFFF. Three lowest bits of
a byte written to $D500-$D5FF select the bank mapped to $8000-$9FFF,
bit 7 disables the cartridge.
The initially selected bank is currently not known, although it's probable
that it's the same as in standard XEGS cartridges, ie. random. Atari800
always selects bank 0 initially.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 35: Switchable XEGS 128 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
An extension to the standard XEGS cartridge, apparently sold by Nir Dary
in the 1990s/2000s.
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 16 KB of address space between $8000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 16 banks, 8 KB each.
Bank 15 (the last one) is always mapped to $A000-$BFFF. Four lowest bits of
a byte written to $D500-$D5FF select the bank mapped to $8000-$9FFF,
bit 7 disables the cartridge.
The initially selected bank is currently not known, although it's probable
that it's the same as in standard XEGS cartridges, ie. random. Atari800
always selects bank 0 initially.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 36: Switchable XEGS 256 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
An extension to the standard XEGS cartridge, apparently sold by Nir Dary
in the 1990s/2000s.
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 16 KB of address space between $8000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 32 banks, 8 KB each.
The last bank is always mapped to $A000-$BFFF. Five lowest bits of
a byte written to $D500-$D5FF select the bank mapped to $8000-$9FFF,
bit 7 disables the cartridge.
The initially selected bank is currently not known, although it's probable
that it's the same as in standard XEGS cartridges, ie. random. Atari800
always selects bank 0 initially.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 37: Switchable XEGS 512 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
An extension to the standard XEGS cartridge, apparently sold by Nir Dary
in the 1990s/2000s.
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 16 KB of address space between $8000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 64 banks, 8 KB each.
The last bank is always mapped to $A000-$BFFF. Six lowest bits of
a byte written to $D500-$D5FF select the bank mapped to $8000-$9FFF,
bit 7 disables the cartridge.
The initially selected bank is currently not known, although it's probable
that it's the same as in standard XEGS cartridges, ie. random. Atari800
always selects bank 0 initially.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 38: Switchable XEGS 1 MB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
An extension to the standard XEGS cartridge, apparently sold by Nir Dary
in the 1990s/2000s.
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 16 KB of address space between $8000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 128 banks, 8 KB each.
The last bank is always mapped to $A000-$BFFF. Seven lowest bits of
a byte written to $D500-$D5FF select the bank mapped to $8000-$9FFF,
bit 7 disables the cartridge.
The initially selected bank is currently not known, although it's probable
that it's the same as in standard XEGS cartridges, ie. random. Atari800
always selects bank 0 initially.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 39: Phoenix 8 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A 8 KB cartridge, that occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000
and $BFFF. It starts in enabled state and can be disabled by an access to
$D500-$D5FF. Re-enabling is possible only by turning the computer off and on.
Some units contain a RESET button that allows to enable the cartridge without
touching the power button.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 40: Blizzard 16 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A 16 KB cartridge, that occupies 16 KB of address space between $8000
and $BFFF. It starts in enabled state and can be disabled by an access to
$D500-$D5FF. Re-enabling is possible only by turning the computer off and on.
Some units contain a RESET button that allows to enable the cartridge without
touching the power button.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 41: Atarimax 128 KB Flash cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 16 banks, 8 KB each.
The 4 lowest bits of the address written to $D500-$D50F select the bank
mapped to $A000-$BFFF. Writing to $D510-$D51F disables the cartridge
and any write to $D520-$D5FF is ignored.
The cartridge also supports programming of the Flash ROM - this feature is
currently not emulated.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 42: Atarimax 1 MB Flash cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 128 banks, 8 KB each.
The seven lowest bits of the address written to $D500-$D57F select the bank
mapped to $A000-$BFFF, bit 7 disables the cartridge.
The cartridge also supports programming of the Flash ROM - this feature is
currently not emulated.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 43: SpartaDOS X 128 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The cartridge has 16 banks mapped to $A000-$BFFF. It also contains an
additional cartridge slot which allows to plug a second cartridge in. First
8 banks are selected by an access to $D5F7-$D5F0, the other 8 banks by an
access to $D5E7-$D5E0. An access to $D5E8-$D5EB or $D5F8-$D5FB disables the
SDX cartridge and enables the second cartridge. An access to $D5EC-$D5EF or
$D5FC-$D5FF disables both cartriges.
Accesses to all addresses on page D5 always reaches the second cartridge,
even if it is disabled by SpartaDOS or if the SpartaDOS cartridge itself is
enabled.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 44: OSS 8 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Used in The Writer's Tool cartridge, it is actually an OSS one chip cartridge
board (see Type 15) with an 8 KB ROM chip instead of a normal 16 KB one.
The cartridge occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000 and $BFFF. Its
memory is divided into 2 banks, 4 KB each. Bank number 0 (the first one) is
always mapped to $B000-$BFFF. Bank in $A000-$AFFF is selected by an access to
$D500-$D5FF. Only bits 0 and 3 of address are significant:
- A3=0, A0=0 or 1 - selects bank 1
- A3=1, A0=0 - disables cartridge (enables computer's memory in address space
between $A000 and $BFFF)
- A3=1, A0=1 - selects bank 0
Reference: http://www.retrobits.net/atari/osshack.shtml
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 45: OSS two chip 16 KB cartridge (043M) |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
There are two types of OSS 16KB cartridges; this is the earlier, more
complicated one. Used by BASIC XL 1.02 and earlier, Action! 3.5 and earlier,
and MAC/65 1.0. It consists of two 8 KB ROM chips.
The cartridge occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000 and $BFFF. Its
memory is divided into 4 banks, 4 KB each. Bank number 3 (the last one) is
always mapped to $B000-$BFFF. Bank in $A000-$AFFF is selected by an access to
$D500-$D5FF. Only 4 lowest bits of address are significant:
- $D5x0 selects bank 0.
- $D5x1 is not useful - it selects banks 0 and 2 (the bytes are binary AND of
the corresponding bytes from banks 0 and 2).
- $D5x3 or $D5x7 selects bank 2.
- $D5x4 selects bank 1.
- $D5x5 is not useful - it selects banks 1 and 2 (the bytes are binary AND of
the corresponding bytes from banks 1 and 2).
- $D5x2 or $D5x6 is not useful. It disables ROM (there are $FF bytes in
$A000-$AFFF).
- $D5x8-$D5xF disables whole cartridge (enables computer's memory in address
space between $A000 and $BFFF).
Reference: http://www.retrobits.net/atari/osscarts.shtml
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 46: Blizzard 4 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A 4 KB cartridge, that occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000
and $BFFF. Line A12 is unconnected, so the cartridge's memory is duplicated
in $A000-$AFFF and $B000-$BFFF. The cartridge starts in enabled state and can
be disabled by an access to $D500-$D5FF. Re-enabling is possible only by
turning the computer off and on. Some units contain a RESET button that
allows to enable the cartridge without touching the power button.
Reference: http://www.serious-dial.atari.pl/Serious/S13/A18.html
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 47: AST 32 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
This cartridge occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000 and $BFFF. The
cartridge memory is divided into 128 banks, 256 B each. On power on, bank 0
is visible in $A000-$BFFF (repeated 32 times) and also in $D500-$D5FF. A
write operation to $D500-$D5FF disables the cartridge (freeing the
$A000-$BFFF area) and selects the next 256-byte bank visible at $D500-$D5FF.
After bank 31 the write operation selects bank 0 again.
Reference: http://www.atari.org.pl/forum/viewtopic.php?pid=134014#p134014
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 48: Atrax SDX 64 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A variant of Type 11: SpartaDOS X 64 KB cartridge. The banking scheme is
identical, but the address and data lines between the cartridge port and the
ROM chip are interleaved as follows:
(Left - cartridge port + bank select lines, right - EPROM pins)
A0 - A6
A1 - A7
A2 - A12
A3 - A15
A4 - A14
A5 - A13
A6 - A8
A7 - A5
A8 - A4
A9 - A3
A10 - A0
A11 - A1
A12 - A2
A13 - A9 \
A14 - A11 > bank select
A15 - A10 /
D0 - Q4
D1 - Q0
D2 - Q5
D3 - Q1
D4 - Q7
D5 - Q6
D6 - Q3
D7 - Q2
By deinterleaving a ROM image, one would get a normal image of type 11.
See Type 11 for details on the banking scheme.
Reference: http://www.dereatari.republika.pl/atarisch/sparta.zip
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 49: Atrax SDX 128 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A variant of Type 43: SpartaDOS X 128 KB cartridge. The banking scheme is
identical, but the address and data lines between the cartridge port and the
ROM chip are interleaved. The interleaving is similar to that of Type 48,
but with added A16 line, so it looks as follows:
(Left - cartridge port + bank select lines, right - EPROM pins)
A0 - A6
A1 - A7
A2 - A12
A3 - A15
A4 - A14
A5 - A13
A6 - A8
A7 - A5
A8 - A4
A9 - A3
A10 - A0
A11 - A1
A12 - A2
A13 - A9 \
A14 - A11 > bank select
A15 - A10 /
A16 - A16 /
D0 - Q4
D1 - Q0
D2 - Q5
D3 - Q1
D4 - Q7
D5 - Q6
D6 - Q3
D7 - Q2
By deinterleaving a ROM image, one would get a normal image of type 43.
See Type 43 for details on the banking scheme.
Reference: http://www.dereatari.republika.pl/atarisch/sparta.zip
http://trub.atari8.info/index.php?ref=atrax_128
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 50: Turbosoft 64 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 8 banks, 8 KB each. Banks
are selected by an access to an address at $D500-$D5FF. Bits 0-2 of the
address select the bank mapped to $A000-$BFFF. Bit 4 disables the cartridge
and enables RAM. Bits 3 and 5-7 are ignored. The cartridge starts with bank 0
enabled.
Reference: http://www.retrogames.cl/turbosoft.html
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 51: Turbosoft 128 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 16 banks, 8 KB each. Banks
are selected by an access to an address at $D500-D5FF. Bits 0-3 of the
address select the bank mapped to $A000-$BFFF. Bit 4 disables the cartridge
and enables RAM. Bits 5-7 are ignored. The cartridge starts with bank 0
enabled.
Reference: http://www.retrogames.cl/turbosoft.html
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 52: Ultracart 32 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 4 banks, 8 KB each. On power
on, bank 0 is visible. Each access to $D500-$D5FF switches another bank in
the sequence as follows: 0->1->2->3->cartridge disabled->0 etc.
Reference: Altirra source code, ver. 2.10-test20
http://www.atarimania.com/utility-atari-400-800-xl-xe-microcalc_28241.html
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 53: Low bank 8 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
This cartridge, destined for the left cartridge slot, occupies 8 KB of
address space between $8000 and $9FFF. It achieves that by asserting the RD4
line and not asserting the RD5 line.
Reference: http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/161828-hooked-on-8-bit-carts/page__view__findpost__p__2338297
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 54: SIC! 128 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Cartridge memory is divided into 8 banks, each 16KB long and consisting of
two 8KB subbanks. Each subbank can be mapped to Atari memory or switched
off. The lower subbank always maps to $8000-$9FFF, while the upper one always
maps to $A000-$BFFF.
Control register address is $D500-$D51F mirrored, read/write (written value
can be read at any time).
Bit 7 = 0 - flash write-protection is on
Bit 6 = 0 - odd 8k block (upper subbank) present in $A000-$BFFF
Bit 5 = 0 - even 8k block (lower subbank) not present in $8000-$9FFF
Bits 4..3 - unused
Bits 2..0 - 16KB bank number (0..7)
Default value = 0 which means 0 bank upper subbank in address $A000-$BFFF
To switch cart off - poke $40 info $D500-$D51F
The cartridge also supports programming of the Flash ROM - this feature is
currently not emulated.
Reference: http://sic.pigwa.net/files/specyfikacja_pl_eng.zip
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 55: SIC! 256 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Same as Type 54, but with cartridge memory being divided into 16 banks.
Bit 4 is unused
Bits 3..0 - 16KB bank number (0..15)
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 56: SIC! 512 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Same as Type 54, but with cartridge memory being divided into 32 banks.
Bits 4..0 - 16KB bank number (0..31)
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 57: Standard 2 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A 2 KB cartridge, that occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000 and
$BFFF. The ROM chip is active only when lines A11 and A12 are high. In
effect, the cartridge's memory appears at $B800-$BFFF while the $A000-B7FF
area is unavailable and returns $FF when read.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 58: Standard 4 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A 4 KB cartridge, that occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000 and
$BFFF. The ROM chip is active only when line A12 is high. In effect, the
cartridge's memory appears at $B000-$BFFF while the $A000-AFFF area is
unavailable and returns $FF when read.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 59: Right slot 4 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A 4 KB cartridge for Atari 800, mapped into $8000-$9FFF. The ROM chip is
active only when line A12 is high. In effect, the cartridge's memory appears
at $9000-$9FFF while the $8000-8FFF area is unavailable and returns $FF when
read.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 60: Blizzard 32 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 4 banks, 8 KB each. On power
on, bank 0 is visible. Each access to $D500-$D5FF switches another bank in
the sequence as follows: 0->1->2->3->cartridge disabled. Re-enabling is
possible only by turning the computer off and on. Some units contain a RESET
button that allows to enable the cartridge without touching the power button.
Reference:
http://www.atari.org.pl/forum/viewtopic.php?id=7292
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 61: MegaMax 2 MB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A variant of the MegaMax cartridge with 2MB ROM. The cartridge has a switch
to toggle between the 1 MB Atarimax-compatible mode and the 2MB mode;
this type describes the latter one.
A bank-switched cartridge that occupies 16 KB of address space between
$8000 and $BFFF. It is controlled by access to an address at $D500-$D5FF.
Bits 0-6 of the address select one of 128 available banks, bit 7 disables the
cartridge. The cartridge starts with bank 0 enabled.
Reference:
http://www.mega-hz.de/Angebote/MEGAMAX/en/MegaMAX%20Cart%20en%20V1.htm
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 62: The!Cart 128 MB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Only a small subset, as described below, of this cartridge's features is
currently emulated.
The cartridge occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000 and $BFFF, and
consists of 16384 banks. Byte written to $D5A2 turns the cartridge on/off:
bit 0 = 1 enables the cartridge, 0 disables it and enables RAM. The enabled
bank is controlled by bytes written to $D5A0 (LSB) and $D5A1 (MSB, only 6
lowest bytes matter). Any write do $D5A0-$D5A1 also automatically enables the
cartridge.
The cartridge starts with bank 0 enabled.
The $D5A0-$D5A2 registers are read/write; one can read the cartridge's current
state from them. Unused bits are always read as 0.
Reference:
http://www.mega-hz.de/Angebote/THE!CART/THE!CART_EN.htm
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 63: Flash MegaCart 4 MB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A bank-switched cartridge that occupies 16 KB of address space between
$8000 and $BFFF. It is controlled by a byte written to $D500-$D51F. Values
0-254 select one of the first 255 banks, and the value 255 disables the
cartridge. Bank 255 is not available. The cartridge starts with bank 254
enabled.
A read from $D500-$D51F returns the last value written (initially 254).
The cartridge also has ROM flashing functionality, which is currently not
emulated.
Reference:
http://herale.org/4MB_FLASH_MEGACART
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 64: MegaCart 2 MB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A bank-switched cartridge that occupies 16 KB of address space between
$8000 and $BFFF. It is controlled by a byte written to $D500-$D5FF. Bits 0-6
select one of 128 available banks, bit 7 disables the cartridge.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 65: The!Cart 32 MB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Only a small subset, as described below, of this cartridge's features is
currently emulated.
The cartridge occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000 and $BFFF, and
consists of 4096 banks. Byte written to $D5A2 turns the cartridge on/off:
bit 0 = 1 enables the cartridge, 0 disables it and enables RAM. The enabled
bank is controlled by bytes written to $D5A0 (LSB) and $D5A1 (MSB, only 6
lowest bytes are stored in the internal register, and only 4 lowest bytes
matter in choosing the enabled bank). Any write do $D5A0-$D5A1 also
automatically enables the cartridge.
The cartridge starts with bank 0 enabled.
The $D5A0-$D5A2 registers are read/write; one can read the cartridge's current
state from them. Unused bits are always read as 0.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 66: The!Cart 64 MB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Only a small subset, as described below, of this cartridge's features is
currently emulated.
The cartridge occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000 and $BFFF, and
consists of 8192 banks. Byte written to $D5A2 turns the cartridge on/off:
bit 0 = 1 enables the cartridge, 0 disables it and enables RAM. The enabled
bank is controlled by bytes written to $D5A0 (LSB) and $D5A1 (MSB, only 6
lowest bytes are stored in the internal register, and only 5 lowest bytes
matter in choosing the enabled bank). Any write do $D5A0-$D5A1 also
automatically enables the cartridge.
The cartridge starts with bank 0 enabled.
The $D5A0-$D5A2 registers are read/write; one can read the cartridge's current
state from them. Unused bits are always read as 0.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 67: XEGS 64 KB cartridge (banks 8-15) |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
One of the two variants of the 64 KB XEGS cartridge, built on a C026449 board
with all pins of the 74LS374 chip connected. All software designed for this
cartridge type also works with the other variant; see Type 13.
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 16 KB of address space between $8000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 8 banks, 8 KB each.
Bank 7 (the last one) is always mapped to $A000-$BFFF. Four lowest bits of
a byte written to $D500-$D5FF select the bank mapped to $8000-$9FFF.
Unsetting bit 3 unmaps the $8000-$9FFFF area and leaves it unconnected
(floating or all $FFs); otherwise a bank selected by the three lowest bits is
mapped.
The initially selected bank is random, although it seems that the value of 0
(ie. no bank mapped) gets chosen the most often. Atari800 always selects 0
initially.
Reference:
http://www.atarimax.com/jindroush.atari.org/acarts.html#xegs
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 68: Atrax 128 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
The Atrax cartridge has its address and data lines intermixed as a kind of
copy protection, as below:
(Left - cartridge port + bank select lines, right - EPROM pins)
A0 - A5
A1 - A6
A2 - A7
A3 - A12
A4 - A0
A5 - A1
A6 - A2
A7 - A3
A8 - A4
A9 - A8
A10 - A10
A11 - A11
A12 - A9
A13 - A13 \
A14 - A14 > bank select
A15 - A15 /
A16 - A16 /
D0 - Q5
D1 - Q6
D2 - Q2
D3 - Q4
D4 - Q0
D5 - Q1
D6 - Q7
D7 - Q3
This cartridge type represents an original, non-decoded ROM dump, as read
directly from the ROM chip. A decoded ROM dump is represented by Type 17:
Decoded Atrax 128 KB cartridge.
This bank-switched cartridge occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000
and $BFFF. The cartridge memory is divided into 16 banks, 8 KB each.
If a byte written to $D500-$D5FF has highest bit set, the cartridge is
disabled. Otherwise four lowest bits select the bank mapped to $A000-$BFFF.
Reference:
http://atarionline.pl/forum/comments.php?DiscussionID=2861&page=11#CommentBody_91383
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 69: aDawliah 32 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A bank-switched cartridge built on a board marked "A-NA0002". Two variants of
this board are known: one that connects the EPROM's pin 1 to +5V, and another
that connects it to an 74169 counter. The cartridge houses a 256 kbit EPROM.
(The former board variant can also contain a 512 kbit EPROM, but the board is
hardwired to access only the upper half of the ROM.)
The cartridge occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000 and $BFFF. Its
memory is divided into 4 banks, 8 KB each. On power on, bank 0 is visible. Each
access to $D500-$D5FF increases the visible bank number, looping to 0 after the
last bank.
Reference:
http://atarionline.pl/forum/comments.php?DiscussionID=4260&page=1#Item_13
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Type 70: aDawliah 64 KB cartridge |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
A bank-switched cartridge built on a board marked "A-NA0002", specifically the
variant that connects the EPROM's pin 1 to an 74169 counter. The cartridge
houses a 512 kbit EPROM. (Note: no such cartridge has been identified as of
yet, all known specimens house a 256 kbit EPROM.)
The cartridge occupies 8 KB of address space between $A000 and $BFFF. Its
memory is divided into 8 banks, 8 KB each. On power on, bank 0 is visible. Each
access to $D500-$D5FF increases the visible bank number, looping to 0 after the
last bank.
Reference:
http://atarionline.pl/forum/comments.php?DiscussionID=4260&page=1#Item_13
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