Skynet 1M threads microbenchmark
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Latest commit b7d9a64 Aug 1, 2016

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Skynet 1M concurrency microbenchmark

Creates an actor (goroutine, whatever), which spawns 10 new actors, each of them spawns 10 more actors, etc. until one million actors are created on the final level. Then, each of them returns back its ordinal number (from 0 to 999999), which are summed on the previous level and sent back upstream, until reaching the root actor. (The answer should be 499999500000).

Results (on my shitty Macbook 12" '2015, Core M, OS X):


  • Scala/Akka: 6379 ms.
  • Erlang (non-HIPE): 4414 ms.
  • Erlang (HIPE): 3999 ms.

Coroutines / fibers / channels

  • Haskell (GHC 7.10.3): 6181 ms.
  • Go: 979 ms.
  • Quasar fibers and channels (Java 8): TODO

Futures / promises

  • .NET Core: 650 ms.
  • RxJava: 219 ms.

Results (i7-4770, Win8.1):


  • Scala/Akka: 4419 ms
  • Erlang (non-HIPE): 1700 ms.

Coroutines / fibers / channels

  • Haskell (GHC 7.10.3): 2820 ms.
  • Go: 629 ms.
  • F# MailboxProcessor: 756ms. (should be faster?..)
  • Quasar fibers and channels (Java 8): TODO

Futures / promises

  • .NET Core: Async (8 threads) 290 ms
  • Node-bluebird (Promise) 285ms / 195ms (after warmup)
  • .NET Full (TPL): 118 ms.

Results (i7-4771, Ubuntu 15.10):

  • Scala/Akka: 1700-2700 ms
  • Haskell (GHC 7.10.3): 41-44 ms
  • Erlang (non-HIPE): 700-1100 ms
  • Erlang (HIPE): 2100-3500 ms
  • Go: 200-224 ms
  • LuaJit: 297 ms

How to run


Install latest Scala and SBT.

Go to scala/, then run sbt compile run.


Install the Java 8 SDK.

Go to java-quasar/ ./gradlew


Install latest Go compiler/runtime.

In go/, run go run skynet.go.


Install latest Erlang runtime.

In erlang, run erl +P 2000000 (to raise process limit), then compile:

  • For non-HIPE: c(skynet).
  • For HIPE (if supported on your system): hipe:c(skynet).

Then, run:


.NET Core:

Install latest version of .NET Core

Go to dnx/
dotnet restore (first time)
dotnet run --configuration Release


Install Stack

In haskell/, run stack build && stack exec skynet +RTS -N

Node (bluebird)

Install node.js

in node-bluebird/ run npm install then node skynet


Install FSharp Interactive

Run fsi skynet.fsx, or run fsi and paste the code in (runs faster this way)


Install latest version of Crystal.

Go to crystal/ crystal build --release ./skynet


Build the solution with VS2015. Windows only :(



Install the Java 8 SDK.

Go to java/ ./gradlew :run

Rust (with coroutine-rs)

cd ./rust-coroutine
cargo build --release
cargo run --release


Install luajit

Run luajit luajit/skynet.lua