Multi-site Coordination Platform for Replicated Services
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README.md

Multi-site Coordination for Replicated Services

The complexity of replicated, multi-site distributed applications brings forth the need for rich distribution coordination patterns to manage these applications. We contend that, to build such patterns, it is necessary to tightly integrate coordination primitives such as mutual exclusion and barriers with state-management in these replicated systems. This is easier said than done, since coordination primitives typically need strong consistency that may render them unavailable during partitions. On the other hand, the relative ubiquity of network partitions and large WAN latencies in a multi-site setting dictate that replicated state is usually maintained in an eventually consistent store. We address this conflict by presenting a MUlti-SIte Coordination service (MUSIC), that combines a strongly consistent locking service with an eventually consistent state store to provide abstractions that enable rich distributed coordination on shared state, as and when required.

Local Installation

Multi-site Installation

Logging

Local Installation

Prerequisites

If you are using a VM make sure it has at least 8 GB of RAM (It may work with 4 GB, but with 2 GB it does give issues).

Instructions

  • Open /etc/hosts as sudo and enter the name of the vm alongside localhost in the line for 127.0.0.1. E.g. 127.0.0.1 localhost music-1. Some of the apt-get installation seem to require this.
  • Ensure you have java jdk 8 or above working on your machine.
  • Download apache Apache Cassandra 3.2 and follow these instructions http://cassandra.apache.org/doc/latest/getting_started/installing.html till and including Step
  1. By the end of this you should have Cassandra working.
  • Download Apache Zookeeper 3.4.6 from and follow these instructions https://zookeeper.apache.org/doc/trunk/zookeeperStarted.html pertaining to the standalone operation. By the end of this you should have Zookeeper working.

  • Create a music.properties file and place it in /etc/music/. Here is a sample of the file:

      	my.id=0
      	all.ids=0
      	my.public.ip=localhost
      	all.public.ips=localhost
    
  • Create a log4j.properties file and place it in /etc/music/. Here is a sample of the file:

         # Root logger option
         log4j.rootLogger=INFO, file
      
         # Direct log messages to a log file
         log4j.appender.file=org.apache.log4j.RollingFileAppender
         log4j.appender.file.File=/var/log/music/music.log
         log4j.appender.file.MaxFileSize=10MB
         log4j.appender.file.MaxBackupIndex=10
         log4j.appender.file.layout=org.apache.log4j.PatternLayout
         log4j.appender.file.layout.ConversionPattern=%d{yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss} %-5p %c{1}:%L - %m%n
      
         # Direct log messages to stdout to use this option, add stdout to rootLogger options
         log4j.appender.stdout=org.apache.log4j.ConsoleAppender
         log4j.appender.stdout.Target=System.out
         log4j.appender.stdout.layout=org.apache.log4j.PatternLayout
         log4j.appender.stdout.layout.ConversionPattern=%d{yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss} %-5p %c{1}:%L - %m%n
    
  • As shown above, the music messages are logged into a file music.log. Create an empty music.log file and place it in /var/log/music/. Tomcat does not seem to create this automatically.

  • Download the latest Apache Tomcat and install it using these instructions http://tecadmin.net/install-tomcat-9-on-ubuntu/ (this is for version 9).

  • Build the MUSIC.war (or download it from https://github.com/att/music/blob/master/MUSIC.war) and place it within the webapps folder of the tomcat installation.

  • Start tomcat and you should now have MUSIC running.

Multi-site Installation

  • Follow the instructions for local MUSIC installation on all the machines/VMs/hosts (referred to as a node) on which you want MUSIC installed. However, Cassandra and Zookeeper needs to be configured to run as multi-node installations (instructions below) before running them.

  • Cassandra:

    • In the cassandra.yaml file which is present in the cassa_install/conf directory in each node, set the following parameters:

        cluster_name: ‘name of cluster’
        num_tokens: 256
        seed_provider:
        class_name: org.apache.cassandra.locator.SimpleSeedProvider
        parameters:
        seeds:  "<public ip of first seed>, <public ip of second seed>, etc"
        listen_address: private ip of VM 
        broadcast_address: public ip of VM
        endpoint_snitch: GossipingPropertyFileSnitch
        rpc_address: <private ip> 
        phi_convict_threshold: 12
      

      The last one was because of an error I was facing and its corresponding resolution as described here. Not very common.

    • In the cassandra-rackdc.properties file, assign data center and rack names as if required.

    • Once this is done on all three nodes, you can run cassandra on each of the nodes through the cassandra bin folder with this command:

        ./cassandra
      
    • In the cassandra bin folder, if you run

        ./nodetool status
      

    it will tell you the state of the cluster.

    • To access cassandra, one any of the nodes you can run

        ./cqlsh <private ip>
      

      and then perform CQL queries.

  • Zookeeper:

    • Once zookeeper has been installed on all the nodes, modify the zk_install_location/conf/zoo.cfg on all the nodes with the following lines:

        tickTime=2000
        dataDir=/var/zookeeper
        clientPort=2181
        initLimit=5
        syncLimit=2
        quorumListenOnAllIPs=true 
        server.1=public IP of node 1:2888:3888
        server.2=public IP of node 2:2888:3888
        server.3=public IP of node 3:2888:3888
      
    • Create the directory /var/zookeeper in all the machines and within that create a file called myid that contains the id of the machine. The machine running node.i will contain just the number i in the file myid.

    • Start each of the nodes one by one from the zk_install_location/bin folder using the command:

        sudo ./zkServer.sh start
      
    • On each node check the file zookeeper.out in the zk_install_location/ bin to make sure all the machines are talking to each other and there are no errors. Note that while the machines are yet to come up there maybe error messages saying that connection has not yet been established. Clearly, this is ok.

    • If there are no errors, then from zk_install_location/bin simply run

        	./zkCli.sh 
      

      to get command line access to zookeeper.

    • Run these commands on different machines to make sure the zk nodes are syncing.

        [zkshell] ls /
        [zookeeper]
      

      Next, create a new znode by running

        create /zk_test my_data. 
      

      This creates a new znode and associates the string "my_data" with the node. You should see:

        [zkshell] create /zk_test my_data
        Created /zk_test
      

      Issue another ls / command to see what the directory looks like:

        [zkshell] ls /
        [zookeeper, zk_test]
      
  • MUSIC

    • Create a music.properties file and place it in /etc/music/ at each node. Here is a sample of the file:

        my.id=0
        all.ids=0:1:2
        my.public.ip=public IP of node 0
        all.public.ips=public IP of node 0:public IP of node 1:public IP of node 2
      

      For each node, a separate file needs to be created with its own id (between 0 and the number of nodes) and with information about its own public ip.

    • Create a log4j.properties file and place it in /etc/music/ at each node. Here is a sample of the file:

           # Root logger option
           log4j.rootLogger=INFO, file
        
           # Direct log messages to a log file
           log4j.appender.file=org.apache.log4j.RollingFileAppender
           log4j.appender.file.File=/var/log/music/music.log
           log4j.appender.file.MaxFileSize=10MB
           log4j.appender.file.MaxBackupIndex=10
           log4j.appender.file.layout=org.apache.log4j.PatternLayout
           log4j.appender.file.layout.ConversionPattern=%d{yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss} %-5p %c{1}:%L - %m%n
        
           # Direct log messages to stdout to use this option, add stdout to rootLogger options
           log4j.appender.stdout=org.apache.log4j.ConsoleAppender
           log4j.appender.stdout.Target=System.out
           log4j.appender.stdout.layout=org.apache.log4j.PatternLayout
           log4j.appender.stdout.layout.ConversionPattern=%d{yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss} %-5p %c{1}:%L - %m%n
      
    • As shown above, the music messages are logged into a file music.log. Create an empty music.log file and place it in /var/log/music/. Tomcat does not seem to create this automatically.

    • Download the latest Apache Tomcat and install it using these instructions http://tecadmin.net/install-tomcat-9-on-ubuntu/ (this is for version 9).

    • Build the MUSIC.war (or download it from https://github.com/att/music/blob/master/MUSIC.war) and place it within the webapps folder of the tomcat installation.

    • Start tomcat and you should now have MUSIC running.

## More on info on log4j Logging

This section explains how MUSIC log4j properties can be used and modified to control logging.

Once MUSIC.war is installed, tomcat7 will unpack it into /var/lib/tomcat7/webapps/MUSIC (this is the standard Ubuntu installation, the location may differ for self installs).

Look at /var/lib/tomcat7/webapps/MUSIC/WEB-INF/log4j.properties.sample that should be modified and placed in /etc/music/:

   # Root logger option
   log4j.rootLogger=INFO, file

   # Direct log messages to a log file
   log4j.appender.file=org.apache.log4j.RollingFileAppender
   log4j.appender.file.File=/var/log/music/music.log
   log4j.appender.file.MaxFileSize=10MB
   log4j.appender.file.MaxBackupIndex=10
   log4j.appender.file.layout=org.apache.log4j.PatternLayout
   log4j.appender.file.layout.ConversionPattern=%d{yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss} %-5p %c{1}:%L - %m%n

   # Direct log messages to stdout to use this option, add stdout to rootLogger options
   log4j.appender.stdout=org.apache.log4j.ConsoleAppender
   log4j.appender.stdout.Target=System.out
   log4j.appender.stdout.layout=org.apache.log4j.PatternLayout
   log4j.appender.stdout.layout.ConversionPattern=%d{yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss} %-5p %c{1}:%L - %m%n

Notice there are two log4j.appender sections. The first one directs log lines to a file. The second one directs log lines to stdout (which winds up in catalina.out).

The music.log is placed /var/log/music/music.log. To change this location modify this line in the web.xml of MUSIC within the WEB-INF folder:

	<init-param>
		<param-name>log4j-properties-location</param-name>
		<param-value>/etc/music/log4j.properties</param-value>
	</init-param>

To redirect MUSIC's log info to a log file, with more control over rotation rules:

  1. Adjust "MaxFileSize" to the largest size desired for each log file prior to rotation.
  2. Adjust "MaxBackupIndex" to the max number of desired rotated logs.
  3. Remove any unwanted files from /var/log/tomcat7.
  4. Restart tomcat7 with "service tomcat7 restart".

Note that the logrotate.d settings for tomcat7 may stay in place (for catalina.out). In the case of MUSIC, logrotate.d may not run often enough for the file to be rotated before running out of disk space. It's expected that using log4j's rotation in conjunction with a separate log file will help alleviate filesystem pressure.

More info about log4j.properties:

https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E29578_01/webhelp/cas_webcrawler/src/cwcg_config_log4j_file.html

MUSIC uses log4j 1.2.17 which is EOL. MUSIC will be changing to 2.x, at which point this file's syntax will change significantly (new info will be sent at that time).

Muting MUSIC jersey output

The jersey package that MUSIC uses to parse REST calls prints out the entire header and json body by default. To mute it (if it exists), remove the following lines from the web.xml in the WEB_INF foler:

<init-param>
  <param-name>com.sun.jersey.spi.container.ContainerResponseFilters</param-name>
  <param-value>com.sun.jersey.api.container.filter.LoggingFilter</param-value>
</init-param>