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Aura SQL

Build Status

The Aura SQL package provides connections to connect to and query against SQL data sources such as MySQL, PostgreSQL, and Sqlite. The connections are mostly wrappers around PDO connections.

This package is compliant with PSR-0, PSR-1, and PSR-2. If you notice compliance oversights, please send a patch via pull request.

Getting Started

Instantiation

The easiest way to get started is to use the scripts/instance.php script to get a ConnectionFactory and create your connection through it:

<?php
$connection_factory = include '/path/to/Aura.Sql/scripts/instance.php';
$connection = $connection_factory->newInstance(

    // adapter name
    'mysql',

    // DSN elements for PDO; this can also be
    // an array of key-value pairs
    'host=localhost;dbname=database_name',

    // username for the connection
    'username',

    // password for the connection
    'password'
);

Alternatively, you can add '/path/to/Aura.Sql/src' to your autoloader and build an connection factory manually:

<?php
use Aura\Sql\ConnectionFactory;
$connection_factory = new ConnectionFactory;
$connection = $connection_factory->newInstance(...);

Aura SQL comes with four connection adapters: 'mysql' for MySQL, 'pgsql' for PostgreSQL, 'sqlite' for SQLite3, and 'sqlsrv' for Microsoft SQL Server.

Connecting

The connection will lazy-connect to the database the first time you issue a query of any sort. This means you can create the connection object, and if you never issue a query, it will never connect to the database.

You can connect manually by issuing connect():

<?php
$connection->connect();

Fetching Results

Once you have a connection, you can begin to fetch results from the database.

<?php
// returns all rows
$result = $connection->fetchAll('SELECT * FROM foo');

You can fetch results using these methods:

  • fetchAll() returns a sequential array of all rows. The rows themselves are associative arrays where the keys are the column names.

  • fetchAssoc() returns an associative array of all rows where the key is the first column.

  • fetchCol() returns a sequential array of all values in the first column.

  • fetchOne() returns the first row as an associative array where the keys are the column names.

  • fetchPairs() returns an associative array where each key is the first column and each value is the second column.

  • fetchValue() returns the value of the first row in the first column.

Preventing SQL Injection

Usually you will need to incorporate user-provided data into the query. This means you should quote all values interpolated into the query text as a security measure to prevent SQL injection.

Although Aura SQL provides quoting methods, you should instead use value binding into prepared statements. To do so, put named placeholders in the query text, then pass an array of values to bind to the placeholders:

<?php
// the text of the query
$text = 'SELECT * FROM foo WHERE id = :id';

// values to bind to query placeholders
$bind = [
    'id' => 1,
];

// returns one row; the data has been parameterized
// into a prepared statement for you
$result = $connection->fetchOne($text, $bind);

Aura SQL recognizes array values and quotes them as comma-separated lists:

<?php
// the text of the query
$text = 'SELECT * FROM foo WHERE id = :id AND bar IN(:bar_list)';

// values to bind to query placeholders
$bind = [
    'id' => 1,
    'bar_list' => ['a', 'b', 'c'],
];

// returns all rows; the query ends up being
// "SELECT * FROM foo WHERE id = 1 AND bar IN('a', 'b', 'c')"
$result = $connection->fetchOne($text, $bind);

Modifying Rows

Aura SQL comes with three convenience methods for modifying data: insert(), update(), and delete(). You can also retrieve the last inserted ID using lastInsertId().

First, to insert a row:

<?php
// the table to insert into
$table = 'foo';

// the columns and values to insert
$cols = [
    'bar' => 'value for column bar',
];

// perform the insert; result is number of rows affected
$result = $connection->insert($table, $cols);

// now get the last inserted ID
$id = $connection->lastInsertId();

(N.b.: Because of the way PostgreSQL creates auto-incremented columns, the pgsql adapter needs to know the table and column name to get the last inserted ID; for example, $id = $connection->lastInsertId($table, 'id');.)

Next, to update rows:

<?php
// the table to update
$table = 'foo';

// the new column values to set
$cols = [
    'bar' => 'a new value for column bar',
];

// a where condition to specify which rows to update
$cond = 'id = :id';

// additional data to bind to the query
$bind = ['id' => 1];

// perform the update; result is number of rows affected
$result = $connection->update($table, $cols, $cond, $bind);

(N.b.: Both $cols and $bind are bound into the update query, but $cols takes precedence. Be sure that the keys in $cols and $bind do not conflict.)

Finally, to delete rows:

<?php
// the table to delete from
$table = 'foo';

// a where condition to specify which rows to delete
$cond = 'id = :id';

// data to bind to the query
$bind = ['id' => 1];

// perform the deletion; result is number of rows affected
$result = $connection->delete($table, $cond, $bind);

Retrieving Table Information

To get a list of tables in the database, issue fetchTableList():

<?php
// get the list of tables
$list = $connection->fetchTableList();

// show them
foreach ($list as $table) {
    echo $table . PHP_EOL;
}

To get information about the columns in a table, issue fetchTableCols():

<?php
// the table to get cols for
$table = 'foo';

// get the cols
$cols = $connection->fetchTableCols($table);

// show them
foreach ($cols as $name => $col) {
    echo "Column $name is of type "
       . $col->type
       . " with a size of "
       . $col->size
       . PHP_EOL;
}

Each column description is a Column object with the following properties:

  • name: (string) The column name

  • type: (string) The column data type. Data types are as reported by the database.

  • size: (int) The column size.

  • scale: (int) The number of decimal places for the column, if any.

  • notnull: (bool) Is the column marked as NOT NULL?

  • default: (mixed) The default value for the column. Note that sometimes this will be null if the underlying database is going to set a timestamp automatically.

  • autoinc: (bool) Is the column auto-incremented?

  • primary: (bool) Is the column part of the primary key?

Transactions

Aura SQL connections always start in autocommit mode (the same as PDO). However, you can turn off autocommit mode and start a transaction with beginTransaction(), then either commit() or rollBack() the transaction. Commits and rollbacks cause the connection to go back into autocommit mode.

<?php
// turn off autocommit and start a transaction
$connection->beginTransaction();

try {
    // ... perform some queries ...
    // now commit to the database:
    $connection->commit();
} catch (Exception $e) {
    // there was an error, roll back the queries
    $connection->rollBack();
}

// at this point we are back in autocommit mode

Manual Queries

You can, of course, build and issue your own queries by hand. Use the query() method to do so:

<?php
$text = "SELECT * FROM foo WHERE id = :id";
$bind = ['id' => 1];
$stmt = $connection->query($text, $bind)

The returned $stmt is a PDOStatement that you may manipulate as you wish.

Profiling

You can use profiling to see how well your queries are performing.

<?php
// turn on the profiler
$connection->getProfiler()->setActive(true);

// issue a query
$result = $connection->fetchAll('SELECT * FROM foo');

// now get the profiler information
foreach ($connection->getProfiler()->getProfiles() as $i => $profile) {
    echo 'Query #' . ($i + 1)
       . ' took ' . $profile->time . ' seconds.'
       . PHP_EOL;
}

Each profile object has these properties:

  • text: (string) The text of the query.

  • time: (float) The time, in seconds, for the query to finish.

  • data: (array) Any data bound to the query.

  • trace: (array) A debug_backtrace so you can tell where the query came from.

Query Objects

Aura SQL provides four types of query objects so you can write your SQL queries in an object-oriented way.

Select

To get a new Select object, invoke the newSelect() method on an connection. You can then modify the Select object and pass it to the query() or fetch*() method.

<?php
// create a new Select object
$select = $connection->newSelect();

// SELECT * FROM foo WHERE bar > :bar AND zim = 'gir' ORDER BY baz
$select->cols(['*'])
       ->from('foo')
       ->where('bar > :bar')
       ->where('zim = ?', 'gir')
       ->orderBy(['baz']);

$bind = ['bar' => '88'];

$list = $connection->fetchAll($select, $bind);

// SELECT bar, COUNT(*) as cnt FROM foo GROUP BY bar HAVING bar > 5
$select->cols(['bar', 'COUNT(*) as cnt'])
       ->from('foo')
       ->groupBy(['bar'])
       ->having('bar > ?', 5);

$list = $connection->fetchAll($select);

The Select object has these methods and more; please read the source code for more information.

  • distinct(): Set to true for a SELECT DISTINCT.

  • cols(): Select these columns.

  • from(): Select from these tables.

  • join(): Join these tables on specified conditions.

  • where(): WHERE these conditions are met (using AND).

  • orWhere(): WHERE these conditions are met (using OR).

  • groupBy(): GROUP BY these columns.

  • having(): HAVING these conditions met (using AND).

  • orHaving(): HAVING these conditions met (using OR).

  • orderBy(): ORDER BY these columns.

  • limit(): LIMIT to this many rows.

  • offset(): OFFSET by this many rows.

  • union(): UNION with a followup SELECT.

  • unionAll(): UNION ALL with a followup SELECT.

Insert

To get a new Insert object, invoke the newInsert() method on an connection. You can then modify the Insert object and pass it to the query() method.

<?php
// create a new Insert object
$insert = $connection->newInsert();

// INSERT INTO foo (bar, baz, date) VALUES (:bar, :baz, NOW());
$insert->into('foo')
       ->cols(['bar', 'baz'])
       ->set('date', 'NOW()');

$bind = [
    'bar' => null,
    'baz' => 'zim',
];

$stmt = $connection->query($insert, $bind);

Update

To get a new Update object, invoke the newUpdate() method on an connection. You can then modify the Update object and pass it to the query() method.

<?php
// create a new Update object
$update = $connection->newUpdate();

// UPDATE foo SET bar = :bar, baz = :baz, date = NOW() WHERE zim = :zim OR gir = :gir
$update->table('foo')
       ->cols(['bar', 'baz'])
       ->set('date', 'NOW()')
       ->where('zim = :zim')
       ->orWhere('gir = :gir');

$bind = [
    'bar' => 'barbar',
    'baz' => 99,
    'zim' => 'dib',
    'gir' => 'doom',
];

$stmt = $connection->query($update, $bind);

Delete

To get a new Delete object, invoke the newDelete() method on an connection. You can then modify the Delete object and pass it to the query() method.

<?php
// create a new Delete object
$delete = $connection->newDelete();

// DELETE FROM WHERE zim = :zim OR gir = :gir
$delete->from('foo')
       ->where('zim = :zim')
       ->orWhere('gir = :gir');

$bind = [
    'zim' => 'dib',
    'gir' => 'doom',
];

$stmt = $connection->query($delete, $bind);
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