Skip to content

HTTPS clone URL

Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with
or
.
Download ZIP
Independent query builders for MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite, and Microsoft SQL Server.
PHP
Branch: 2.x

Merge pull request #75 from mbrevda/removeCol

Add methods to list/remove columns
latest commit b7040ec03b
@pmjones pmjones authored

README.md

Aura.SqlQuery

Provides query builders for MySQL, Postgres, SQLite, and Microsoft SQL Server. These builders are independent of any particular database connection library, although PDO in general is recommended.

Foreword

Installation

This library requires PHP 5.3 or later; we recommend using the latest available version of PHP as a matter of principle. It has no userland dependencies.

It is installable and autoloadable via Composer as aura/sqlquery.

Alternatively, download a release or clone this repository, then require or include its autoload.php file.

Quality

Scrutinizer Code Quality Code Coverage Build Status

To run the unit tests at the command line, issue phpunit at the package root. (This requires PHPUnit to be available as phpunit.)

This library attempts to comply with PSR-1, PSR-2, and PSR-4. If you notice compliance oversights, please send a patch via pull request.

Community

To ask questions, provide feedback, or otherwise communicate with the Aura community, please join our Google Group, follow @auraphp on Twitter, or chat with us on #auraphp on Freenode.

Getting Started

First, instantiate a QueryFactory with a database type:

<?php
use Aura\SqlQuery\QueryFactory;

$query_factory = new QueryFactory('sqlite');
?>

You can then use the factory to create query objects:

<?php
$select = $query_factory->newSelect();
$insert = $query_factory->newInsert();
$update = $query_factory->newUpdate();
$delete = $query_factory->newDelete();
?>

The query objects do not execute queries against a database. When you are done building the query, you will need to pass it to a database connection of your choice. In the examples below, we will use PDO for the database connection, but any database library that uses named placeholders and bound values should work just as well (e.g. the Aura.Sql ExtendedPdo class).

Identifier Quoting

In most cases, the query objects will quote identifiers for you. For example, under the common Select object with double-quotes for identifiers:

<?php
$select->cols(array('foo', 'bar AS barbar'))
       ->from('table1')
       ->from('table2')
       ->where('table2.zim = 99');

echo $select->getStatement();
// SELECT
//     "foo",
//     "bar" AS "barbar"
// FROM
//     "table1",
//     "table2"
// WHERE
//     "table2"."zim" = 99

?>

If you discover that a partially-qualified identifier has not been auto-quoted for you, change it to a fully-qualified identifer (e.g., from col_name to table_name.col_name).

Common Query Objects

Although you must specify a database type when instantiating a QueryFactory, you can tell the factory to return "common" query objects instead of database- specific ones. This will make only the common query methods available, which helps with writing database-portable applications. To do so, pass the constant QueryFactory::COMMON as the second constructor parameter.

<?php
use Aura\SqlQuery\QueryFactory;

// return Common, not SQLite-specific, query objects
$query_factory = new QueryFactory('sqlite', QueryFactory::COMMON);
?>

N.b. You still need to pass a database type so that identifiers can be quoted appropriately.

All query objects implement the "Common" methods.

SELECT

Build a Select query using the following methods. They do not need to be called in any particular order, and may be called multiple times.

<?php
$select = $query_factory->newSelect();

$select
    ->distinct()                    // SELECT DISTINCT
    ->cols(array(                   // select these columns
        'id',                       // column name
        'name AS namecol',          // one way of aliasing
        'col_name' => 'col_alias',  // another way of aliasing
        'COUNT(foo) AS foo_count'   // embed calculations directly
    ))
    ->from('foo AS f')              // FROM these tables
    ->fromSubselect(                // FROM sub-select AS my_sub
        'SELECT ...',
        'my_sub'
    )
    ->join(                         // JOIN ...
        'LEFT',                     // left/inner/natural/etc
        'doom AS d'                 // this table name
        'foo.id = d.foo_id'         // ON these conditions
    )
    ->joinSubSelect(                // JOIN to a sub-select
        'INNER',                    // left/inner/natural/etc
        'SELECT ...',               // the subselect to join on
        'subjoin'                   // AS this name
        'sub.id = foo.id'           // ON these conditions
    )
    ->where('bar > :bar')           // AND WHERE these conditions
    ->where('zim = ?', 'zim_val')   // bind 'zim_val' to the ? placeholder
    ->orWhere('baz < :baz')         // OR WHERE these conditions
    ->groupBy(array('dib'))         // GROUP BY these columns
    ->having('foo = :foo')          // AND HAVING these conditions
    ->having('bar > ?', 'bar_val')  // bind 'bar_val' to the ? placeholder
    ->orHaving('baz < :baz')        // OR HAVING these conditions
    ->orderBy(array('baz'))         // ORDER BY these columns
    ->limit(10)                     // LIMIT 10
    ->offset(40)                    // OFFSET 40
    ->forUpdate()                   // FOR UPDATE
    ->union()                       // UNION with a followup SELECT
    ->unionAll()                    // UNION ALL with a followup SELECT
    ->bindValue('foo', 'foo_val')   // bind one value to a placeholder
    ->bindValues(array(             // bind these values to named placeholders
        'bar' => 'bar_val',
        'baz' => 'baz_val',
    ));
?>

N.b.: The *where() and *having() methods take an arbitrary number of trailing arguments, each of which is a value to bind to a sequential question- mark placeholder in the condition clause.

Similarly, the *join*() methods take an optional final argument, a sequential array of values to bind to sequential question-mark placeholders in the condition clause.

Once you have built the query, pass it to the database connection of your choice as a string, and send the bound values along with it.

<?php
// a PDO connection
$pdo = new PDO(...);

// prepare the statment
$sth = $pdo->prepare($select->getStatement());

// bind the values and execute
$sth->execute($select->getBindValues());

// get the results back as an associative array
$result = $sth->fetch(PDO::FETCH_ASSOC);
?>

INSERT

Single-Row Insert

Build an Insert query using the following methods. They do not need to be called in any particular order, and may be called multiple times.

<?php
$insert = $query_factory->newInsert();

$insert
    ->into('foo')                   // INTO this table
    ->cols(array                    // bind values as "(col) VALUES (:col)"
        'bar',
        'baz',
    ))
    ->set('ts', 'NOW()')            // raw value as "(ts) VALUES (NOW())"
    ->bindValue('foo', 'foo_val')   // bind one value to a placeholder
    ->bindValues(array(             // bind these values
        'bar' => 'foo',
        'baz' => 'zim',
    ));
?>

The cols() method allows you to pass an array of key-value pairs where the key is the column name and the value is a bind value (not a raw value):

<?php
$insert = $query_factory->newInsert();

$insert->into('foo')             // insert into this table
    ->cols(array(                // insert these columns and bind these values
        'foo' => 'foo_value',
        'bar' => 'bar_value',
        'baz' => 'baz_value',
    ));
?>

Once you have built the query, pass it to the database connection of your choice as a string, and send the bound values along with it.

<?php
// the PDO connection
$pdo = new PDO(...);

// prepare the statement
$sth = $pdo->prepare($insert->getStatement());

// execute with bound values
$sth->execute($insert->getBindValues());

// get the last insert ID
$name = $insert->getLastInsertIdName('id');
$id = $pdo->lastInsertId($name);
?>

Multiple-Row (Bulk) Insert

If you want to do a multiple-row or bulk insert, call the addRow() method after finishing the first row, then build the next row you want to insert. The columns in the rows after the first will be inserted in the same order as the first row.

<?php
$insert = $query_factory->newInsert();

// insert into this table
$insert->into('foo');

// set up the first row
$insert->cols(array(
    'bar' => 'bar-0',
    'baz' => 'baz-0'
));
$insert->set('ts', 'NOW()');

// set up the second row. the columns here are in a different order
// than in the first row, but it doesn't matter; the INSERT object
// keeps track and builds them the same order as the first row.
$insert->addRow();
$insert->set('ts', 'NOW()');
$insert->cols(array(
    'bar' => 'bar-1',
    'baz' => 'baz-1'
));

// set up further rows ...
$insert->addRow();
// ...

// execute a bulk insert of all rows
$pdo = new PDO(...);
$sth = $pdo->prepare($insert->getStatement());
$sth->execute($insert->getBindValues());
?>

N.b.: If you add a row and do not specify a value for a column that was present in the first row, the Insert will throw an exception.

If you pass an array of column key-value pairs to addRow(), they will be bound to the next row, thus allowing you to skip setting up the first row manually with col() and cols():

<?php
// set up the first row
$insert->addRow(array(
    'bar' => 'bar-0',
    'baz' => 'baz-0'
));
$insert->set('ts', 'NOW()');

// set up the second row
$insert->addRow(array(
    'bar' => 'bar-1',
    'baz' => 'baz-1'
));
$insert->set('ts', 'NOW()');

// etc.
?>

If you only need to use bound values, and do not need to set raw values, and have the entire data set as an array already, you can use addRows() to add them all at once:

<?php
$rows = array(
    array(
        'bar' => 'bar-0',
        'baz' => 'baz-0'
    ),
    array(
        'bar' => 'bar-1',
        'baz' => 'baz-1'
    ),
);
$insert->addRows($rows);
?>

N.b.: SQLite 3.7.10 and earlier do not support the "standard" multiple-row insert syntax. Thus, bulk inserts with Insert object will not work on those earlier versions of SQLite. We suggest wrapping multuple INSERT operations with a transaction as an alternative.

UPDATE

Build an Update query using the following methods. They do not need to be called in any particular order, and may be called multiple times.

<?php
$update = $query_factory->newUpdate();

$update
    ->table('foo')                  // update this table
    ->cols(array(                   // bind values as "SET bar = :bar"
        'bar',
        'baz',
    ))
    ->set('ts', 'NOW()')            // raw value as "(ts) VALUES (NOW())"
    ->where('zim = :zim')           // AND WHERE these conditions
    ->where('gir = ?', 'doom')      // bind this value to the condition
    ->orWhere('gir = :gir')         // OR WHERE these conditions
    ->bindValue('bar', 'bar_val')   // bind one value to a placeholder
    ->bindValues(array(             // bind these values to the query
        'baz' => 99,
        'zim' => 'dib',
        'gir' => 'doom',
    ));
?>

The cols() method allows you to pass an array of key-value pairs where the key is the column name and the value is a bind value (not a raw value):

<?php
$update = $query_factory->newUpdate();

$update->table('foo')           // update this table
    ->cols(array(               // update these columns and bind these values
        'foo' => 'foo_value',
        'bar' => 'bar_value',
        'baz' => 'baz_value',
    ));
?>

Once you have built the query, pass it to the database connection of your choice as a string, and send the bound values along with it.

<?php
// the PDO connection
$pdo = new PDO(...);

// prepare the statement
$sth = $pdo->prepare($update->getStatement())

// execute with bound values
$sth->execute($update->getBindValues());
?>

DELETE

Build a Delete query using the following methods. They do not need to be called in any particular order, and may be called multiple times.

<?php
$delete = $query_factory->newDelete();

$delete
    ->from('foo')                   // FROM this table
    ->where('zim = :zim')           // AND WHERE these conditions
    ->where('gir = ?', 'doom')      // bind this value to the condition
    ->orWhere('gir = :gir')         // OR WHERE these conditions
    ->bindValue('bar', 'bar_val')   // bind one value to a placeholder
    ->bindValues(array(             // bind these values to the query
        'baz' => 99,
        'zim' => 'dib',
        'gir' => 'doom',
    ));
?>

Once you have built the query, pass it to the database connection of your choice as a string, and send the bound values along with it.

<?php
// the PDO connection
$pdo = new PDO(...);

// prepare the statement
$sth = $pdo->prepare($delete->getStatement())

// execute with bound values
$sth->execute($delete->getBindValues());
?>

MySQL Query Objects ('mysql')

These 'mysql' query objects have additional MySQL-specific methods:

  • SELECT

    • calcFoundRows() to add or remove SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS flag
    • cache() to add or remove SQL_CACHE flag
    • noCache() to add or remove SQL_NO_CACHE flag
    • bigResult() to add or remove SQL_BIG_RESULT flag
    • smallResult() to add or remove SQL_SMALL_RESULT flag
    • bufferResult() to add or remove SQL_BUFFER_RESULT flag
    • highPriority() to add or remove HIGH_PRIORITY flag
    • straightJoin() to add or remove STRAIGHT_JOIN flag
  • INSERT

    • highPriority() to add or remove HIGH_PRIORITY flag
    • lowPriority() to add or remove LOW_PRIORITY flag
    • ignore() to add or remove IGNORE flag
    • delayed() to add or remove DELAYED flag
  • UPDATE

    • lowPriority() to add or remove LOW_PRIORITY flag
    • ignore() to add or remove IGNORE flag
    • where() and orWhere() to add WHERE conditions flag
    • orderBy() to add an ORDER BY clause flag
    • limit() to set a LIMIT count
  • DELETE

    • lowPriority() to add or remove LOW_PRIORITY flag
    • ignore() to add or remove IGNORE flag
    • quick() to add or remove QUICK flag
    • orderBy() to add an ORDER BY clause
    • limit() to set a LIMIT count

In addition, the Insert object has support for ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE:

  • onDuplicateKeyUpdate($col, $raw_value) sets a raw value
  • onDuplicateKeyUpateCol($col, $value) is a col() equivalent for the update
  • onDuplicateKeyUpdateCols($cols) is a cols()equivalent for the update

Placeholders for bound values in the ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE portions will be automatically suffixed with __on_duplicate key to deconflict them from the insert placeholders.

PostgreSQL Query Objects ('pgsql')

These 'pgsql' query objects have additional PostgreSQL-specific methods:

  • INSERT

    • returning() to add a RETURNING clause
  • UPDATE

    • returning() to add a RETURNING clause
  • DELETE

    • returning() to add a RETURNING clause

Last Insert ID Names in PostgreSQL

PostgreSQL determines the default sequence name for the last inserted ID by concatenating the table name, the column name, and a seq suffix, using underscore separators (e.g. table_col_seq).

However, when inserting into an extended or inherited table, the parent table is used for the sequence name, not the child (insertion) table. This package allows you to override the default last-insert-id name with the method setLastInsertIdNames() on both QueryFactory and the Insert object itself. Pass an array of inserttable.col keys mapped to parenttable_col_seq values, and the Insert object will use the mapped sequence names instead of the default names.

<?php
$query_factory->setLastInsertIdNames(array(
    'child.id' => 'parent_id_seq'
));

$insert = $query_factory->newInsert();
$insert->into('child');
// ...
$seq = $insert->getLastInsertIdName('id');
?>

The $seq name is now parent_id_seq, not child_id_seq as it would have been by default.

SQLite Query Objects ('sqlite')

These 'sqlite' query objects have additional SQLite-specific methods:

  • INSERT

    • orAbort() to add or remove an OR ABORT flag
    • orFail() to add or remove an OR FAIL flag
    • orIgnore() to add or remove an OR IGNORE flag
    • orReplace() to add or remove an OR REPLACE flag
    • orRollback() to add or remove an OR ROLLBACK flag
  • UPDATE

    • orAbort() to add or remove an OR ABORT flag
    • orFail() to add or remove an OR FAIL flag
    • orIgnore() to add or remove an OR IGNORE flag
    • orReplace() to add or remove an OR REPLACE flag
    • orRollback() to add or remove an OR ROLLBACK flag
    • orderBy() to add an ORDER BY clause
    • limit() to set a LIMIT count
    • offset() to set an OFFSET count
  • DELETE

    • orAbort() to add or remove an OR ABORT flag
    • orFail() to add or remove an OR FAIL flag
    • orIgnore() to add or remove an OR IGNORE flag
    • orReplace() to add or remove an OR REPLACE flag
    • orRollback() to add or remove an OR ROLLBACK flag
    • orderBy() to add an ORDER BY clause
    • limit() to set a LIMIT count
    • offset() to set an OFFSET count

Microsoft SQL Query Objects ('sqlsrv')

The 'sqlsrv' query objects have no additional methods specific to Microsoft SQL Server.

In general, limit() and offset() with Microsoft SQL Server are best combined with orderBy(). The limit() and offset() methods on the Microsoft SQL Server query objects will generate sqlsrv-specific variations of LIMIT ... OFFSET:

  • If only a LIMIT is present, it will be translated as a TOP clause.

  • If both LIMIT and OFFSET are present, it will be translated as an OFFSET ... ROWS FETCH NEXT ... ROWS ONLY clause. In this case there must be an ORDER BY clause, as the limiting clause is a sub-clause of ORDER BY.

Table Prefixes

One frequently-requested feature for this package is support for "automatic table prefixes" on all queries. This feature sounds great in theory, but in practice is it (1) difficult to implement well, and (2) even when implemented it turns out to be not as great as it seems in theory. This assessment is the result of the hard trials of experience. For those of you who want modifiable table prefixes, we suggest using constants with your table names prefixed as desired; as the prefixes change, you can then change your constants.

Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.