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README.md

#apache

####Table of Contents

  1. Overview - What is the Apache module?
  2. Module Description - What does the module do?
  3. Setup - The basics of getting started with Apache
  4. Usage - The classes, defined types, and their parameters available for configuration
  5. Implementation - An under-the-hood peek at what the module is doing
  6. Limitations - OS compatibility, etc.
  7. Development - Guide for contributing to the module
  8. Release Notes - Notes on the most recent updates to the module

##Overview

The Apache module allows you to set up virtual hosts and manage web services with minimal effort.

##Module Description

Apache is a widely-used web server, and this module provides a simplified way of creating configurations to manage your infrastructure. This includes the ability to configure and manage a range of different virtual host setups, as well as a streamlined way to install and configure Apache modules.

##Setup

What Apache affects:

  • configuration files and directories (created and written to)
    • NOTE: Configurations that are not managed by Puppet will be purged.
  • package/service/configuration files for Apache
  • Apache modules
  • virtual hosts
  • listened-to ports

###Beginning with Apache

To install Apache with the default parameters

class { 'apache':  }

The defaults are determined by your operating system (e.g. Debian systems have one set of defaults, RedHat systems have another). These defaults will work well in a testing environment, but are not suggested for production. To establish customized parameters

class { 'apache':
  default_mods => false,
  …
}

###Configure a virtual host

Declaring the apache class will create a default virtual host by setting up a vhost on port 80, listening on all interfaces and serving $apache::docroot.

class { 'apache': }

To configure a very basic, name-based virtual host

apache::vhost { 'first.example.com':
  port    => '80',
  docroot => '/var/www/first',
}

Note: The default priority is 15. If nothing matches this priority, the alphabetically first name-based vhost will be used. This is also true if you pass a higher priority and no names match anything else.

A slightly more complicated example, which moves the docroot owner/group

apache::vhost { 'second.example.com':
  port          => '80',
  docroot       => '/var/www/second',
  docroot_owner => 'third',
  docroot_group => 'third',
}

To set up a virtual host with SSL and default SSL certificates

apache::vhost { 'ssl.example.com':
  port    => '443',
  docroot => '/var/www/ssl',
  ssl     => true,
}

To set up a virtual host with SSL and specific SSL certificates

apache::vhost { 'fourth.example.com':
  port     => '443',
  docroot  => '/var/www/fourth',
  ssl      => true,
  ssl_cert => '/etc/ssl/fourth.example.com.cert',
  ssl_key  => '/etc/ssl/fourth.example.com.key',
}

To see a list of all virtual host parameters, please go here. To see an extensive list of virtual host examples please look here.

##Usage

###Classes and Defined Types

This module modifies Apache configuration files and directories and will purge any configuration not managed by Puppet. Configuration of Apache should be managed by Puppet, as non-puppet configuration files can cause unexpected failures.

It is possible to temporarily disable full Puppet management by setting the purge_configs parameter within the base apache class to 'false'. This option should only be used as a temporary means of saving and relocating customized configurations.

####Class: apache

The Apache module's primary class, apache, guides the basic setup of Apache on your system.

You may establish a default vhost in this class, the vhost class, or both. You may add additional vhost configurations for specific virtual hosts using a declaration of the vhost type.

Parameters within apache:

#####default_mods

Sets up Apache with default settings based on your OS. Defaults to 'true', set to 'false' for customized configuration.

#####default_vhost

Sets up a default virtual host. Defaults to 'true', set to 'false' to set up customized virtual hosts.

#####default_ssl_vhost

Sets up a default SSL virtual host. Defaults to 'false'.

apache::vhost { 'default-ssl':
  port            => 443,
  ssl             => true,
  docroot         => $docroot,
  scriptalias     => $scriptalias,
  serveradmin     => $serveradmin,
  access_log_file => "ssl_${access_log_file}",
  }

SSL vhosts only respond to HTTPS queries.

#####default_ssl_cert

The default SSL certification, which is automatically set based on your operating system (/etc/pki/tls/certs/localhost.crt for RedHat, /etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem for Debian). This default will work out of the box but must be updated with your specific certificate information before being used in production.

#####default_ssl_key

The default SSL key, which is automatically set based on your operating system (/etc/pki/tls/private/localhost.key for RedHat, /etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key for Debian). This default will work out of the box but must be updated with your specific certificate information before being used in production.

#####default_ssl_chain

The default SSL chain, which is automatically set to 'undef'. This default will work out of the box but must be updated with your specific certificate information before being used in production.

#####default_ssl_ca

The default certificate authority, which is automatically set to 'undef'. This default will work out of the box but must be updated with your specific certificate information before being used in production.

#####default_ssl_crl_path

The default certificate revocation list path, which is automatically set to 'undef'. This default will work out of the box but must be updated with your specific certificate information before being used in production.

#####default_ssl_crl

The default certificate revocation list to use, which is automatically set to 'undef'. This default will work out of the box but must be updated with your specific certificate information before being used in production.

#####service_enable

Determines whether the 'httpd' service is enabled when the machine is booted, meaning Puppet will check the service status to start/stop it. Defaults to 'true', meaning the service is enabled/running.

#####serveradmin

Sets the server administrator. Defaults to 'root@localhost'.

#####sendfile

Makes Apache use the Linux kernel 'sendfile' to serve static files. Defaults to 'false'.

#####error_documents

Enables custom error documents. Defaults to 'false'.

#####confd_dir

Changes the location of the configuration directory your custom configuration files are placed in. Default is based on your OS.

#####vhost_dir

Changes the location of the configuration directory your virtual host configuration files are placed in. Default is based on your OS.

#####mod_dir

Changes the location of the configuration directory your Apache modules configuration files are placed in. Default is based on your OS.

#####mpm_module

Configures which mpm module is loaded and configured for the httpd process by the apache::mod::prefork and apache::mod::worker classes. Must be set to false to explicitly declare apache::mod::worker or apache::mod::prefork classes with parameters. Valid values are worker, prefork, or the boolean false. Defaults to prefork on RedHat and worker on Debian.

#####conf_template

Setting this allows you to override the template used for the main apache configuration file. This is a potentially risky thing to do as this module has been built around the concept of a minimal configuration file with most of the configuration coming in the form of conf.d/ entries. Defaults to 'apache/httpd.conf.erb'.

####Class: apache::default_mods

Installs default Apache modules based on what OS you are running

class { 'apache::default_mods': }

####Defined Type: apache::mod

Used to enable arbitrary Apache httpd modules for which there is no specific apache::mod::[name] class. The apache::mod defined type will also install the required packages to enable the module, if any.

apache::mod { 'rewrite': }
apache::mod { 'ldap': }

####Classes: apache::mod::[name]

There are many apache::mod::[name] classes within this module that can be declared using include:

  • alias
  • auth_basic
  • auth_kerb
  • autoindex
  • cache
  • cgi
  • cgid
  • dav
  • dav_fs
  • deflate
  • dir*
  • disk_cache
  • fcgid
  • info
  • ldap
  • mime
  • mime_magic
  • mpm_event
  • negotiation
  • passenger*
  • perl
  • php
  • prefork*
  • proxy*
  • proxy_html
  • proxy_http
  • python
  • reqtimeout
  • setenvif
  • ssl* (see apache::mod::ssl below)
  • status
  • userdir*
  • worker*
  • wsgi

Modules noted with a * indicate that the module has settings and, thus, a template that includes parameters. These parameters control the module's configuration. Most of the time, these parameters will not require any configuration or attention.

The modules mentioned above, and other Apache modules that have templates, will cause template files to be dropped along with the mod install, and the module will not work without the template. Any mod without a template will install package but drop no files.

####Class: apache::mod::ssl

Installs Apache SSL capabilities and utilizes ssl.conf.erb template

class { 'apache::mod::ssl': }

To use SSL with a virtual host, you must either set thedefault_ssl_vost parameter in apache to 'true' or set the ssl parameter in apache::vhost to 'true'.

####Defined Type: apache::vhost

The Apache module allows a lot of flexibility in the set up and configuration of virtual hosts. This flexibility is due, in part, to vhost's setup as a defined resource type, which allows it to be evaluated multiple times with different parameters.

The vhost defined type allows you to have specialized configurations for virtual hosts that have requirements outside of the defaults. You can set up a default vhost within the base apache class as well as set a customized vhost setup as default. Your customized vhost (priority 10) will be privileged over the base class vhost (15).

If you have a series of specific configurations and do not want a base apache class default vhost, make sure to set the base class default host to 'false'.

class { 'apache':
  default_vhost => false,
}

Parameters within apache::vhost:

The default values for each parameter will vary based on operating system and type of virtual host.

#####access_log

Specifies whether *_access.log directives should be configured. Valid values are 'true' and 'false'. Defaults to 'true'.

#####access_log_file

Points to the *_access.log file. Defaults to 'undef'.

#####access_log_pipe

Specifies a pipe to send access log messages to. Defaults to 'undef'.

#####access_log_format

Specifies either a LogFormat nickname or custom format string for access log. Defaults to 'undef'.

#####add_listen

Determines whether the vhost creates a listen statement. The default value is 'true'.

Setting add_listen to 'false' stops the vhost from creating a listen statement, and this is important when you combine vhosts that are not passed an ip parameter with vhosts that are passed the ip parameter.

#####aliases

Passes a list of hashes to the vhost to create Alias statements as per the mod_alias documentation. Each hash is expected to be of the form:

aliases => [ { alias => '/alias', path => '/path/to/directory' } ],

For Alias to work, each will need a corresponding <Directory /path/to/directory> or <Location /path/to/directory> block.

Note: If apache::mod::passenger is loaded and PassengerHighPerformance true is set, then Alias may have issues honouring the PassengerEnabled off statement. See this article for details.

#####block

Specifies the list of things Apache will block access to. The default is an empty set, '[]'. Currently, the only option is 'scm', which blocks web access to .svn, .git and .bzr directories. To add to this, please see the Development section.

#####configure_firewall

Specifies whether a firewall should be configured. Valid values are 'true' or 'false'.

#####custom_fragment

Pass a string of custom configuration directives to be placed at the end of the vhost configuration.

#####default_vhost

Sets a given apache::vhost as the default to serve requests that do not match any other apache::vhost definitions. The default value is 'false'.

#####directories

Passes a list of hashes to the vhost to create <Directory /path/to/directory>...</Directory> directive blocks as per the Apache core documentation. Each hash should be of the form of:

directory => [ { path => '/path/to/directory', <directive> => <value> } ],

Note: At least one directory should match docroot parameter, once you start declaring directories apache::vhost assumes that all required <Directory> blocks will be declared.

Note: If not defined a single default <Directory> block will be created that matches the docroot parameter.

The directives will be embedded within the Directory directive block, missing directives should be undefined and not be added, resulting in their default vaules in Apache. Currently this is the list of supported directives:

######addhandlers

Sets AddHandler directives as per the Apache Core documentation. Accepts a list of hashes of the form { handler => 'handler-name', extensions => ['extension']}. Note that extensions is a list of extenstions being handled by the handler. An example:

directory => [ { path => '/path/to/directory',
  addhandlers => [ { handler => 'cgi-script', extensions => ['.cgi']} ]
} ]

######allow

Sets an Allow directive as per the Apache Core documentation. An example:

directory => [ { path => '/path/to/directory', allow => 'from example.org' } ],

######allowOverride

Sets the usage of .htaccess files as per the Apache core documentation. Should accept in the form of a list or a string. An example:

directory => [ { path => '/path/to/directory', allowOverride => ['AuthConfig', 'Indexes'] } ],

######deny

Sets an Deny directive as per the Apache Core documentation. An example:

directory => [ { path => '/path/to/directory', deny => 'from example.org' } ],

######options

Lists the options for the given <Directory> block

  directory => [ { path => '/path/to/directory', options => ['Indexes','FollowSymLinks','MultiViews'] }]

######order Sets the order of processing Allow and Deny statements as per Apache core documentation. An example:

directory => [ { path => '/path/to/directory', order => 'Allow, Deny' } ],

######passengerEnabled

Sets the value for the PassengerEnabled directory to on or off as per the Passenger documentation.

directory => [ { path => '/path/to/directory', passengerEnabled => 'off' } ],

Note: This directive requires apache::mod::passenger to be active, Apache may not start with an unrecognised directive without it.

Note: Be aware that there is an issue using the PassengerEnabled directive with the PassengerHighPerformance directive.

#####docroot

Provides the DocumentRoot directive, identifying the directory Apache serves files from.

#####docroot_group

Sets group access to the docroot directory. Defaults to 'root'.

#####docroot_owner

Sets individual user access to the docroot directory. Defaults to 'root'.

#####error_log

Specifies whether *_error.log directives should be configured. Defaults to 'true'.

#####error_log_file

Points to the *_error.log file. Defaults to 'undef'.

#####error_log_pipe

Specifies a pipe to send error log messages to. Defaults to 'undef'.

#####ensure

Specifies if the vhost file is present or absent.

#####ip

The IP address the vhost listens on. Defaults to 'undef'.

#####ip_based

Enables an IP-based vhost. This parameter inhibits the creation of a NameVirtualHost directive, since those are used to funnel requests to name-based vhosts. Defaults to 'false'.

#####logroot

Specifies the location of the virtual host's logfiles. Defaults to /var/log/<apache log location>/.

#####no_proxy_uris

Specifies URLs you do not want to proxy. This parameter is meant to be used in combination with proxy_dest.

#####options

Lists the options for the given virtual host

apache::vhost { 'site.name.fdqn':
  …
  options => ['Indexes','FollowSymLinks','MultiViews'],
}

#####override

Sets the overrides for the given virtual host. Accepts an array of AllowOverride arguments.

#####port

Sets the port the host is configured on.

#####priority

Sets the relative load-order for Apache httpd VirtualHost configuration files. Defaults to '25'.

If nothing matches the priority, the first name-based vhost will be used. Likewise, passing a higher priority will cause the alphabetically first name-based vhost to be used if no other names match.

Note: You should not need to use this parameter. However, if you do use it, be aware that the default_vhost parameter for apache::vhost passes a priority of '15'.

#####proxy_dest

Specifies the destination address of a proxypass configuration. Defaults to 'undef'.

#####proxy_pass

Specifies an array of path => uri for a proxypass configuration. Defaults to 'undef'.

Example: $proxy_pass = [ { 'path' => '/a', 'url' => 'http://backend-a/' }, { 'path' => '/b', 'url' => 'http://backend-b/' }, { 'path' => '/c', 'url' => 'http://backend-a/c' }, ]

apache::vhost { 'site.name.fdqn': … proxy_pass => $proxy_pass, }

#####rack_base_uris

Specifies the resource identifiers for a rack configuration. The file paths specified will be listed as rack application roots for passenger/rack in the _rack.erb template. Defaults to 'undef'.

#####redirect_dest

Specifies the address to redirect to. Defaults to 'undef'.

#####redirect_source

Specifies the source items? that will redirect to the destination specified in redirect_dest. If more than one item for redirect is supplied, the source and destination must be the same length, and the items are order-dependent.

apache::vhost { 'site.name.fdqn':
  …
  redirect_source => ['/images','/downloads'],
  redirect_dest => ['http://img.example.com/','http://downloads.example.com/'],
}

#####redirect_status

Specifies the status to append to the redirect. Defaults to 'undef'.

apache::vhost { 'site.name.fdqn':
  …
  redirect_status => ['temp','permanent'],
}

#####request_headers

Specifies additional request headers.

apache::vhost { 'site.name.fdqn':
  …
  request_headers => [
    'append MirrorID "mirror 12"',
    'unset MirrorID',
  ],
}

#####rewrite_base

Limits the rewrite_rule to the specified base URL. Defaults to 'undef'.

apache::vhost { 'site.name.fdqn':
  …
  rewrite_rule => '^index\.html$ welcome.html',
  rewrite_base => '/blog/',
}

The above example would limit the index.html -> welcome.html rewrite to only something inside of http://example.com/blog/.

#####rewrite_cond

Rewrites a URL via rewrite_rule based on the truth of specified conditions. For example

apache::vhost { 'site.name.fdqn':
  …
  rewrite_cond => '%{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^MSIE',
}

will rewrite URLs only if the visitor is using IE. Defaults to 'undef'.

Note: At the moment, each vhost is limited to a single list of rewrite conditions. In the future, you will be able to specify multiple rewrite_cond and rewrite_rules per vhost, so that different conditions get different rewrites.

#####rewrite_rule

Creates URL rewrite rules. Defaults to 'undef'. This parameter allows you to specify, for example, that anyone trying to access index.html will be served welcome.html.

apache::vhost { 'site.name.fdqn':
  …
  rewrite_rule => '^index\.html$ welcome.html',
}

#####scriptalias

Defines a directory of CGI scripts to be aliased to the path '/cgi-bin'

#####serveradmin

Specifies the email address Apache will display when it renders one of its error pages.

#####serveraliases

Sets the server aliases of the site.

#####servername

Sets the primary name of the virtual host.

#####setenv

Used by HTTPD to set environment variables for vhosts. Defaults to '[]'.

#####setenvif

Used by HTTPD to conditionally set environment variables for vhosts. Defaults to '[]'.

#####ssl

Enables SSL for the virtual host. SSL vhosts only respond to HTTPS queries. Valid values are 'true' or 'false'.

#####ssl_ca

Specifies the certificate authority.

#####ssl_cert

Specifies the SSL certification.

#####ssl_certs_dir

Specifies the location of the SSL certification directory. Defaults to /etc/ssl/certs.

#####ssl_chain

Specifies the SSL chain.

#####ssl_crl

Specifies the certificate revocation list to use.

#####ssl_crl_path

Specifies the location of the certificate revocation list.

#####ssl_key

Specifies the SSL key.

#####vhost_name

This parameter is for use with name-based virtual hosting. Defaults to '*'.

###Virtual Host Examples

The Apache module allows you to set up pretty much any configuration of virtual host you might desire. This section will address some common configurations. Please see the Tests section for even more examples.

Configure a vhost with a server administrator

apache::vhost { 'third.example.com':
  port        => '80',
  docroot     => '/var/www/third',
  serveradmin => 'admin@example.com',
}

Set up a vhost with aliased servers

apache::vhost { 'sixth.example.com':
  serveraliases => [
    'sixth.example.org',
    'sixth.example.net',
  ],
  port          => '80',
  docroot       => '/var/www/fifth',
}

Configure a vhost with a cgi-bin

apache::vhost { 'eleventh.example.com':
  port        => '80',
  docroot     => '/var/www/eleventh',
  scriptalias => '/usr/lib/cgi-bin',
}

Set up a vhost with a rack configuration

apache::vhost { 'fifteenth.example.com':
  port           => '80',
  docroot        => '/var/www/fifteenth',
  rack_base_uris => ['/rackapp1', '/rackapp2'],
}

Set up a mix of SSL and non-SSL vhosts at the same domain

#The non-ssl vhost
apache::vhost { 'first.example.com non-ssl':
  servername => 'first.example.com',
  port       => '80',
  docroot    => '/var/www/first',
}

#The SSL vhost at the same domain
apache::vhost { 'first.example.com ssl':
  servername => 'first.example.com',
  port       => '443',
  docroot    => '/var/www/first',
  ssl        => true,
}

Configure a vhost to redirect non-SSL connections to SSL

apache::vhost { 'sixteenth.example.com non-ssl':
  servername   => 'sixteenth.example.com',
  port         => '80',
  docroot      => '/var/www/sixteenth',
  rewrite_cond => '%{HTTPS} off',
  rewrite_rule => '(.*) https://%{HTTPS_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI}',
}
apache::vhost { 'sixteenth.example.com ssl':
  servername => 'sixteenth.example.com',
  port       => '443',
  docroot    => '/var/www/sixteenth',
  ssl        => true,
}

Set up IP-based vhosts on any listen port and have them respond to requests on specific IP addresses. In this example, we will set listening on ports 80 and 81. This is required because the example vhosts are not declared with a port parameter.

apache::listen { '80': }
apache::listen { '81': }

Then we will set up the IP-based vhosts

apache::vhost { 'first.example.com':
  ip       => '10.0.0.10',
  docroot  => '/var/www/first',
  ip_based => true,
}
apache::vhost { 'second.example.com':
  ip       => '10.0.0.11',
  docroot  => '/var/www/second',
  ip_based => true,
}

Configure a mix of name-based and IP-based vhosts. First, we will add two IP-based vhosts on 10.0.0.10, one SSL and one non-SSL

apache::vhost { 'The first IP-based vhost, non-ssl':
  servername => 'first.example.com',
  ip         => '10.0.0.10',
  port       => '80',
  ip_based   => true,
  docroot    => '/var/www/first',
}
apache::vhost { 'The first IP-based vhost, ssl':
  servername => 'first.example.com',
  ip         => '10.0.0.10',
  port       => '443',
  ip_based   => true,
  docroot    => '/var/www/first-ssl',
  ssl        => true,
}

Then, we will add two name-based vhosts listening on 10.0.0.20

apache::vhost { 'second.example.com':
  ip      => '10.0.0.20',
  port    => '80',
  docroot => '/var/www/second',
}
apache::vhost { 'third.example.com':
  ip      => '10.0.0.20',
  port    => '80',
  docroot => '/var/www/third',
}

If you want to add two name-based vhosts so that they will answer on either 10.0.0.10 or 10.0.0.20, you MUST declare add_listen => 'false' to disable the otherwise automatic 'Listen 80', as it will conflict with the preceding IP-based vhosts.

apache::vhost { 'fourth.example.com':
  port       => '80',
  docroot    => '/var/www/fourth',
  add_listen => false,
}
apache::vhost { 'fifth.example.com':
  port       => '80',
  docroot    => '/var/www/fifth',
  add_listen => false,
}

##Implementation

###Classes and Defined Types

####Class: apache::dev

Installs Apache development libraries

class { 'apache::dev': }

####Defined Type: apache::listen

Controls which ports Apache binds to for listening based on the title:

apache::listen { '80': }
apache::listen { '443': }

Declaring this defined type will add all Listen directives to the ports.conf file in the Apache httpd configuration directory. apache::listen titles should always take the form of: <port>, <ipv4>:<port>, or [<ipv6>]:<port>

Apache httpd requires that Listen directives must be added for every port. The apache::vhost defined type will automatically add Listen directives unless the apache::vhost is passed add_listen => false.

####Defined Type: apache::namevirtualhost

Enables named-based hosting of a virtual host

class { 'apache::namevirtualhost`: }

Declaring this defined type will add all NameVirtualHost directives to the ports.conf file in the Apache https configuration directory. apache::namevirtualhost titles should always take the form of: *, *:<port>, _default_:<port>, <ip>, or <ip>:<port>.

###Templates

The Apache module relies heavily on templates to enable the vhost and apache::mod defined types. These templates are built based on Facter facts around your operating system. Unless explicitly called out, most templates are not meant for configuration.

##Limitations

This has been tested on Ubuntu Precise, Debian Wheezy, and CentOS 5.8.

##Development

Puppet Labs modules on the Puppet Forge are open projects, and community contributions are essential for keeping them great. We can’t access the huge number of platforms and myriad of hardware, software, and deployment configurations that Puppet is intended to serve.

We want to keep it as easy as possible to contribute changes so that our modules work in your environment. There are a few guidelines that we need contributors to follow so that we can have a chance of keeping on top of things.

You can read the complete module contribution guide on the Puppet Labs wiki.

##Copyright and License

Copyright (C) 2012 Puppet Labs Inc

Puppet Labs can be contacted at: info@puppetlabs.com

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at

http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.