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Send is Connect's static() extracted for generalized use, a streaming static file server supporting partial responses (Ranges), conditional-GET negotiation, high test coverage, and granular events which may be leveraged to take appropriate actions in your application or framework.


$ npm install send


var send = require('send')

send(req, path, [options])

Create a new SendStream for the given path to send to a res. The req is the Node.js HTTP request and the path is a urlencoded path to send (urlencoded, not the actual file-system path).



Set how "dotfiles" are treated when encountered. A dotfile is a file or directory that begins with a dot ("."). Note this check is done on the path itself without checking if the path actually exists on the disk. If root is specified, only the dotfiles above the root are checked (i.e. the root itself can be within a dotfile when when set to "deny").

The default value is 'ignore'.

  • 'allow' No special treatment for dotfiles.
  • 'deny' Send a 403 for any request for a dotfile.
  • 'ignore' Pretend like the dotfile does not exist and 404.

Enable or disable etag generation, defaults to true.


If a given file doesn't exist, try appending one of the given extensions, in the given order. By default, this is disabled (set to false). An example value that will serve extension-less HTML files: ['html', 'htm']. This is skipped if the requested file already has an extension.


By default send supports "index.html" files, to disable this set false or to supply a new index pass a string or an array in preferred order.


Enable or disable Last-Modified header, defaults to true. Uses the file system's last modified value.


Provide a max-age in milliseconds for http caching, defaults to 0. This can also be a string accepted by the ms module.


Serve files relative to path.


The SendStream is an event emitter and will emit the following events:

  • error an error occurred (err)
  • directory a directory was requested
  • file a file was requested (path, stat)
  • headers the headers are about to be set on a file (res, path, stat)
  • stream file streaming has started (stream)
  • end streaming has completed


The pipe method is used to pipe the response into the Node.js HTTP response object, typically send(req, path, options).pipe(res).


By default when no error listeners are present an automatic response will be made, otherwise you have full control over the response, aka you may show a 5xx page etc.


It does not perform internal caching, you should use a reverse proxy cache such as Varnish for this, or those fancy things called CDNs. If your application is small enough that it would benefit from single-node memory caching, it's small enough that it does not need caching at all ;).


To enable debug() instrumentation output export DEBUG:

$ DEBUG=send node app

Running tests

$ npm install
$ npm test



var http = require('http');
var send = require('send');

var app = http.createServer(function(req, res){
  send(req, req.url).pipe(res);

Serving from a root directory with custom error-handling:

var http = require('http');
var send = require('send');
var url = require('url');

var app = http.createServer(function(req, res){
  // your custom error-handling logic:
  function error(err) {
    res.statusCode = err.status || 500;

  // your custom headers
  function headers(res, path, stat) {
    // serve all files for download
    res.setHeader('Content-Disposition', 'attachment');

  // your custom directory handling logic:
  function redirect() {
    res.statusCode = 301;
    res.setHeader('Location', req.url + '/');
    res.end('Redirecting to ' + req.url + '/');

  // transfer arbitrary files from within
  // /www/*
  send(req, url.parse(req.url).pathname, {root: '/www/'})
  .on('error', error)
  .on('directory', redirect)
  .on('headers', headers)




connect's static() file server extracted for general node.js use




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