A community-developed, free and open source, light weight API testing framework built on Java JUnit core runners, for REST, SOAP, DB services and more, using simple JSON steps.
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Zerocode - TDD and BDD logo BnW

An open source lib enables API testing via simple declarative JSON steps - REST, SOAP and DB services

Zerocode brings the simplicity in testing and validating APIs by eliminating repetitive code for test assertions, http calls and payload parsing. See an example how. It's powerful JSON comparison and assertions make the testing cycle a lot easy and clean.

It also helps in mocking/stubbing interfacing APIs during the testing cycle. Its approach to IDE based performance testing to generate load/stress on the target application is quite simple, flexible and efficient - It goes a step further enabling you to simply reuse the test(s) from your regression pack.

License Code Coverage zerocode REST API Automation zerocode SOAP Testing Automation API Automation Gitter Performance Testing

Testing was never so easy before.

e.g. Your below User-Journey or ACs(Acceptance Criterias) or a scenario,

AC1:
GIVEN- the POST api end point '/api/v1/users' to create an user,     
WHEN- I invoke the API,     
THEN- I will receive the 201 status with the a user ID and headers 
AND- I will validate the response

AC2:
GIVEN- the REST api GET end point '/api/v1/users/${created-User-Id}',     
WHEN- I invoke the API,     
THEN- I will receive the 200(Ok) status with body(user details) and headers
AND- I will assert the response

translates to the below executable JSON in Zerocode - Simple and clean !
(See here a full blown CRUD operation scenario with POST, PUT, GET, DELETE example.)

post_get_user

Keep in mind: It's simple JSON.
No feature files, no extra plugins, no assertThat(...), no statements or grammar syntax overhead.

And it is declarative JSON DSL, with the request/response fields available for the next steps via the JSON Path.

See the Table Of Contents for usages and examples.

Maven and CI

Latest release: 1.2.x

Continuous Integration: Build Status
HelloWorld: Calling a GitHub api step and executing Test code.
Help and Usage: Table of Contents
Wiki: About Zerocode
License: Apache 2.0

The purpose of Zerocode lib is to make your API tests easy to write, easy to change, easy to share.

Hello World

Clone or download the below quick-start repos to run them in local IDE or maven command.

To build any of the above projects, you can use the following command

mvn clean install -DskipTests

Latest news/releases/features

Follow us(Twitter) -

download

Zerocode empowers the automation testers as well as developers to build up test scenario steps effortlessly, with sending/receiving payload and asserting the response as JSON. The repititive tasks of the everyday automation have been taken care optimally at the framework level, enabling you to focus on the business scenarios, user journeys and acceptance criterias acuurately.

Supported testing frameworks:

Latest maven release:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.jsmart</groupId>
    <artifactId>zerocode-rest-bdd</artifactId>
    <version>1.2.x</version> 
</dependency>

Check here for the latest- https://github.com/authorjapps/zerocode/releases -or- Maven Central

Zerocode helps you to design better Test Cases for your business features, maintain and update them easily, avoiding sleepless nights. It is built on extending the Junit core runners. You simply annotate your test method with JUnit @Test and run like unit tests, as well optionally you can useSuite Runner for the CI builds.

Testing becomes an easy and effortless job due to the simplicity nature of JSON and the native support by popular IDEs e.g. Eclipse /IntelliJ /NetBeans etc with no extra plugin need. Your tests will not be cumbersome and complex anymore. Zerocode makes your tests independent, complete and structured, and easily maintainable by the team or the new comers. It enables you to write your API End Point tests, Consumer Contract tests, End to End tests as well as Performance tests etc, at the speed of writing JUnit tests.

  • Browse or clone contract tests examples from here
  • Browse or clone performance tests(load, stress) examples here

More >>

Who uses Zerocode?

  • Vocalink (A Mastercard company) - REST API testing for virtualization software
  • HSBC Bank - MuleSoft application REST API Contract testing, E2E Integration Testing, Oracle DB API testing, SOAP testing and Load/Stress aka Performance testing
  • Home Office(GOV.UK) - Micro-Services REST API Contract testing, HDFS/Hbase REST end point testing, Authentication testing

REST BDD Testing Framework

Develop and test applications with TDD and BDD approach while easily building up your regression suites.

Execute your complex business scenario steps with simple declarative jsons which defines your RESTful service behaviour.

Testing no more a harder, slower and sleepless task

See the HelloWorldTest and more

Getting started

Add these two maven dependencies:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.jsmart</groupId>
    <artifactId>zerocode-rest-bdd</artifactId>
    <version>1.2.x</version> 
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

<dependency>
    <groupId>junit</groupId>
    <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
    <version>4.12</version>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

Then annotate your JUnit test method pointing to the JSON file as below and run as a unit test. That's it. Done.

@TargetEnv("github_host.properties")
@RunWith(ZeroCodeUnitRunner.class)
public class JustHelloWorldTest {

    @Test
    @JsonTestCase("helloworld/hello_world_status_ok_assertions.json")
    public void testGet() throws Exception {

    }
}

Where, You just need the below hello_world_status_ok_assertions.json.

{
    "scenarioName": "Invoke the GET api and assert the response",
    "steps": [
        {
            "name": "get_user_details",
            "url": "/users/octocat",
            "operation": "GET",
            "request": {
            },
            "assertions": {
                "status": 200,
                "body": {
                    "login" : "octocat",
                    "id" : 33847731,
                    "type" : "User"
                }
            }
        }
    ]
}

the github_host.properties looks as below:

web.application.endpoint.host=https://api.github.com
web.application.endpoint.port=443
web.application.endpoint.context=

And you need not have to deal with any assertThat(...), GIVEN-WHEN-THEN etc like below.

GIVEN- the GitHub REST api GET end point,
WHEN- I invoke the API,
THEN- I will receive 200(OK) status with body and assert the response

or

GIVEN- the GitHub REST url and the method GET,
WHEN- I invoke the API,
THEN- I will receive 200(OK) status with body
AND assert the response

or

GIVEN- the GET methos
AND the http url of GitHub api
WHEN- I invoke the API using a HTTP client,
THEN- I will receive 200(OK) status with body
AND assert the response

or

HttpResponse response =

aHttpClient.get("https://<host_post_externalized>/users/octocat")

.header("accept", "application/json")

.execute();

User user = response.getUser();

assertThat(response.getStatusCode(), is(200))

assertThat(user.getId(), is(33847731))

assertThat(user.getLogin(), is("octocat"))

assertThat(user.getType(), is("user"))


See more usages and examples below.

Table of Contents -

examples:

1:

Help and usage

Download this help and usage project to try it yourself.

2:

Single Scenario with single step

A scenario might consists of one or more steps. Let's start with single step Test Case:

{
  "scenarioName": "Vanilla - Will Get Google Employee Details",
  "steps": [
    {
      "name": "step1_get_google_emp_details",
      "url": "http://localhost:9998/google-emp-services/home/employees/999",
      "operation": "GET",
      "request": {
      },
      "assertions": {
        "status": 200
      }
    }
  ]
}

Note: The above JSON block is a test case where we asked the test framework to hit the

REST end point : http://localhost:9998/google-emp-services/home/employees/999

with method: GET

and asserting the REST response with an

expected status: 200

where, step "name" is a meaningful step name, which is significant when multiple steps are run. See a multi-step example.

Note:

scenarioname : is free text

step name: free text without any space

The above test case will PASS as the end point actually responds as below. Look at the "response" section below.

        {
          "name": "Sample_Get_Employee_by_Id",
          "operation": "GET",
          "url": "/google-emp-services/home/employees/999",
          "response": {
            "status": 200,
            "body": {
              "id": 999,
              "name": "Larry P",
              "availability": true,
              "addresses":[
                {
                  "gpsLocation": "x3000-y5000z-70000"
                },
                {
                  "gpsLocation": "x3000-y5000z-70000S"
                }
              ]
            }
          }
        }

The following Test Case will fail. Why?

Because you are asserting with an expected status as 500, but the end point actually returns 200.

{
  "scenarioName": "Vanilla - Will Get Google Employee Details",
  "steps": [
    {
      "name": "step1_get_google_emp_details",
      "url": "http://localhost:9998/google-emp-services/home/employees/999",
      "operation": "GET",
      "request": {
      },
      "assertions": {
        "status": 500
      }
    }
  ]
}

27:

Generating load for performance testing aka stress testing

  • Browse or clone this sample performance-tests repo with examples.
    • Take advantage of the following two extended Junit load runners from the lib-

@RunWith(ZeroCodeLoadRunner.class)

and

@RunWith(ZeroCodeMultiLoadRunner.class)

@LoadWith("load_config_sample.properties")
@TestMapping(testClass = TestGitGubEndPoint.class, testMethod = "testGitHubGET_load")
@RunWith(ZeroCodeLoadRunner.class)
public class LoadGetEndPointTest {
}
  • The load generation properties are set here load_config_sample.properties. Learn more >>
number.of.threads=2
ramp.up.period.in.seconds=10
loop.count=1
abort.after.time.lapsed.in.seconds=600
  • The test case for GET api is mapped or fed into the load runner as below:

@TestMapping(testClass = TestGitGubEndPoint.class, testMethod = "testGitHubGET_load")

which verifies the response in the assertions section -

{
    "scenarioName": "Load testing- Git Hub GET API",
    "steps": [
        {
            "name": "get_user_details",
            "url": "/users/octocat",
            "operation": "GET",
            "request": {
            },
            "assertions": {
                "status": 200,
                "body": {
                    "login" : "octocat",
                    "id" : 583231,
                    "avatar_url" : "https://avatars3.githubusercontent.com/u/583231?v=4",
                    "type" : "User",
                    "name" : "The Octocat",
                    "company" : "GitHub"
                }
            }
        }
    ]
}
  • In one of the response during the load, if the actual response does not match the expected response i.e. in the assertions section above, then the test will fail.
  • Browse the above example in GitHub. or
  • Download as zip the above maven project to run from your IDE.

More (Learn advantages of load testing using your IDE(Eclipse or Intellij etc)) >>

3:

Single step with more assertions

{
  "scenarioName": "Vanilla - Will Get Google Employee Details",
  "steps": [
    {
      "name": "step1_get_google_emp_details",
      "url": "http://localhost:9998/google-emp-services/home/employees/999",
      "operation": "GET",
      "request": {
      },
      "assertions": {
        "status": 200,
        "body": {
          "id": 999,
          "name": "Larry P",
          "availability": true,
          "addresses":[
            {
              "gpsLocation": "x3000-y5000z-70000"
            },
            {
              "gpsLocation": "x3000-y5000z-70000S"
            }
          ]
        }
      }
    }
  ]
}

The above Test Case will PASS as the assertions section has all expected values matching the end point's response.

4:

Running with step loop

  • Usage: See here: Step loop

  • loop field in a step will execute the step that many number of time.

{
  "scenarioName": "Vanilla - Execute multiple times - Step",
  "steps": [
    {
      "loop": 2,
      "name": "get_room_details",
      "url": "http://localhost:9998/google-emp-services/home/employees/101",
      "operation": "GET",
      "request": {
      },
      "assertions": {
        "status": 200,
        "body": {
          "id": 101
        }
      }
    }
  ]
}

5:

Running with scenario loop

  • Usage: See here: Scenario loop Runs the entire scenario two times i.e. executing both the steps once for each time.
{
  "scenarioName": "Vanilla - Execute multiple times - Scenario",
  "loop": 2,
  "steps": [
    {
      "name": "get_room_details",
      "url": "http://localhost:9998/google-emp-services/home/employees/101",
      "operation": "GET",
      "request": {
      },
      "assertions": {
        "status": 200,
        "body": {
          "id": 101
        }
      }
    },
    {
      "name": "get_another_room_details",
      "url": "http://localhost:9998/google-emp-services/home/employees/102",
      "operation": "GET",
      "request": {
      },
      "assertions": {
        "status": 200,
        "body": {
          "id": 102
        }
      }
    }
  ]
}

6:

Generated reports and charts

(For Gradle build setup - See here - Wiki)

Generated test statistics reports. See the '/target' folder after every run. e.g. Look for-

target/zerocode-junit-granular-report.csv

target/zerocode-junit-interactive-fuzzy-search.html

See some sample reports below:

Spike Chart:
  1. Full coverage CSV report

  2. Interactive - Chart(Filter by Author, Test name, status etc)

CSV Report:
If target folder has permission issue, the library alerts with-
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Somehow the 'target/zerocode-test-reports' is not present or has no report JSON files. 
Possible reasons- 
   1) No tests were activated or made to run via ZeroCode runner. -or- 
   2) You have simply used @RunWith(...) and ignored all tests -or- 
   3) Permission issue to create/write folder/files 
   4) Please fix it by adding/activating at least one test case or fix the file permission issue
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7:

More assertion with handy place holders

8:

REST endpoint calls with General Place holders

9:

Step dealing with arrays

Finding the occurance of an element in the array response

e.g. your actual response is like below, Your use-case is, Dan and Mike might not be returned in the same order always, but they appear only once in the array.

Url: "/api/v1/screening/persons",
Operation: "GET",
Response: 
{
                "status": 200,
                "body": {
                    "type" : "HIGH-VALUE",
                    "persons":[
                        {
                            "id": "120.100.80.03",
                            "name": "Dan"
                        },
                        {
                            "id": "120.100.80.11",
                            "name": "Mike"
                        }
                    ]
                }
}

To assert the above situation, you can find the element using JSON path as below and verify 'Dan' was returned only once in the array and 'Emma' was present in the 'persons' array. (See more JSON paths here)

{
    "scenarioName": "Scenario- Get all person details",
    "steps": [
        {
            "name": "get_screening_details",
            "url": "/api/v1/screening/persons",
            "operation": "GET",
            "request": {
            },
            "assertions": {
                "status": 200,
                "body": {
                    "type": "HIGH-VALUE",
                    "persons.SIZE": 2,
                    "persons[?(@.name=='Dan')].id.SIZE": 1,
                    "persons[?(@.name=='Mike')].id.SIZE": 1,
                    "persons[?(@.name=='Emma')].id.SIZE": 0
                }
            }
        }
    ]
}

What persons[?(@.name=='Dan')].id.SIZE means is-

In the persons array check every element with the name Dan, if found pick the id of element and return all of the ids as an array, then do .SIZE on the ids array and return a count.

Note- Even if a single matching element is found, the return is always an array type. Also if you do a .length() on the returned ids e.g. persons[?(@.name=='Dan')].id.length(), that's also an array i.e. [2] instead of simple 2. That's how JSON path behaves. Hence .SIZE helps to achieve this.

Run the above test case from here - testFindElementInArray().

10:

Chaining multiple steps for a scenario

Chaining steps: Multi-Step REST calls with earlier response(IDs etc) as input to next step

{
    "scenarioName": "12_chaining_multiple_steps_using_previous_response",
    "steps": [
        {
            "name": "create_new_employee",
            "url": "http://localhost:9998/google-emp-services/home/employees",
            "operation": "POST",
            "request": {},
            "assertions": {
                "status": 201,
                "body": {
                    "id": 1000
                }
            }
        },
        {
            "name": "get_and_verify_created_employee",
            "url": "http://localhost:9998/google-emp-services/home/employees/${$.create_new_employee.response.body.id}", //<--- ID from previous response //
            "operation": "GET",
            "request": {},
            "assertions": {
                "status": 200,
                "body": {
                    "id": 1000,
                    "name": "${$.create_new_employee.response.body.name}",
                    "addresses": [
                        {
                            "gpsLocation": "${$.create_new_employee.response.body.addresses[0].gpsLocation}"
                        },
                        {
                            "gpsLocation": "${$.create_new_employee.response.body.addresses[1].gpsLocation}"
                        }
                    ]
                }
            }
        }
    ]
}

11:

Generating random strings, random numbers and static strings

Random UUID-

{
  "scenarioName": "random_UUID",
  "steps": [
    {
      "name": "create_new_employee",
      "url": "http://localhost:9998/google-emp-services/home/employees",
      "operation": "POST",
      "request": {
        "body": {
          "id": "${RANDOM.UUID}", //<-- Everytime it creates unique uuid. See below example.
          "name": "Elen M"   
        }
      },
      "assertions": {
        "status": 201
      }
    }
  ]
}

Resolves to-
{
  "scenarioName": "random_UUID",
  "steps": [
    {
      "name": "create_new_employee",
      "url": "http://localhost:9998/google-emp-services/home/employees",
      "operation": "POST",
      "request": {
        "body": {
          "id": "94397df8-0e9e-4479-a2f9-9af509fb5998", //<-- Every time it runs, it creates an unique uuid
          "name": "Elen M"   
        }
      },
      "assertions": {
        "status": 201
      }
    }
  ]
}

Random String of specific length-

{
  "scenarioName": "13_random_and_static_string_number_place_holders",
  "steps": [
    {
      "name": "create_new_employee",
      "url": "http://localhost:9998/google-emp-services/home/employees",
      "operation": "POST",
      "request": {
        "body": {
          "id": 1000,
          "name": "Larry ${RANDOM.STRING:5}",   //<-- Random number of length 5 chars
          "password": "${RANDOM.STRING:10}"     //<-- Random number of length 10 chars
        }
      },
      "assertions": {
        "status": 201
      }
    }
  ]
}

resolves to the below POST request to the end point:

step:create_new_employee
url:http://localhost:9998/google-emp-services/home/employees
method:POST
request:
{
  "body" : {
    "id" : 1000,
    "name" : "Larry tzezq",
    "password" : "czljtmzotu"
  }
} 

See full log in the log file, looks like this:

requestTimeStamp:2016-08-01T15:37:20.555
step:create_new_employee
url:http://localhost:9998/google-emp-services/home/employees
method:POST
request:
{
  "body" : {
    "id" : 1000,
    "name" : "Larry tzezq",
    "password" : "czljtmzotu"
  }
} 

Response:
{
  "status" : 201,
  ...
}
*responseTimeStamp:2016-08-01T15:37:20.707 
*Response delay:152.0 milli-secs 
---------> Assertion: <----------
{
  "status" : 201
} 
-done-
 
--------- RELATIONSHIP-ID: 4cfd3bfb-a537-49a2-84a2-0457c4e65803 ---------
requestTimeStamp:2016-08-01T15:37:20.714
step:again_try_to_create_employee_with_same_name_n_password
url:http://localhost:9998/google-emp-services/home/employees
method:POST
request:
{
  "body" : {
    "id" : 1000,
    "name" : "Larry tzezq",
    "password" : "czljtmzotu"
  }
} 
--------- RELATIONSHIP-ID: 4cfd3bfb-a537-49a2-84a2-0457c4e65803 ---------
Response:
{
  "status" : 201,
  ...
}
*responseTimeStamp:2016-08-01T15:37:20.721 
*Response delay:7.0 milli-secs 
---------> Assertion: <----------
{
  "status" : 201
} 
-done-

12:

Asserting general and exception messages

Asserting with $CONTAINS.STRING:

{
      ...
      ...
      "assertions": {
        "status": 200,
        "body": {
          "name": "$CONTAINS.STRING:Larry"   //<-- PASS: If the "name" field in the response contains "Larry".
        }
      }
}

13:

Asserting with $GT or $LT

$GT.<any_number>

{
  ...
  ...
  "assertions": {
    "status": "$GT.198"   //<--- PASS: 200 is greater than 198
  }
}

$LT.<any_number>

{
  ...
  ...
  "assertions": {
      "status": "$LT.500"   //<--- PASS: 200 is lesser than 500
  }
}

14:

Asserting an empty array with $[]

    {
      ...
      ...
      "assertions": {
        "status": 200,
        "body": {
          "id": "$NOT.NULL",
          "vehicles": "$[]"         //<--- PASS: if the response has empty "vehicles"
        }
      }
    }

141:

Asserting an array SIZE

If your response contains the below:

e.g. http response body:
{
                "results": [
                    {
                        "id": 1,
                        "name": "Elon Musk"
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 2,
                        "name": "Jeff Bezos"
                    }
                ]
}

Then you can assert many ways for the desired result-

        {
	    ...
            "assertions": {
                "results.SIZE": 2
            }
        }

-or-
        {
	    ...
            "assertions": {
                "results.SIZE": "$GT.1"
            }
        }
-or-
        {
	    ...
            "assertions": {
                "results.SIZE": "$LT.3"
            }
        }
etc

See more SIZE examples here in the hello-world repo.

15:

Calling java methods(apis) for doing specific tasks:

  • Sample tests are here
    • Example of request response as JSON - See here
    • Example of passing a simple string e.g. SQL query etc - See here
  • You can clone and execute from this repo here
{
    "scenarioName": "Java method return as JSON assertions",
    "steps": [
        {
            "name": "execute_java_method",
            "url": "org.jsmart.zerocode.zerocodejavaexec.DbSqlExecutor", //<--- class name
            "operation": "fetchDbCustomers",              //<-- method name
            "request": "select id, name from customers",     //<--- parameter to the method
            "assertions": {
                "dbResults": [
                    {
                        "id": 1,
                        "name": "Elon Musk"
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 2,
                        "name": "Jeff Bezos"
                    }
                ]

            }
        }
    ]
}

In case of - Java method request, response as JSON:

{
    "scenarioName": "Java method request, response as JSON",
    "steps": [
        {
            "name": "execute_java_method",
            "url": "org.jsmart.zerocode.zerocodejavaexec.OrderCreator",
            "operation": "createOrder",
            "request": {
                "itemName" : "Mango",
                "quantity" : 15000
            },
            "assertions": {
                "orderId" : 1020301,
                "itemName" : "Mango",
                "quantity" : 15000
            }
        }
    ]
}

Sample Java class and method used in the above step-

public class OrderCreator {

    public Order createOrder(Order order){
        /**
         * TODO- Suppose you process the "order" received, and finally return the "orderProcessed".
         * Here it is hardcoded for simplicity and understanding purpose only
         */
	 
        Order orderProcessed = new Order(1020301, order.getItemName(), order.getQuantity());

        return orderProcessed;
    }
}

Order pojo looks like below, full pojo src here-

public class Order {
    private Integer orderId;
    private String itemName;
    private Long quantity;

    @JsonCreator
    public Order(
            @JsonProperty("orderId")Integer orderId,
            @JsonProperty("itemName")String itemName,
            @JsonProperty("quantity")Long quantity) {
        this.orderId = orderId;
        this.itemName = itemName;
        this.quantity = quantity;
    }

    public Integer getOrderId() {
        return orderId;
    }

    public String getItemName() {
        return itemName;
    }

    public Long getQuantity() {
        return quantity;
    }

More examples here-

16:

Overriding with Custom HttpClient with Project demand

See here how to Use SSL HttpClient : See usage of @UseHttpClient

See here custom one : See usage of @UseHttpClient

e.g.

@UseHttpClient(SslTrustHttpClient.class)
@TargetEnv("hosts_ci.properties")
@RunWith(ZeroCodeUnitRunner.class)
public class SslTrustUseHttpClientTest {

    @Test
    @JsonTestCase("foo/bar/test_case_file.json")
    public void testASmartTestCase_createUpdate() throws Exception {

    }
}

17:

Externalizing RESTful host and port into properties file(s).

Note: Each runner is capable of running with a properties file which can have host and port for specific to this runner.

  • So one can have a single properties file per runner which means you can run the tests against multiple environments -OR-
  • can have a single properties file shared across all the runners means all tests run against the same environment.

** Note - As per Latest config update, we have updated endpoint configuration fields. From the release 1.2.8 onwards we will be allowing web. and deprecating restful. in endpoint configurations. We will take away support for restful. from endpoint configuration in the future releases. Version 1.2.8 will work for both as we have made the framework backward compatible.

e.g.

"config_hosts_sample.properties"

web.application.endpoint.host=http://{host-name-or-ip}

web.application.endpoint.port=9998

web.application.endpoint.context=/google-emp-services

The runner looks like this:

@TargetEnv("config_hosts_sample.properties")
@RunWith(ZeroCodeUnitRunner.class)
public class ScreeningServiceContractTest {

    @Test
    @JsonTestCase("contract_tests/screeningservice/get_screening_details_by_custid.json")
    public void testScreeningLocalAndGlobal() throws Exception {
    }
}
{
    "scenarioName": "GIVEN- the GitHub REST api, WHEN- I invoke GET, THEN- I will receive the 200 status with body",
    "steps": [
        {
            "name": "get_user_details",
            "url": "/users/octocat",
            "operation": "GET",
            "request": {
            },
            "assertions": {
                "status": 200,
                "body": {
                    "login" : "octocat",
                    "type" : "User"
                }
            }
        }
    ]
}
@TargetEnv("github_host.properties")
@RunWith(ZeroCodeUnitRunner.class)
public class JustHelloWorldTest {

    @Test
    @JsonTestCase("helloworld/hello_world_status_ok_assertions.json")
    public void testGet() throws Exception {

    }
}
@TargetEnv("github_host.properties")
@UseHttpClient(SslTrustHttpClient.class) //<--- Optional, Needed for https/ssl connections.
@RunWith(ZeroCodePackageRunner.class)
@TestPackageRoot("helloworld_github_REST_api") //<--- Root of the package to pick all tests including sub-folders
public class HelloWorldGitHubSuite {

}
@Suite.SuiteClasses({
        RegulatoryServiceContractTest.class,
        IdCheckServiceContractTest.class,
        CorpLoanServiceContractTest.class,
        ScreeningServiceContractTest.class
})
@RunWith(Suite.class)
public class ContractTestSuite {

}

18:

Generating IDs and sharing across steps

19:

Bare JSON String, still a valid JSON

20:

Passing Headers to the REST API

201:

Passing "Content-Type": "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" header

It is very easy to send this content-type in the header and assert the response.

When you use this header, then you just need to put the Key-Value or Name-Value content under request body or request queryParams section. That's it.

e.g.

         "request": {
            "headers": {
               "Content-Type": "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"
            },
            "body": {
               "unit-no": "12-07",
               "block-number": 33,
               "state/region": "Singapore North",
               "country": "Singapore",
               "pin": "87654321",
            }
         }
  • What happens if my Key contains a space or front slash / etc?

This is automatically taken care by Apache Http Client. That means it gets converted to the equivalent encoded char which is understood by the server(e.g. Spring boot or Jersey or Tomcat etc ).

e.g. The above name-value pair behind the scene is sent to the server as below:

unit-no=12-07&country=Singapore&block-number=33&pin=87654321&state%2Fregion=Singapore+North

See more examples and usages in the Wiki >>

21:

Passing environment param via Jenkins and dynamically picking environment specific properties file in CI

package org.jsmart.zerocode.testhelp.tests;

import org.jsmart.zerocode.core.domain.EnvProperty;
import org.jsmart.zerocode.core.domain.JsonTestCase;
import org.jsmart.zerocode.core.domain.TargetEnv;
import org.jsmart.zerocode.core.runner.ZeroCodeUnitRunner;
import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;

@EnvProperty("_${env}") //any meaningful string e.g. `env.name` or `envName` or `app.env` etc
@TargetEnv("hello_world_host.properties")
@RunWith(ZeroCodeUnitRunner.class)
public class EnvPropertyHelloWorldTest {

    @Test
    @JsonTestCase("hello_world/hello_world_get.json")
    public void testRunAgainstConfigPropertySetViaJenkins() throws Exception {
        
    }
}

/**
 Set "env=ci" in Jenkins (or via .profile in a Unix machine, System/User properties in Windows)
 then the runner picks "hello_world_host_ci.properties" and runs.
 if -Denv=sit, then runner looks for and picks "hello_world_host_sit.properties" and runs.

If `env` not supplied, then defaults to "hello_world_host.properties" which by default mentioned mentioned via @TargetEnv
 
 -or-
 
 Configure the below `mvn goal` when you run via Jenkins goal in the specific environment e.g. -
 
 For CI :
 mvn clean install -Denv=ci
 
 For SIT:
 mvn clean install -Denv=sit
 
 and make sure:
 hello_world_host_ci.properties and hello_world_host_sit.properties etc are available in the resources folder or class path.
 */

22:

LocalDate and LocalDateTime format example

{
	"id": 1000,
	"createdDay": "${LOCAL.DATE.TODAY:yyyy-MM-dd}",
	"createdDayTimeStamp": "${LOCAL.DATETIME.NOW:yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss.nnnnnnnnn}",
	"randomUniqueValue": "${LOCAL.DATETIME.NOW:yyyyMMdd'T'HHmmssnnnnnnnnn}"
}

resolved to ===> below date and datetime

{
	"id": 1000,
	"createdDay": "2018-02-14",
	"createdDayTimeStamp": "2018-02-14T21:52:45.180000000",
	"randomUniqueValue": "20180214T215245180000000"
}

e.g formats:

output: 2018-02-11  // "uuuu-MM-dd"
output: 2018 02 11  // "uuuu MM dd"
output: 2018        // "yyyy"
output: 2018-Feb-11 // "uuuu-MMM-dd"
output: 2018-02-11  // "uuuu-LL-dd"
Default: date.toString(): 2018-02-11

Note: uuuu prints same as yyyy

output: 2018-02-11T21:31:21.041000000    // "uuuu-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss.SSSSSSSSS"
output: 2018-02-11T21:31:21.41000000     // "uuuu-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss.n"
output: 2018-02-11T21:31:21.041000000    // "uuuu-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss.nnnnnnnnn"
output: 2018-02-11T21:31:21.77481041     // "uuuu-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss.A"
output: 2018-02-14                       // "uuuu-MM-dd" or "yyyy-MM-dd"
Default: date.toString(): 2018-02-11T21:31:20.989          // .toString()

See here more-

https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/time/format/DateTimeFormatter.html

     H       hour-of-day (0-23)          number            0
     m       minute-of-hour              number            30
     s       second-of-minute            number            55
     S       fraction-of-second          fraction          978
     A       milli-of-day                number            1234
     n       nano-of-second              number            987654321
     N       nano-of-day                 number            1234000000

All letters 'A' to 'Z' and 'a' to 'z' are reserved as pattern letters. The following pattern letters are defined:

 Symbol  Meaning                     Presentation      Examples
 ------  -------                     ------------      -------
 G       era                         text              AD; Anno Domini; A
 u       year                        year              2004; 04
 y       year-of-era                 year              2004; 04
 D       day-of-year                 number            189
 M/L     month-of-year               number/text       7; 07; Jul; July; J
 d       day-of-month                number            10

23:

SOAP method invocation example with xml input

You can invoke SOAP as below which is already supported by zerocode lib, or you can write your own SOAP executor using Java(if you want to, but you don't have to). (If you want- Then, in the README file go to section -> "Calling java methods(apis) for specific tasks" )

{
    "scenarioName": "GIVEN a SOAP end poinr WHEN I invoke a method with a request XML, THEN I will ge the SOAP response in XML",
    "steps": [
        {
            "name": "invoke_currency_conversion",
            "url": "http://<target-domain.com>/<path etc>",
            "operation": "POST",
            "request": {
                "headers": {
                    "Content-Type": "text/xml; charset=utf-8",
                    "SOAPAction": "<get this from WSDL file, this has the port or method or action name in the url>"
                    //"SOAPAction": "\"<or wrap it in double quotes as some SOAP servers understand it>\""
                },
                "body": "escaped request XML message ie the soap:Envelope message"
                -or- // pick from- src/test/resources/soap_requests/xml_files/soap_request.xml
                "body": "${XML.FILE:soap_requests/xml_files/soap_request.xml}" 
            },
            "assertions": {
                "status": 200
            }
        }
    ]
}

e.g. below- This example invokes a free SOAP service over internet. Note: If this service is down, the invocation might fail. So better to test against an available SOAP service to you or a local stub service.

{
    "scenarioName": "GIVEN a SOAP end point WHEN I invoke a method with a request XML, THEN I will get response in XML",
    "steps": [
        {
            "name": "invoke_currency_conversion",
            "url": "http://www.webservicex.net/CurrencyConvertor.asmx",
            "operation": "POST",
            "request": {
                "headers": {
                    "Content-Type": "text/xml; charset=utf-8",
                    "SOAPAction": "http://www.webserviceX.NET/ConversionRate"
                    //"SOAPAction": "\"http://www.webserviceX.NET/ConversionRate\""
                },
                "body": "<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"utf-8\"?>\n<soap:Envelope xmlns:xsi=\"http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance\" xmlns:xsd=\"http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema\" xmlns:soap=\"http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/\">\n  <soap:Body>\n    <ConversionRate xmlns=\"http://www.webserviceX.NET/\">\n      <FromCurrency>AFA</FromCurrency>\n      <ToCurrency>GBP</ToCurrency>\n    </ConversionRate>\n  </soap:Body>\n</soap:Envelope>"
                // -or- 
                // "body": "${XML.FILE:soap_requests/xml_files/soap_request.xml}"
            },
            "assertions": {
                "status": 200
            }
        }
    ]
}

You should received the below-

Response:
{
  "status" : 200,
  "headers" : {
    "Date" : [ "Fri, 16 Feb 2018 05:38:27 GMT" ],
    "Server" : [ "Microsoft-IIS/7.0" ]
  },
  
  "rawBody" : "<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"utf-8\"?><soap:Envelope xmlns:soap=\"http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/\" xmlns:xsi=\"http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance\" xmlns:xsd=\"http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema\"><soap:Body><ConversionRateResponse xmlns=\"http://www.webserviceX.NET/\"><ConversionRateResult>-1</ConversionRateResult></ConversionRateResponse></soap:Body></soap:Envelope>"
}
*responseTimeStamp:2018-02-16T05:38:35.254
*Response delay:653.0 milli-secs

24:

SOAP method invocation where Corporate Proxy enabled

You need to use a HttpClient ie override the BasicHttpClient and set proxies to it as below-

        Step-1)
        CredentialsProvider credsProvider = createProxyCredentialsProvider(proxyHost, proxyPort, proxyUserName, proxyPassword);

        Step-2)
        HttpHost proxy = new HttpHost(proxyHost, proxyPort);
 
        Step-3) method Step-1
        private CredentialsProvider createProxyCredentialsProvider(String proxyHost, int proxyPort, String proxyUserName, String proxyPassword) {

                CredentialsProvider credsProvider = new BasicCredentialsProvider();
        
                credsProvider.setCredentials(
        
                        new AuthScope(proxyHost, proxyPort),
        
                        new UsernamePasswordCredentials(proxyUserName, proxyPassword));
        
                return credsProvider;
        }
 
        Step-4) 
        Set the values from Step-1 and Step-2
        
        HttpClients.custom()

                .setSSLContext(sslContext)

                .setSSLHostnameVerifier(new NoopHostnameVerifier())

                .setDefaultCookieStore(cookieStore)

                .setDefaultCredentialsProvider(credsProvider)    //<------------- From Step-1

                .setProxy(proxy)                                 //<------------- From Step-2

                .build();

You can inject the Corporate Proxy details to the custom {{HttpClient}} li below from a config file simply by annotating the key names from the host config file which is used by the runner for mentioning host and port. e.g. below: See an example here- https://github.com/authorjapps/zerocode/blob/master/src/main/java/org/jsmart/zerocode/core/httpclient/soap/SoapCorporateProxySslHttpClient.java

Usage example here: https://github.com/authorjapps/zerocode/blob/master/src/test/java/org/jsmart/zerocode/core/soap/SoapCorpProxySslHttpClientTest.java

How to use?

@UseHttpClient(SoapCorporateProxySslHttpClient.class)
@TargetEnv("soap_host_with_corp_proxy.properties")
@RunWith(ZeroCodeUnitRunner.class)
public class SoapCorpProxySslHttpClientTest {

    @Ignore
    @Test
    @JsonTestCase("foo/bar/soap_test_case_file.json")
    public void testSoapWithCorpProxyEnabled() throws Exception {

    }
}

Explanation below-

@TargetEnv("hello_world_host.properties")
@RunWith(ZeroCodeUnitRunner.class)
public class HelloWorldTest {
     // @Test
     // tests here
}

soap_host_with_corp_proxy.properties
---------------------------
# Web Server host and port
web.application.endpoint.host=https://soap-server-host/ServiceName
web.application.endpoint.port=443

# Web Service context; Leave it blank in case you do not have a common context
web.application.endpoint.context=

#sample test purpose - if you remove this from ehre, then make sure to remove from Java file
corporate.proxy.host=http://exam.corporate-proxy-host.co.uk
corporate.proxy.port=80
corporate.proxy.username=HAVYSTARUSER
corporate.proxy.password=i#am#here#for#soap#


Your HttpClient:
----------------
See-
https://hc.apache.org/httpcomponents-client-ga/httpclient/examples/org/apache/http/examples/client/ClientProxyAuthentication.java

public class YourHttpClient {

    @Inject
    @Named("corporate.proxy.host")
    private String proxyHost;

    @Inject
    @Named("corporate.proxy.port")
    private String proxyPort;

    @Inject
    @Named("corporate.proxy.username")
    private String proxyUserName;

    @Inject
    @Named("corporate.proxy.password")
    private String proxyPassword;

    // Build the client using these.
}

25:

MIME Type Converters- XML to JSON, prettyfy XML etc

e.g.

xmlToJson
{
            "name": "xml_to_json",
            "url": "org.jsmart.zerocode.converter.MimeTypeConverter",
            "operation": "xmlToJson",
            "request": "<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"utf-8\"?>\n<soap:Envelope xmlns:xsi=\"http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance\" xmlns:xsd=\"http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema\" xmlns:soap=\"http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/\">\n  <soap:Body>\n    <ConversionRate xmlns=\"http://www.webserviceX.NET/\">\n      <FromCurrency>AFA</FromCurrency>\n      <ToCurrency>GBP</ToCurrency>\n    </ConversionRate>\n  </soap:Body>\n</soap:Envelope>",
            "assertions": {
                "soap:Envelope": {
                    "xmlns:xsd": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema",
                    "xmlns:soap": "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/",
                    "xmlns:xsi": "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance",
                    "soap:Body": {
                        "ConversionRate": {
                            "xmlns": "http://www.webserviceX.NET/",
                            "FromCurrency": "AFA",
                            "ToCurrency": "GBP"
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
jsonToJson

Various input and output. Depending upon the usecase, you can use that method.

{
    "scenarioName": "Given a json string or json block, convert to equivalent json block",
    "steps": [
        {
            "name": "json_block_to_json",
            "url": "org.jsmart.zerocode.converter.MimeTypeConverter",
            "operation": "jsonBlockToJson",
            "request": {
                "headers": {
                    "hdrX": "valueX"
                },
                "body": {
                    "id": 1001,
                    "addresses": [
                        {
                            "postCode": "PXY"
                        },
                        {
                            "postCode": "LMZ DDD"
                        }
                    ]
                }
            },
            "assertions": {
                "headers": {
                    "hdrX": "valueX"
                },
                "body": {
                    "id": 1001,
                    "addresses": [
                        {
                            "postCode": "PXY"
                        },
                        {
                            "postCode": "${$.json_block_to_json.request.body.addresses[1].postCode}"
                        }
                    ]
                }
            }
        },
        {
            "name": "json_to_json",
            "url": "org.jsmart.zerocode.converter.MimeTypeConverter",
            "operation": "jsonToJson",
            "request": "${$.json_block_to_json.request.headers}",
            "assertions": {
                "hdrX": "valueX"
            }
        },
        {
            "name": "body_json_to_json",
            "url": "org.jsmart.zerocode.converter.MimeTypeConverter",
            "operation": "jsonToJson",
            "request": "${$.json_block_to_json.request.body}",
            "assertions": {
                "id": 1001,
                "addresses": [
                    {
                        "postCode": "PXY"
                    },
                    {
                        "postCode": "LMZ DDD"
                    }
                ]
            }
        },
        {
            "name": "json_node_to_json",
            "url": "org.jsmart.zerocode.converter.MimeTypeConverter",
            "operation": "jsonBlockToJson",
            "request": {
                "headers": {
                    "hdrX": "valueX"
                },
                "body": {
                    "id": 1001,
                    "addresses": [
                        {
                            "postCode": "PXY"
                        }
                    ]
                }
            },
            "assertions": {
                "headers": {
                    "hdrX": "valueX"
                },
                "body": {
                    "id": 1001,
                    "addresses": [
                        {
                            "postCode": "${$.json_block_to_json.request.body.addresses[0].postCode}"
                        }
                    ]
                }
            }
        }
    ]
}

Available methods are-

  • xmlToJson
  • jsonToJson
  • jsonBlockToJson
  • jsonNodeToJson
  • prettyXml

26:

Using WireMock for mocking dependent end points

See Issue #47 for the scenarios when WireMock becomes handy. See examples here- https://github.com/authorjapps/zerocode-hello-world/blob/master/src/test/resources/wiremock_tests/mock_via_wiremock_then_test_the_end_point.json

The below JSON block step will mock two end points using WireMock.

  1. GET: /api/v1/amazon/customers/UK001 (no headers)
  2. GET: /api/v1/amazon/customers/cust-007 (with headers)
        {
            "name": "setup_mocks",
            "url": "/$MOCK",
            "operation": "$USE.WIREMOCK",
            "request": {
                "mocks": [
                    {
                        "name": "mocking_a_GET_endpoint",
                        "operation": "GET",
                        "url": "/api/v1/amazon/customers/UK001",
                        "response": {
                            "status": 200,
                            "headers": {
                                "Accept": "application/json"
                            },
                            "body": {
                                "id": "UK001",
                                "name": "Adam Smith",
                                "Age": "33"
                            }
                        }
                    },
                    {
                        "name": "mocking_a_GET_endpoint_with_headers",
                        "operation": "GET",
                        "url": "/api/v1/amazon/customers/cust-007",
                        "request": {
                            "headers": {
                                "api_key": "key-01-01",
                                "api_secret": "secret-01-01"
                            }
                        },
                        "response": {
                            "status": 200,
                            "body": {
                                "id": "cust-007",
                                "type": "Premium"
                            }
                        }
                    }
                ]
            },
            "assertions": {
                "status": 200
            }
        }

28:

Http Basic authentication step using zerocode

  • How can I do basic http authentication in ZeroCode ?
    • Ans: You can do this in so many ways, it depends on your project requirement. Most simplest one is to pass the base64 basicAuth in the request headers as below - e.g. USERNAME/PASSWORD as charaanuser/passtwitter

Note- Zerocode framework helps you to achieve this, but has nothing to do with Basic-Auth. It uses Apache Http Client behind the scenes, this means whatever you can do using Apache Http Client, you can do it simply using Zerocode.

  • Positive scenario
{
    "name": "get_book_using_basic_auth",
    "url": "http://localhost:8088/api/v1/white-papers/WP-001",
    "operation": "GET",
    "request": {
        "headers": {
            "Authorization": "Basic Y2hhcmFhbnVzZXI6cGFzc3R3aXR0ZXI=" // You can generate this using Postman or java code
        }
    },
    "assertions": {
        "status": 200, // 401 - if unauthorised. See negatibe test below
        "body": {
            "id": "WP-001",
            "type": "pdf",
            "category": "Mule System API"
        }
    }
}        
  • Negative scenario
{
    "name": "get_book_using_wrong_auth",
    "url": "http://localhost:8088/api/v1/white-papers/WP-001",
    "operation": "GET",
    "request": {
        "headers": {
            "Authorization": "Basic aWRONG-PASSWORD"
        }
    },
    "assertions": {
        "status": 401 //401(or simillar code whatever the server responds), you can assert here.
        "body": {
            "message": "Unauthorised" 
        }
    }
}        
  • If your requirement is to put basic auth for all the API tests e.g. GET, POST, PUT, DELETE etc commonly in the regression suite, then you can put this "Authorization" header into your SSL client code. You can refer to an example test here.

  • In your custom http client, you add the header to the request at one place, which is common to all the API tests. See: org.jsmart.zerocode.httpclient.CorpBankApcheHttpClient#addBasicAuthHeader in the http-client code it uses.

29:

Sending query params in URL or separately

You can pass query params in the usual way in the URL e.g. ?page=1&page_size=5 -or- You can pass them in the request as below.

...
            "request": {
                "queryParams":{
                    "page":1,
                    "per_page":6
                }
            }
...

See below both the examples( See this in the hello-world repo in action i.e. the Test-Case and the JUnit Test )

{
    "scenarioName": "Git Hub GET API - Fetch by queryParams",
    "steps": [
        {
            "name": "get_repos_by_query",
            "url": "https://api.github.com/users/octocat/repos?page=1&per_page=6",
            "operation": "GET",
            "request": {
            },
            "assertions": {
                "status": 200,
                "body.SIZE": 6
            }
        },
        {
            "name": "get_repos_by_query_params",
            "url": "https://api.github.com/users/octocat/repos",
            "operation": "GET",
            "request": {
                "queryParams":{
                    "page":1,
                    "per_page":6
                }
            },
            "assertions": {
                "status": 200,
                "body.SIZE": 6
            }
        },
        {
            "name": "get_all_reposs_without_query", // without the query params, which fetches everything.
            "url": "https://api.github.com/users/octocat/repos",
            "operation": "GET",
            "request": {
            },
            "assertions": {
                "status": 200,
                "body.SIZE": 8
            }
        }
    ]
}

99:

Place holders for End Point Mocking

Place Holder Output More
/$MOCK Signifies that this step will be used for mocking end points Start with a front slash
$USE.WIREMOCK Framework will use wiremock APIs to mock the end points defined in "mocks" section Can use other mechanisms e.g. local REST api simulators

General place holders

Place Holder Output More
${RANDOM.NUMBER} Replaces with a random number Random number is generated using current timestamp in milli-sec
${RANDOM.UUID} Replaces with a random UUID Random number is generated using java.util.UUID e.g. 077e6162-3b6f-4ae2-a371-2470b63dgg00
${RANDOM.STRING:10} Replaces a random string consists of ten english alpphabets The length can be dynamic
${RANDOM.STRING:4} Replaces with a random string consists of four english alpphabets The length can be dynamic
${STATIC.ALPHABET:5} Replaces with abcde ie Static string of length 5 String starts from "a" and continues, repeats after "z"
${STATIC.ALPHABET:7} Replaces with abcdefg ie Static string of length 7 String starts from a"" and continues, repeats after "z"
${LOCAL.DATE.TODAY:yyyy-MM-dd} Resolves this today's date in the format yyyy-MM-dd or any suppliedformat See format examples here https://github.com/authorjapps/helpme/blob/master/zerocode-rest-help/src/test/resources/tests/00_sample_test_scenarios/18_date_and_datetime_today_generator.json
${LOCAL.DATETIME.NOW:yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss.nnnnnnnnn} Resolves this today's datetime stamp in any supplied format See format examples here https://github.com/authorjapps/helpme/blob/master/zerocode-rest-help/src/test/resources/tests/00_sample_test_scenarios/18_date_and_datetime_today_generator.json

Assertion place holders

Place Holder Output More
$NOT.NULL Assertion passes if a not null value was present in the response Otherwise fails
$NULL Assertion passes if a null value was present in the response Otherwise fails
$[] Assertion passes if an empty array was present in the response Otherwise fails
$EQ.99 Assertion passes if a numeric value equals to 99 was present in the response Can be any int, long, float etc
$NOT.EQ.99 Assertion passes if a numeric value is not equals to 99 was present in the response Can be any int, long, float etc
$GT.99 Assertion passes if a value greater than 99 was present in the response Can be any int, long, float etc
$LT.99 Assertion passes if a value lesser than 99 was present in the response Can be any int, long, float etc
$CONTAINS.STRING:id was cust-001 Assertion passes if the node response contains string "id was cust-001" Otherwise fails
$CONTAINS.STRING.IGNORECASE:id WaS CuSt-001 Assertion passes if the response value contains string "id was cust-001" with case insensitive Otherwise fails
$MATCHES.STRING:\\d{4}-\\d{2}-\\d{2} Assertion passes if the response value contains e.g. "1989-07-09" matching regex \\d{4}-\\d{2}-\\d{2} Otherwise fails

Assertion Path holders

Place Holder Output More
$<path.to.array>.SIZE e.g. "persons.SIZE" : 3 - Assertion passes if the array size matches with value(3) Search for dealing with arrays in this README for more usages
$<path.to.array>.SIZE e.g. "persons.SIZE" : "$GT.2" - Assertion passes if the array size is greater than the value(2) Search for dealing with arrays in this README for more usages
$<path.to.array>.SIZE e.g. "persons.SIZE" : "$LT.4" - Assertion passes if the array size is lesser than the value(4) Search for dealing with arrays in this README for more usages

100:

Video tutorials

References, Dicussions and articles