A simple, cross-platform GUI automation library for Python and Rust.
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AutoPy Introduction and Tutorial

Introduction

AutoPy is a simple, cross-platform GUI automation library for Python. It includes functions for controlling the keyboard and mouse, finding colors and bitmaps on-screen, and displaying alerts.

Currently supported on macOS, Windows, and X11 with the XTest extension.

Getting Started

Requirements

  • Python 2.7, or Python 3.5 and up.
  • Rust 1.23.0-nightly 2018-05-01 or later (unless using a binary wheel distribution).
  • macOS 10.6 and up.
  • Windows 7 and up.
  • X11 with the XTest extension.

Installation

First, see if a binary wheel is available for your machine by running:

$ pip install -U autopy

If that fails, install rustup and then run:

$ rustup default nightly
$ pip install -U setuptools-rust
$ pip install -U autopy

Another option is to compile from the latest source on the GitHub repository:

$ git clone git://github.com/autopilot-rs/autopy-rs.git
$ cd autopy
$ rustup default nightly
$ pip install -r requirements.txt
$ python setup.py build
# python setup.py install

Additional instructions for installing from source on Windows are available here.

Hello World

The following is the source for a "hello world" script in autopy. Running this code will cause an alert dialog to appear on every major platform:

import autopy
def hello_world():
    autopy.alert.alert("Hello, world")
hello_world()

Cross platform alerts

Tutorials

Controlling the Mouse

AutoPy includes a number of functions for controlling the mouse. For a full list, consult the API Reference. E.g., to immediately "teleport" the mouse to the top left corner of the screen:

>>> import autopy
>>> autopy.mouse.move(1, 1)

To move the mouse a bit more realistically, we could use:

>>> import autopy
>>> autopy.mouse.smooth_move(1, 1)

Even better, we could write our own function to move the mouse across the screen as a sine wave:

import autopy
import math
import time
import random
import sys

TWO_PI = math.pi * 2.0


def sine_mouse_wave():
    """
    Moves the mouse in a sine wave from the left edge of
    the screen to the right.
    """
    width, height = autopy.screen.size()
    height /= 2
    height -= 10  # Stay in the screen bounds.

    for x in range(int(width)):
        y = int(height * math.sin((TWO_PI * x) / width) + height)
        autopy.mouse.move(x, y)
        time.sleep(random.uniform(0.001, 0.003))


sine_mouse_wave()

Demonstration video

Working with Bitmaps

All of autopy's bitmap routines can be found in the module autopy.bitmap. A useful way to explore autopy is to use Python's built-in help() function, for example in help(autopy.bitmap.Bitmap). AutoPy's functions are documented with descriptive docstrings, so this should show a nice overview.

>>> import autopy
>>> autopy.bitmap.capture_screen()
<Bitmap object at 0x12278>

This takes a screenshot of the main screen, copies it to a bitmap, displays its memory address, and then immediately destroys it. Let's do something more useful, like look at its pixel data:

>>> import autopy
>>> autopy.bitmap.capture_screen().get_color(1, 1)
15921906

AutoPy uses a coordinate system with its origin starting at the top-left, so this should return the color of pixel at the top-left corner of the screen. The number shown looks a bit unrecognizable, but we can format it with Python's built-in hex function:

>>> import autopy
>>> hex(autopy.bitmap.capture_screen().get_color(1, 1))
'0xF2F2F2'

Alternatively, we can use:

>>> import autopy
>>> autopy.color.hex_to_rgb(autopy.screen.get_color(1, 1))
(242, 242, 242)

which converts that hex value to a tuple of (r, g, b) values. (Note that autopy.screen.get_color(), used here, is merely a more convenient and efficient version of autopy.bitmap.capture_screen().get_color().)

To save the screen capture to a file, we can use:

>>> import autopy
>>> autopy.bitmap.capture_screen().save('screengrab.png')

The filetype is either parsed automatically from the filename, or given as an optional parameter. Currently only jpeg and png files are supported.

>>> import autopy
>>> autopy.bitmap.Bitmap.open('needle.png')
<Bitmap object at 0x1001d5378>

Aside from analyzing a bitmap's pixel data, the main use for loading a bitmap is finding it on the screen or inside another bitmap. For example, the following prints the coordinates of the first image found in a bitmap (scanned from left to right, top to bottom):

import autopy


def find_image_example():
    needle = autopy.bitmap.Bitmap.open('needle.png')
    haystack = autopy.bitmap.Bitmap.open('haystack.png')

    pos = haystack.find_bitmap(needle)
    if pos:
        print("Found needle at: %s" % str(pos))

find_image_example()

Projects using AutoPy

  • AutoPyDriverServer, AutoPy through WebDriver or a webdriver-compatible server.
  • guibot, A tool for GUI automation using a variety of computer vision and desktop control backends.
  • spynner, Programmatic web browsing module with AJAX support for Python.
  • SUMO, An open source, highly portable, microscopic and continuous road traffic simulation package designed to handle large road networks.

API Reference

Hope you enjoy using autopy! For a more in depth overview, see the API Reference.