A Java library to combine Vaadin Web framework with the R language
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A Java library to combine Vaadin Web framework with the R language.

NOTE (2017-08-05): While I feel that Vaadin is a superior Web framework, and R remains my tool of choice for mathematical statistics, the development of this package has been stalled for quite a while.

The reason for this is purely lack of free time. Feel free to fork this repository and use RVaadin if it fits your needs. I thank my former employer VTT for funding this work. RVaadin is quite complete when it comes to showing static R-generated graphics (either png or svg) with Vaadin. For interactive graphics, I propose combining a suitable JavaScript library (g.e. D3.js with a light-weight back-end such as Flask or OpenCPU, if an industrial-scale framework like Vaadin seems overkill).

When to use RVaadin

Whereas the Vaadin framework is excellent for writing full-blown Java EE Web applications, the R language provides superior flexibility for custom algorithm development - and a large selection of ready-made routines from the vast CRAN package repository.

The RVaadin library is intended to be used when the production standards for serving Web pages are high, but the R language is used for both quick prototyping and the final implementation of the sophisticated computational methods and graphics.

  • RVaadin enables calling R functions from the Vaadin Web user sessions.

  • RVaadin implements

    • Thread-safety,
    • Integrated graphics
    • Ready-made upload and download elements
    • Data type conversions between R data structures and Vaadin elements
  • One R process is bound to a single Java object through the Rserve TCP/IP server. Thus, a single user can have

    • A dedicated R session
    • Several parallel R sessions
    • A single shared R session with other users

RVaadin is developed at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. It is published under Apache 2.0 license.

Quick Installation

You can also follow the detailed instructions for Ubuntu LTS 12.04.2 Linux.

Download the tools

  1. Follow the Book of Vaadin to install Vaadin production environment.
  2. Download the RVaadin.jar Java library.
  3. Install R, and the Rserve and Cairo packages for it.
  4. Download the Rserve Java libraries RservEngine.jar and REngine.jar.

Test the setup

  1. Start a new Vaadin 7 project in Eclipse. Call it e.g. "RVaadinTest"
  2. Copy or link the three Java libraries under the RVaadinTest/WebContent/WEB-INF/lib/ folder. (When using Eclipse, you may need to refresh the Project Explorer with F5.)
  3. Launch R serve in Terminal with R CMD Rserve. Leave the Terminal window open to see the output from the R processes. This is handy for debugging.

Write a test program:

package com.example.rvaadintest;

import com.vaadin.server.VaadinRequest;
import com.vaadin.ui.*;
import fi.vtt.RVaadin.RContainer;

public class RvaadintestUI extends UI {

	protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {

		/* Initialize Vaadin and say Hello */
    	final VerticalLayout layout = new VerticalLayout();
    	Label hello = new Label("Hello Vaadin World!");
    	/* Initialize R */
	    RContainer R = new RContainer();

		/* Say Hello to the Terminal */
		R.eval("cat('Hello R World!\n')");

		/* Draw some graphics */
		R.eval("d <- rnorm(100,0.1,0.5)");
		Window graph = R.getGraph(
                "plot(cumsum(d), type='l', bty='L')", 600,  400);

The program will produce some output to both Terminal and to the Web interface.

RVaadin Example Application Figure 1. An example output from the the RVaadin test program. The expected value of the normally, identically and independently distributed sequence is 0.1 and SD(d) = 0.5. Because of the large standard deviation, the cumulative sum turns negative quite often.

General Usage

So far, we have only seen the eval(String) method of the RContainer class, which takes an R expression as a Java String and evaluates it in the R session. In general, all communication with the R process should go through the RContainer class which takes care that a single R session operates with a single task at a given time.

Other RContainer methods include

  • getDoubles, getStrings, ... take an R object name as String, and return the correspoinding Java object. These methods are merely wrappers for the corresponding Rserve RConnection methods.
  • getUploadElement returns an instance of the RUpload class. The element can be used to upload arbitrary files to the R session's working directory.
  • getDownloadLink returns a Vaadin Link pointing to a file saved to the working directory (of the corresponding R process).
  • getGraph and getEmbeddedGraph can be used to show the images produced by R, where the argument is an ordinary R plot command as String.
  • getListSelect, getOptionGroup, getSlider, ... return the corresponding Vaadin elements that implicitly and immediately change the given R variable into the selected value. If other actions are needed, user can attach additional listeners to these objects.

In addition to these get... methods, there are a few set methods like setGraphButtonsVisible( boolean ), which change the behavior of the Graph window seen in the previous example, and close() and closeAndDeleteFiles() to explicitly clean up the R session (e.g. if there were other files that graphics generated).

Observe that each R session will be assigned a temporal default working directory by Rserve. This directory is intentionally different for each R session, and should not be changed in R with setwd() or even queried with getwd() for other than debugging purposes. Pointing directly to files produced by R obviously does not make sense when the R processes are scattered between separate machines. Having a common directory for multiple sessions is also not good practise, since it enables the users to overwrite each other's files. In particular, running Rserve with user rights and using setwd() to change R working directory to e.g. Desktop (to see the files), closeAndDeleteFiles() will wipe the whole directory. To inspect R working directory in Ubuntu Linux, see under /tmp/Rserv/, which is the default location for Rserve.

Some Examples

For brevity, we only show the init() routine of the complete program, or just snippets of code.

Using R to evaluate a Java String

This program prints the current R version to the Web browser.

protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {
    final VerticalLayout layout = new VerticalLayout();

    /* Initialize the R session */
    RContainer R = new RContainer();

    /* Construct a label and add it to the UI layout */
    Label label = new Label();

    /* Generate some content to the label */
    String message = R.getString("paste('R Version: ', version$version.string)");


This yields the following output

R Version in Browser

Selecting a value from a list

Suppose that we need to provide several categorical options to choose from, and these options have been computed earlier in R.

    /* Construct an R vector of different values */
    R.eval("input <- c('foo', 'bar', 'bar', 'baz', 'foobar', 'xyzzy')");

    /* Generate a ListSelect component with these options and save the
     * selection immediately into the R variable 'output' */
    final ListSelect ls = R.getListSelect("input", "output");
    /* Add the element into the UI */

    /* Ask R about the new value */
    ls.addValueChangeListener(new ValueChangeListener() {

        public void valueChange(ValueChangeEvent event) {
            Notification.show("The user chose: " + R.getString("output"));

The corresponding UI will look like

User chose xyzzy

The element style can be altered by changing only one line:

    final ComboBox ls = R.getComboBox("input", "output");


    final OptionGroup ls = R.getOptionGroup("input", "output");


Uploading and downloading files through browser

Arbitrary data files can be uploaded with the RUpload element, and the processed results saved by making a link to the corresponding file. In the following example, the files are not processed in any way, but just saved to R working directory, and then downloaded back through a dynamically generated link.

    /* Initialize Vaadin */
    final VerticalLayout layout = new VerticalLayout();

    /* Initialize R */
    final RContainer R = new RContainer();

    /* Construct an upload element with no caption */
    final RUpload upload = R.getUploadElement(null);

    /* Make a button that generates a link for the selected file */
    Button getLink = new Button("Get Link", new Button.ClickListener() {

        public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {

            /* Ask the RUpload element for the selected file name */
            String fileName = upload.getSelection();

            if (fileName != null) {
                Link link = R.getDownloadLink("Download: " + fileName,

            } else {
                /* Nothing was selected */
                Notification.show("Please choose a file.",

Upload and Download

A proper application should also provide an option to log out to make sure that no files are left to the server. Since detecting a browser close is inherently difficult, it is best to delete the temporal files from the R session as soon as they are not needed, and also provide the logout option:

    /* Add a button to log out and clean the session and delete the possible
     * files still remaining in the R working directory */
    Button logout = new Button("Logout");
    logout.addClickListener(new Button.ClickListener() {

        public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {

            /* Clean and close the RVaadin session */

            /* Since the session will be closed, we should relocate the user
             * to an other page, like the institution main page or to a 
             * static "Application Closed" page */
            /* Bye! */


Finding errors in R code

Suppose that we wrote ersion instead of version in the previous getString example:

String message = R.getString("paste('R Version: ', ersion$version.string)");

The browser now shows several Java error messages

RVaadin R execution error

Whereas the actual R error is shown in the open Terminal (which was used to launch Rserve):

Error in paste("R Version: ", ersion$version.string) : 
  object 'ersion' not found
RVaadin: eval failed, request status: error code: 127 

Errors are intentionally designed to be as visible and verbose as possible, since the other option, errors going unnoticed to a production software or a scientific publication, is much worse.

Further information

At present, JavaDoc together with the source code are the definitive source of information. All proposals, ideas and concrete collaboration plans are warmly welcomed by the author(s) at FirstName.LastName@vtt.fi.