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Foundation Model benchmarking tool (FMBench)

Benchmark any Foundation Model (FM) on any AWS service [Amazon SageMaker, Amazon Bedrock, Amazon EKS, Bring your own endpoint etc.]

A key challenge with FMs is the ability to benchmark their performance in terms of inference latency, throughput and cost so as to determine which model running with what combination of the hardware and serving stack provides the best price-performance combination for a given workload.

Stated as business problem, the ask is β€œWhat is the dollar cost per transaction for a given generative AI workload that serves a given number of users while keeping the response time under a target threshold?”

But to really answer this question, we need to answer an engineering question (an optimization problem, actually) corresponding to this business problem: β€œWhat is the minimum number of instances N, of most cost optimal instance type T, that are needed to serve a workload W while keeping the average transaction latency under L seconds?”

W: = {R transactions per-minute, average prompt token length P, average generation token length G}

This foundation model benchmarking tool (a.k.a. FMBench) is a tool to answer the above engineering question and thus answer the original business question about how to get the best price performance for a given workload. Here is one of the plots generated by FMBench to help answer the above question (the numbers on the y-axis, transactions per minute and latency have been removed from the image below, you can find them in the actual plot generated on running FMBench).

business question

Models benchmarked

Configuration files are available in the configs folder for the following models in this repo.

🚨 Llama3 on Amazon SageMaker 🚨

Llama3 is now available on SageMaker (read blog post), and you can now benchmark it using FMBench. Here are the config files for benchmarking Llama3-8b-instruct and Llama3-70b-instruct on ml.p4d.24xlarge and ml.g5.12xlarge instance.

  • Config file for Llama3-8b-instruct on ml.p4d.24xlarge and ml.g5.12xlarge
  • Config file for Llama3-70b-instruct on ml.p4d.24xlarge and ml.g5.48xlarge

Full list of benchmarked models

Model SageMaker g4dn/g5/p3 SageMaker Inf2 SageMaker P4 SageMaker P5 Bedrock On-demand throughput Bedrock provisioned throughput
Anthropic Claude-3 Sonnet βœ… βœ…
Anthropic Claude-3 Haiku βœ…
Mistral-7b-instruct βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ…
Mistral-7b-AWQ βœ…
Mixtral-8x7b-instruct βœ…
Llama3-8b instruct βœ… βœ…
Llama3-70b instruct βœ… βœ…
Llama2-13b chat βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ…
Llama2-70b chat βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ…
Amazon Titan text lite βœ…
Amazon Titan text express βœ…
Cohere Command text βœ…
Cohere Command light text βœ…
AI21 J2 Mid βœ…
AI21 J2 Ultra βœ…
distilbert-base-uncased βœ…


FMBench is a Python package for running performance benchmarks for any model deployed on Amazon SageMaker or available on Amazon Bedrock or deployed by you on an AWS service of choice (such as Amazon EKS or Amazon EC2) a.k.a Bring your own endpoint. For SageMaker, FMBench provides both the option of deploying models on SageMaker as part of its workflow and use the endpoint or skip the deployment step and use an endpoint you provide to send inference requests to and measure metrics such as inference latency, error rate, transactions per second etc. This approach allows for benchmarking different combinations of instance types (g5, p4d, p5, Inf2), inference containers (DeepSpeed, TensorRT, HuggingFace TGI and others) and parameters such as tensor parallelism, rolling batch etc. Because FMBench is model agnostic therefore it can be used not only testing third party models but also open-source models and proprietary models trained by enterprises on their own data.

FMBench can be run on any AWS platform where we can run Python, such as Amazon EC2, Amazon SageMaker, or even the AWS CloudShell. It is important to run this tool on an AWS platform so that internet round trip time does not get included in the end-to-end response time latency.

The workflow for FMBench is as follows:

Create configuration file
        |-----> Deploy model on SageMaker/Use models on Bedrock/Bring your own endpoint
                    |-----> Run inference against deployed endpoint(s)
                                     |------> Create a benchmarking report
  1. Create a dataset of different prompt sizes and select one or more such datasets for running the tests.

    1. Currently FMBench supports datasets from LongBench and filter out individual items from the dataset based on their size in tokens (for example, prompts less than 500 tokens, between 500 to 1000 tokens and so on and so forth). Alternatively, you can download the folder from this link to load the data.
  2. Deploy any model that is deployable on SageMaker on any supported instance type (g5, p4d, Inf2).

    1. Models could be either available via SageMaker JumpStart (list available here) as well as models not available via JumpStart but still deployable on SageMaker through the low level boto3 (Python) SDK (Bring Your Own Script).
    2. Model deployment is completely configurable in terms of the inference container to use, environment variable to set, file to provide (for inference containers such as DJL that use it) and instance type to use.
  3. Benchmark FM performance in terms of inference latency, transactions per minute and dollar cost per transaction for any FM that can be deployed on SageMaker.

    1. Tests are run for each combination of the configured concurrency levels i.e. transactions (inference requests) sent to the endpoint in parallel and dataset. For example, run multiple datasets of say prompt sizes between 3000 to 4000 tokens at concurrency levels of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 etc. so as to test how many transactions of what token length can the endpoint handle while still maintaining an acceptable level of inference latency.
  4. Generate a report that compares and contrasts the performance of the model over different test configurations and stores the reports in an Amazon S3 bucket.

    1. The report is generated in the Markdown format and consists of plots, tables and text that highlight the key results and provide an overall recommendation on what is the best combination of instance type and serving stack to use for the model under stack for a dataset of interest.
    2. The report is created as an artifact of reproducible research so that anyone having access to the model, instance type and serving stack can run the code and recreate the same results and report.
  5. Multiple configuration files that can be used as reference for benchmarking new models and instance types.

Getting started

FMBench is available as a Python package on PyPi and is run as a command line tool once it is installed. All data that includes metrics, reports and results are stored in an Amazon S3 bucket.


  1. Launch the AWS CloudFormation template included in this repository using one of the buttons from the table below. The CloudFormation template creates the following resources within your AWS account: Amazon S3 buckets, Amazon IAM role and an Amazon SageMaker Notebook with this repository cloned. A read S3 bucket is created which contains all the files (configuration files, datasets) required to run FMBench and a write S3 bucket is created which will hold the metrics and reports generated by FMBench. The CloudFormation stack takes about 5-minutes to create.

    AWS Region Link
    us-east-1 (N. Virginia)
    us-west-2 (Oregon)
  2. Once the CloudFormation stack is created, navigate to SageMaker Notebooks and open the fmbench-notebook.

  3. On the fmbench-notebook open a Terminal and run the following commands.

    conda create --name fmbench_python311 -y python=3.11 ipykernel
    source activate fmbench_python311;
    pip install -U fmbench
  4. Now you are ready to fmbench with the following command line. We will use a sample config file placed in the S3 bucket by the CloudFormation stack for a quick first run.

    1. We benchmark performance for the Llama2-7b model on a ml.g5.xlarge and a ml.g5.2xlarge instance type, using the huggingface-pytorch-tgi-inference inference container. This test would take about 30 minutes to complete and cost about $0.20.

    2. It uses a simple relationship of 750 words equals 1000 tokens, to get a more accurate representation of token counts use the Llama2 tokenizer (instructions are provided in the next section). It is strongly recommended that for more accurate results on token throughput you use a tokenizer specific to the model you are testing rather than the default tokenizer. See instructions provided later in this document on how to use a custom tokenizer.

      account=`aws sts get-caller-identity | jq .Account | tr -d '"'`
      region=`aws configure get region`
      fmbench --config-file s3://sagemaker-fmbench-read-${region}-${account}/configs/config-llama2-7b-g5-quick.yml >> fmbench.log 2>&1
    3. Open another terminal window and do a tail -f on the fmbench.log file to see all the traces being generated at runtime.

      tail -f fmbench.log
  5. The generated reports and metrics are available in the sagemaker-fmbench-write-<replace_w_your_aws_region>-<replace_w_your_aws_account_id> bucket. The metrics and report files are also downloaded locally and in the results directory (created by FMBench) and the benchmarking report is available as a markdown file called in the results directory. You can view the rendered Markdown report in the SageMaker notebook itself or download the metrics and report files to your machine for offline analysis.

The DIY version (with gory details)

Follow the prerequisites below to set up your environment before running the code:

  1. Python 3.11: Setup a Python 3.11 virtual environment and install FMBench.

    python -m venv .fmbench
    pip install fmbench
  2. S3 buckets for test data, scripts, and results: Create two buckets within your AWS account:

    • Read bucket: This bucket contains tokenizer files, prompt template, source data and deployment scripts stored in a directory structure as shown below. FMBench needs to have read access to this bucket.

          β”œβ”€β”€ source_data/
          β”œβ”€β”€ source_data/<source-data-file-name>.json
          β”œβ”€β”€ prompt_template/
          β”œβ”€β”€ prompt_template/prompt_template.txt
          β”œβ”€β”€ scripts/
          β”œβ”€β”€ scripts/<deployment-script-name>.py
          β”œβ”€β”€ tokenizer/
          β”œβ”€β”€ tokenizer/tokenizer.json
          β”œβ”€β”€ tokenizer/config.json
      • The details of the bucket structure is as follows:

        1. Source Data Directory: Create a source_data directory that stores the dataset you want to benchmark with. FMBench uses Q&A datasets from the LongBench dataset or alternatively from this link. Support for bring your own dataset will be added soon.

          • Download the different files specified in the LongBench dataset into the source_data directory. Following is a good list to get started with:

            • 2wikimqa
            • hotpotqa
            • narrativeqa
            • triviaqa

            Store these files in the source_data directory.

        2. Prompt Template Directory: Create a prompt_template directory that contains a prompt_template.txt file. This .txt file contains the prompt template that your specific model supports. FMBench already supports the prompt template compatible with Llama models.

        3. Scripts Directory: FMBench also supports a bring your own script (BYOS) mode for deploying models that are not natively available via SageMaker JumpStart i.e. anything not included in this list. Here are the steps to use BYOS.

          1. Create a Python script to deploy your model on a SageMaker endpoint. This script needs to have a deploy function that 2_deploy_model.ipynb can invoke. See for reference.

          2. Place your deployment script in the scripts directory in your read bucket. If your script deploys a model directly from HuggingFace and needs to have access to a HuggingFace auth token, then create a file called hf_token.txt and put the auth token in that file. The .gitignore file in this repo has rules to not commit the hf_token.txt to the repo. Today, FMBench provides inference scripts for:

            Deployment scripts for the options above are available in the scripts directory, you can use these as reference for creating your own deployment scripts as well.

        4. Tokenizer Directory: Place the tokenizer.json, config.json and any other files required for your model's tokenizer in the tokenizer directory. The tokenizer for your model should be compatible with the tokenizers package. FMBench uses AutoTokenizer.from_pretrained to load the tokenizer.

          As an example, to use the Llama 2 Tokenizer for counting prompt and generation tokens for the Llama 2 family of models: Accept the License here: meta approval form and download the tokenizer.json and config.json files from Hugging Face website and place them in the tokenizer directory.

    • Write bucket: All prompt payloads, model endpoint and metrics generated by FMBench are stored in this bucket. FMBench requires write permissions to store the results in this bucket. No directory structure needs to be pre-created in this bucket, everything is created by FMBench at runtime.

          β”œβ”€β”€ <test-name>
          β”œβ”€β”€ <test-name>/data
          β”œβ”€β”€ <test-name>/data/metrics
          β”œβ”€β”€ <test-name>/data/models
          β”œβ”€β”€ <test-name>/data/prompts

Bring your own dataset | endpoint

FMBench started out as supporting only SageMaker endpoints and while that is still true as far as deploying the endpoint through FMBench is concerned but we now support the ability to support external endpoints and external datasets.

Bring your own dataset

By default FMBench uses the LongBench dataset dataset for testing the models, but this is not the only dataset you can test with. You may want to test with other datasets available on HuggingFace or use your own datasets for testing. You can do this by converting your dataset to the JSON lines format. We provide a code sample for converting any HuggingFace dataset into JSON lines format and uploading it to the S3 bucket used by FMBench in the bring_your_own_dataset notebook. Follow the steps described in the notebook to bring your own dataset for testing with FMBench.

Bring your own endpoint (a.k.a. support for external endpoints)

If you have an endpoint deployed on say Amazon EKS or Amazon EC2 or have your models hosted on a fully-managed service such as Amazon Bedrock, you can still bring your endpoint to FMBench and run tests against your endpoint. To do this you need to do the following:

  1. Create a derived class from FMBenchPredictor abstract class and provide implementation for the constructor, the get_predictions method and the endpoint_name property. See SageMakerPredictor for an example. Save this file locally as say

  2. Upload your new Python file ( for your custom FMBench predictor to your FMBench read bucket and the scripts prefix specified in the s3_read_data section (read_bucket and scripts_prefix).

  3. Edit the configuration file you are using for your FMBench for the following:

    • Skip the deployment step by setting the 2_deploy_model.ipynb step under run_steps to no.
    • Set the inference_script under any experiment in the experiments section for which you want to use your new custom inference script to point to your new Python file ( that contains your custom predictor.

Steps to run

  1. pip install the FMBench package from PyPi.

  2. Create a config file using one of the config files available here.

    1. The configuration file is a YAML file containing configuration for all steps of the benchmarking process. It is recommended to create a copy of an existing config file and tweak it as necessary to create a new one for your experiment.
  3. Create the read and write buckets as mentioned in the prerequisites section. Mention the respective directories for your read and write buckets within the config files.

  4. Run the FMBench tool from the command line.

    # the config file path could be an S3 path and https path 
    # or even a path to a file on the local filesystem
    fmbench --config-file \path\to\config\file
  5. Depending upon the experiments in the config file, the FMBench run may take a few minutes to several hours. Once the run completes, you can find the report and metrics in the write S3 bucket set in the config file. The report is generated as a markdown file called and is available in the metrics directory in the write S3 bucket.


Here is a screenshot of the file generated by FMBench. Report

Building the FMBench Python package

The following steps describe how to build the FMBench Python package.

  1. Clone the FMBench repo from GitHub.

  2. Make any code changes as needed.

  3. Install poetry.

    pip install poetry
  4. Change directory to the FMBench repo directory and run poetry build.

    poetry build
  5. The .whl file is generated in the dist folder. Install the .whl in your current Python environment.

    pip install dist/fmbench-X.Y.Z-py3-none-any.whl
  6. Run FMBench as usual through the FMBench CLI command.

Pending enhancements

View the ISSUES on GitHub and add any you might think be an beneficial iteration to this benchmarking harness.


See CONTRIBUTING for more information.


This library is licensed under the MIT-0 License. See the LICENSE file.

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