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""" Bi-directional Recurrent Neural Network.
A Bi-directional Recurrent Neural Network (LSTM) implementation example using
TensorFlow library. This example is using the MNIST database of handwritten
digits (http://yann.lecun.com/exdb/mnist/)
Links:
[Long Short Term Memory](http://deeplearning.cs.cmu.edu/pdfs/Hochreiter97_lstm.pdf)
[MNIST Dataset](http://yann.lecun.com/exdb/mnist/).
Author: Aymeric Damien
Project: https://github.com/aymericdamien/TensorFlow-Examples/
"""
from __future__ import print_function
import tensorflow as tf
from tensorflow.contrib import rnn
import numpy as np
# Import MNIST data
from tensorflow.examples.tutorials.mnist import input_data
mnist = input_data.read_data_sets("/tmp/data/", one_hot=True)
'''
To classify images using a bidirectional recurrent neural network, we consider
every image row as a sequence of pixels. Because MNIST image shape is 28*28px,
we will then handle 28 sequences of 28 steps for every sample.
'''
# Training Parameters
learning_rate = 0.001
training_steps = 10000
batch_size = 128
display_step = 200
# Network Parameters
num_input = 28 # MNIST data input (img shape: 28*28)
timesteps = 28 # timesteps
num_hidden = 128 # hidden layer num of features
num_classes = 10 # MNIST total classes (0-9 digits)
# tf Graph input
X = tf.placeholder("float", [None, timesteps, num_input])
Y = tf.placeholder("float", [None, num_classes])
# Define weights
weights = {
# Hidden layer weights => 2*n_hidden because of forward + backward cells
'out': tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([2*num_hidden, num_classes]))
}
biases = {
'out': tf.Variable(tf.random_normal([num_classes]))
}
def BiRNN(x, weights, biases):
# Prepare data shape to match `rnn` function requirements
# Current data input shape: (batch_size, timesteps, n_input)
# Required shape: 'timesteps' tensors list of shape (batch_size, num_input)
# Unstack to get a list of 'timesteps' tensors of shape (batch_size, num_input)
x = tf.unstack(x, timesteps, 1)
# Define lstm cells with tensorflow
# Forward direction cell
lstm_fw_cell = rnn.BasicLSTMCell(num_hidden, forget_bias=1.0)
# Backward direction cell
lstm_bw_cell = rnn.BasicLSTMCell(num_hidden, forget_bias=1.0)
# Get lstm cell output
try:
outputs, _, _ = rnn.static_bidirectional_rnn(lstm_fw_cell, lstm_bw_cell, x,
dtype=tf.float32)
except Exception: # Old TensorFlow version only returns outputs not states
outputs = rnn.static_bidirectional_rnn(lstm_fw_cell, lstm_bw_cell, x,
dtype=tf.float32)
# Linear activation, using rnn inner loop last output
return tf.matmul(outputs[-1], weights['out']) + biases['out']
logits = BiRNN(X, weights, biases)
prediction = tf.nn.softmax(logits)
# Define loss and optimizer
loss_op = tf.reduce_mean(tf.nn.softmax_cross_entropy_with_logits(
logits=logits, labels=Y))
optimizer = tf.train.GradientDescentOptimizer(learning_rate=learning_rate)
train_op = optimizer.minimize(loss_op)
# Evaluate model (with test logits, for dropout to be disabled)
correct_pred = tf.equal(tf.argmax(prediction, 1), tf.argmax(Y, 1))
accuracy = tf.reduce_mean(tf.cast(correct_pred, tf.float32))
# Initialize the variables (i.e. assign their default value)
init = tf.global_variables_initializer()
# Start training
with tf.Session() as sess:
# Run the initializer
sess.run(init)
for step in range(1, training_steps+1):
batch_x, batch_y = mnist.train.next_batch(batch_size)
# Reshape data to get 28 seq of 28 elements
batch_x = batch_x.reshape((batch_size, timesteps, num_input))
# Run optimization op (backprop)
sess.run(train_op, feed_dict={X: batch_x, Y: batch_y})
if step % display_step == 0 or step == 1:
# Calculate batch loss and accuracy
loss, acc = sess.run([loss_op, accuracy], feed_dict={X: batch_x,
Y: batch_y})
print("Step " + str(step) + ", Minibatch Loss= " + \
"{:.4f}".format(loss) + ", Training Accuracy= " + \
"{:.3f}".format(acc))
print("Optimization Finished!")
# Calculate accuracy for 128 mnist test images
test_len = 128
test_data = mnist.test.images[:test_len].reshape((-1, timesteps, num_input))
test_label = mnist.test.labels[:test_len]
print("Testing Accuracy:", \
sess.run(accuracy, feed_dict={X: test_data, Y: test_label}))
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