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README.md

footer: © NodeProgram.com, 2016 slidenumbers: true

Node Patterns

From Callbacks to Observer


The one true #JavaScript exception handler pattern

inline


The one true Node exception handler pattern

process.on('uncaughtException',
  e => require('opn')(`http://stackoverflow.com/search?q=[node.js ]+${e.message}`)
)

Why Turn off Your IM and Care?

  1. You want to write and organize code better
  2. You want to become a go-to Node person in your team
  3. You want to understand Node things a bit deeper

Slides 📄

https://github.com/azat-co/node-patterns

git clone https://github.com/azat-co/node-patterns

About Presenter

Azat Mardan

inline

Twitter: @azat_co Email: hi@azat.co Blog: webapplog.com


About Presenter

  • Work: Technology Fellow at Capital One
  • Experience: FDIC, NIH, DocuSign, HackReactor and Storify
  • Books: Practical Node.js, Pro Express.js, Express.js API and 8 others
  • Teach: NodeProgram.com

inline


Node Basics

  • JavaScript, but not "==="
  • Asynchronous + Event Driven
  • Non-Blocking I/O

JavaScript? 😒

  • Async code is hard
  • Code complexity grows exponentially
  • Good code organization is important

^So JavaScript can be tough


Problem

How to schedule something in the future?


Callbacks All the Way!

Functions are First-Class Citizens


var t = function(){...}
setTimeout(t, 1000)

t is a callback


Callback Convention

var fs = require('fs')
var callback = function(error, data){...}
fs.readFile('data.csv', 'utf-8', callback)

Conventions

  • error 1st argument, null if everything is okay
  • data is the second argument
  • callback is the last argument

Note

Naming doesn't matter but order matters.

Node.js won't enforce the arguments.

Convention is not a guarantee. It's just a style. — Read documentation or source code.


Problem

How to ensure the right sequence? Control flow 😕


Example

HTTP requests to:

  1. Get an auth token
  2. Fetch data
  3. PUT an update

They must be executed in a certain order.


... // callback is defined, callOne, callTwo, and callThree are defined
callOne({...}, function(error, data1) {
    if (error) return callback(error, null)
    // work to parse data1 to get auth token
    // fetch the data from the API
    callTwo(data1, function(error, data2) {
        if (error) return callback(error, null)
        // data2 is the response, transform it and make PUT call
        callThree(data2, function(error, data3) {
            //
            if (error) return callback(error, null)
            // parse the response
            callback(null, data3)
        })
    })
})

Welcome to callback hell


fs.readdir(source, function (err, files) {
  if (err) {
    console.log('Error finding files: ' + err)
  } else {
    files.forEach(function (filename, fileIndex) {
      console.log(filename)
      gm(source + filename).size(function (err, values) {
        if (err) {
          console.log('Error identifying file size: ' + err)
        } else {
          console.log(filename + ' : ' + values)
          aspect = (values.width / values.height)
          widths.forEach(function (width, widthIndex) {
            height = Math.round(width / aspect)
            console.log('resizing ' + filename + 'to ' + height + 'x' + height)
            this.resize(width, height).write(dest + 'w' + width + '_' + filename, function(err) {
              if (err) console.log('Error writing file: ' + err)
            })
          }.bind(this))
        }
      })
    })
  }
}

Callback Hell

  • Hard to read
  • Hard to modify/maintain/enhance
  • Easy for devs to make bugs
  • Closing parens - 👿

callbackhell.com


Solutions

  • Abstract into named functions (hoisted or variables)
  • Use obververs
  • Use advanced libraries and techniques

Named Functions

callOne({...}, processResponse1)

function processResponse1(error, data1) {
  callTwo(data1, processResponse2)
}

function processResponse2(error, data2) {
  callThere(data2, processResponse3)
}

function processResponse3(error, data1) {
  ...
}

Modular Functions

var processResponse1 = require('./response1.js')
callOne({...}, processResponse1)
// response1.js
var processResponse2 = require('./response2.js')
module.exports = function processResponse1(error, data1) {
  callTwo(data1, processResponse2)
}

// response2.js
var processResponse3 = require('./response3.js')
module.exports = function processResponse2(error, data2) {
  callThere(data2, processResponse3)
}
// response3.js
module.exports = function processResponse3(error, data3) {
  ...
}

Problem

How to modularize code properly?


  • module.exports = {...}
  • module.exports.obj = {...}
  • exports.obj = {...}

Note: exports = {...} is anti-pattern.


Problem

How to modularize dynamic code or where to initialize?


Solution

  • module.exports = function(options) {...}
  • module.exports.func = function(options) {...}
  • exports.func = function(options) {...}

Import

// code A
module.exports = function(options){
  // code B
}

When you require, code A is run and code B is not. Code A is run only once, no matter how many times you require. You need to invoke the object to run code B.


Demo

node import-main

Importing Folders / Plugin Pattern

// main.js
var routes = require('./routes')
// routes/index.js
module.exports = {
  users: require('./users.js'),
  accounts: require('./accounts.js')
  ...
}

Singletons

  • require: modules are cached

// module.js
var a = 1 // Private
module.exports = {
  b: 2 // Public
}

// program.js
var m = require('./module')
console.log(m.a) // undefined
console.log(m.b) // 2
m.b ++
require('./main')

// main.js
var m = require('./module')
console.log(m.b) // 3

Demo

node main.js
node program.js

Problem

Modules are cached on based on their resolved filename.

Filename will break the caching

var m = require('./MODULE')
var m = require('./module')

Or different paths


Solution

global


global.name

or

GLOBAL.name


_log = global.console.log
global.console.log = function(){
  var args = arguments
  args[0] = '\033[31m' +args[0] + '\x1b[0m'
  return _log.apply(null, args)
}
require('./logs.js')

Color Logs

global.error = global.console.error = msg =>
  console.log( '\x1b[31m\x1b[1mError:\x1b[22m \x1b[93m' + msg + '\x1b[0m' )
global.info = global.console.info = msg =>
  console.log( '\x1b[31m\x1b[36mInfo:\x1b[22m \x1b[93m\x1b[0m' + msg )
global.log = console.log

200% inline


global is powerful... anti-pattern

similar window.jQuery = jQuery

use it sparringly

^with a lot of power comes a lot of responsibility


Problem: How to organize your modular code into classes?

  • ES5 Classes are too complex (new, prototype, this)
  • ES6 Classes don't allow define property and other issues

inline


Sidenote: Prototypes

Objects inherit from other objects

Functions are objects too.


Solution

Function factory for objects

module.exports = function(options) {
  // initialize
  return {
    getUsers: function() {...},
    findUserById: function(){...},
    limit: options.limit || 10,
    // ...
  }
}

Solution 2

require('util').inherits(child, parent)


Problem

Enhance functionality "on the fly"


Decorator: Enhances an object

let userModel = function(options = {}) {
 return {
   getUsers: function() {},
   findUserById: function() {},
   limit: options.limit || 10
 }
}
let user = userModel()
console.log(user.limit)
let adminModel = (userModel) => {
  userModel.limit += 20
  userModel.removeUser = () => {}
  userModel.addUser = () => {}
  return userModel
}
console.log(adminModel(user).limit)

// 10 30


Problem

How to enhance classes defined wit prototypal inheritance?


Prototype Decorator: Enhance global object

Object.prototype.toPrettyJSON = function() {
  console.log(this)
  return JSON.stringify(this, null, 2)
}
let obj = new Object({a: 1})
console.log(obj.toPrettyJSON())

Should: https://github.com/shouldjs/should.js


Problem

Non-blocking I/O can be blocked 😢


Have you ever seen this code?

setTimeout(function timeout() {
  console.log('Hello Node')
}, 0)

// setimmediate.js
setImmediate(function A() {
  setImmediate(function B() {
    console.log('Step 1')
  })
  setImmediate(function C() {
    console.log('Step 2')
    setImmediate(function F() { console.log('Step 3') })
    setImmediate(function G() { console.log('Step 4') })
  })
})
console.log('Step 0')
setTimeout(function timeout() {
  console.log('Timeout!')
}, 0)
console.log('Step 0.5')

// Step 0, Step 0.5, Timeout!, Step 1, Step 2, Step 3, Step 4

^setTimeout is on the next iteration of the event loop ^setImmediate is also, after I/O and before timers (official docs). setImmediate allows you to distribute computation over many turns of the event loop while ensuring that I/O doesn't get starved ^setTimeout is slower


process.nextTick(function A() {
  process.nextTick(function B() {
    console.log('Step 1')
  })
  process.nextTick(function C() {
    console.log('Step 2')
    process.nextTick(function F() { console.log('Step 3') })
    process.nextTick(function G() { console.log('Step 4') })
  })
})
console.log('Step 0')
setTimeout(function timeout() {
  console.log('Timeout!')
}, 0)
console.log('Step 0.5')

// Step 0, Step 0.5, Step 1, Step 2, Step 3, Step 4, Timeout!

^nextTick happens before I/O callbacks. So in a case where you're trying to break up a long running, CPU-bound job using recursion, you would now want to use setImmediate rather than process.nextTick to queue the next iteration as otherwise any I/O event callbacks wouldn't get the chance to run between iterations.


inline


Problem

Insure continuity


Node.js Middleware Pattern

Middleware pattern is a series of processing units connected together, where the output of one unit is the input for the next one. In Node.js, this often means a series of functions in the form:

function(args, next) {
  // ... Run some code
  next(output) // Error or real output
}

Express Example

Request is coming from a client and response is sent back to the client.

request->middleware1->middleware2->...middlewareN->route->response

Express.js Middleware

app.use(function(request, response, next) {
  // ...
  next()
}, function(request, response, next) {
  next()
}, function(request, response, next) {
  next()
})

Problems

  • Callbacks are still hard to manage even in modules!
  • Callbacks fire just once
  • Callbacks fire only at the end
  • No way to remove a callback or add a new one "on the fly"

No it's not promises. 😉

^Promises fire just once just as callbacks


Example

  1. Module Job is performing a task.
  2. In the main file, we import Job.

How do we specify a callback (some future logic) on the Job's task completion?


Maybe:

var job = require('./job.js')(callback)

What about multiple callbacks?

Not very scalable 😢


Solution

Observer pattern with event emitters!


// module.js
var util = require('util')
var Job = function Job() {
  // ...
  this.process = function() {
    // ...
    this.emit('done', { completedOn: new Date() })
  }
}

util.inherits(Job, require('events').EventEmitter)
module.exports = Job

^ module


// main.js
var Job = require('./module.js')
var job = new Job()

job.on('done', function(details){
  console.log('Job was completed at', details.completedOn)
  job.removeAllListeners()
})

job.process()

^main


emitter.listeners(eventName)
emitter.on(eventName, listener)
emitter.once(eventName, listener)
emitter.removeListener(eventName, listener)

More Async

  • async and neo-async
  • co and bluebird
  • Promises - not really helping much
  • Generators - promising
  • Async await - nice wrapper for promises

Let's leave managing async for another talk.


Dependency Injection

Express Middleware

var express = require('express')  
var app = express()  
var session = require('express-session')

app.use(session({  
  store: require('connect-session-knex')()
}))

Hapi

server.views({  
  engines: {
    html: require('handlebars')
  },
  relativeTo: __dirname,
  path: 'templates'
})

Express Routes

// server.js
var app = express()
//...
app.use(logger('dev'))
//...
app = require('./routes')(app)
app.listen(3000)

// routes/index.js
module.exports = function(app) {
  app.get('/users', require('./users.js').getUsers)
  app.post('/order', require('./orders.js').addOrder)
  //...
  return app
}

Problem

let f = ?
let a = f('Portland')
let b = f('Oakland')
console.log(a('Hi')) // Hi Portland
console.log(b('Hey')) // Hey Oakland

Function which returns a function (monad?)

// routes/index.js
module.exports = function(app){
  return function(options, callback) {
    app.listen(app.get('port'), options, callback)
  }
}

Useful modules

^http://thenodeway.io and https://darrenderidder.github.io/talks/ModulePatterns/#/14


There are more patterns!


Node Patterns by Mario Casciaro

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http://amzn.to/21hXxTy


30-second Summary

  1. Callbacks
  2. Observer
  3. Singleton
  4. Plugins
  5. Middleware
  6. Bunch of other stuff 💥

THE END

  1. Start with what you need
  2. Try and see what works for you (func vs. proto)
  3. Don't over engineers following the latest fad — stick to fundamentals!

Don't fight with JavaScript/Node, use it!


Rate This Talk 👍

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Anyone below 8?

This is your chance ask a question to make it 10! (If you don't , then you rate 8+, right?)


Code and Slides

https://github.com/azat-co/node-patterns/issues

Twitter: @azat_co Email: hi@azat.co

Also, checkout NodeProgram.com

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