Skip to content
Switch branches/tags

Latest commit


Git stats


Failed to load latest commit information.
Latest commit message
Commit time


Master Build Status PyPI version

LASER is a symbolic virtual machine (SVM) that runs Ethereum smart contracts. It accurately models most features of the Ethereum virtual machine including inter-contracts calls.

Installing and Running the Symbolic Virtual Machine

The SVM runs Mythril Disassembly objects instead of raw Ethereum bytecode. It is therefore best installed alongside with Mythril. Since mythril only supports python 3, we also requires python 3 here.

$ pip3 install mythril

The Disassembly object can be created from Solidity source code or Ethereum bytecode.

from laser.ethereum import svm
from mythril.ether.soliditycontract import SolidityContract
contract = SolidityContract("solidity_examples/underflow.sol", "Under")

disassembly = contract.disassembly

It contains a list of instructions in the format {'address': address, 'opcode': mnemonic, 'argument': argument}.

>>> disassembly.instruction_list
[{'address': 0, 'opcode': 'PUSH1', 'argument': '0x60'}, {'address': 2, 'opcode': 'PUSH1', 'argument': '0x40'}(...)

To run the code in the symbolic VM it must be mapped to virtual contract accounts. Each account is constructed with an Ethereum address and a Disassembly object (the contract code), plus an optional contract name. The LASER constructor expects a mapping of addresses to account objects.

address = "0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000"
account = svm.Account(address, disassembly, "Under")
accounts = {address: account}

Once initialized, symbolic execution is started with the sym_exec(entry_address) method. The entry_address argument specifies the contract to be used as the entrypoint (the other mapped contracts are made available for message calls).

laser = svm.LaserEVM(accounts)

Inspecting Program States

LASER returns an object containing the state space of the smart contract organized as a graph. Each node in the graph represents a basic block of code being executed, and contains a list of global states - one state for each program counter position. Every node also has an associated set of constraints. A list of edges between nodes along with the constraint on each edge is also provided. This can be used to draw a control flow graph.

Each node contains a list of state objects, each of which contains the complete global state during that point in execution (PC address).

>>> node = laser.nodes[0]
>>> node.states
[<laser.ethereum.svm.GlobalState object at 0x1064a4a58>, <laser.ethereum.svm.GlobalState object at 0x1064a4b70>, (...)]

The State Object

The state object representes the global system state. It contains an address-to-account mapping, an environment object, and a machine state object. Each account has an associated storage dict with a mapping of storage slots to data (this is filled with symbolic and concrete entries during execution).

>>> state = node.states[0]
>>> state.accounts['0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000'].as_dict()
{'nonce': 0, 'code': <mythril.disassembler.disassembly.Disassembly object at 0x106413940>, 'balance': balance, 'storage': {}}

The structure of the machine state and execution environment is largely identical to the specification in the yellow paper.

Machine state (μ)

The machine state μ is defined as the tuple (g, pc, m, i, s) which are the gas available, the program counter pc ∈ P256, the memory contents, the active number of words in memory (counting continuously from position 0), and the stack contents. The memory contents μm are a series of zeroes of size 256.


>>> state.mstate.as_dict()
{'pc': 0, 'stack': [], 'memory': [], 'memsize': 0, 'gas': 10000000}

Execution Environment (I)

- Ia, the address of the account which owns the code that is executing.
- Io,thesenderaddressofthetransactionthatorig- inated this execution.
- Ip, the price of gas in the transaction that origi- nated this execution.
- Id, the byte array that is the input data to this execution; if the execution agent is a transaction, this would be the transaction data.
- Is, the address of the account which caused the code to be executing; if the execution agent is a transaction, this would be the transaction sender.
- Iv, the value, in Wei, passed to this account as part of the same procedure as execution; if the execution agent is a transaction, this would be the transaction value.
- Ib, the byte array that is the machine code to be executed.
- IH , the block header of the present block.
- Ie, the depth of the present message-call or contract-creation (i.e. the number of CALLs or CREATEs being executed at present).


>>> state.environment.as_dict()
{'active_account': <laser.ethereum.svm.Account object at 0x1064a4780>, 'sender': caller, 'calldata': [], 'gasprice': gasprice, 'callvalue': callvalue, 'origin': origin, 'calldata_type': <CalldataType.SYMBOLIC: 2>}

Path Constraints

Each node has a list of associated path constraints that can be passed to the Z3 Solver.

>>> for c in node.constraints:
...     print(z3.simplify(c))
ULE(4, calldatasize_Under)
Not(Extract(255, 224, calldata_Under_0) == 404098525)
Not(Extract(255, 224, calldata_Under_0) == 1648476113)
Not(Extract(255, 224, calldata_Under_0) == 1889567281)
Extract(255, 224, calldata_Under_0) == 2736852615
callvalue == 0

For developers

You can find how to run tests and generate coverage reports in


  • Gas usage is not yet fully simulated
  • Native contracts are not yet implemented

What does LASER stand for?

Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. The sole reason for calling this software LASER was so there could be a method called fire_lasers.


Symbolic virtual machine for Ethereum




No packages published