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*eval.txt* For Vim version 7.0b. Last change: 2006 Mar 25
VIM REFERENCE MANUAL by Bram Moolenaar
Expression evaluation *expression* *expr* *E15* *eval*
Using expressions is introduced in chapter 41 of the user manual |usr_41.txt|.
Note: Expression evaluation can be disabled at compile time. If this has been
done, the features in this document are not available. See |+eval| and
|no-eval-feature|.
1. Variables |variables|
1.1 Variable types
1.2 Function references |Funcref|
1.3 Lists |Lists|
1.4 Dictionaries |Dictionaries|
1.5 More about variables |more-variables|
2. Expression syntax |expression-syntax|
3. Internal variable |internal-variables|
4. Builtin Functions |functions|
5. Defining functions |user-functions|
6. Curly braces names |curly-braces-names|
7. Commands |expression-commands|
8. Exception handling |exception-handling|
9. Examples |eval-examples|
10. No +eval feature |no-eval-feature|
11. The sandbox |eval-sandbox|
12. Textlock |textlock|
{Vi does not have any of these commands}
==============================================================================
1. Variables *variables*
1.1 Variable types ~
*E712*
There are five types of variables:
Number A 32 bit signed number.
Examples: -123 0x10 0177
String A NUL terminated string of 8-bit unsigned characters (bytes).
Examples: "ab\txx\"--" 'x-z''a,c'
Funcref A reference to a function |Funcref|.
Example: function("strlen")
List An ordered sequence of items |List|.
Example: [1, 2, ['a', 'b']]
Dictionary An associative, unordered array: Each entry has a key and a
value. |Dictionary|
Example: {'blue': "#0000ff", 'red': "#ff0000"}
The Number and String types are converted automatically, depending on how they
are used.
Conversion from a Number to a String is by making the ASCII representation of
the Number. Examples: >
Number 123 --> String "123"
Number 0 --> String "0"
Number -1 --> String "-1"
Conversion from a String to a Number is done by converting the first digits
to a number. Hexadecimal "0xf9" and Octal "017" numbers are recognized. If
the String doesn't start with digits, the result is zero. Examples: >
String "456" --> Number 456
String "6bar" --> Number 6
String "foo" --> Number 0
String "0xf1" --> Number 241
String "0100" --> Number 64
String "-8" --> Number -8
String "+8" --> Number 0
To force conversion from String to Number, add zero to it: >
:echo "0100" + 0
< 64 ~
To avoid a leading zero to cause octal conversion, or for using a different
base, use |str2nr()|.
For boolean operators Numbers are used. Zero is FALSE, non-zero is TRUE.
Note that in the command >
:if "foo"
"foo" is converted to 0, which means FALSE. To test for a non-empty string,
use strlen(): >
:if strlen("foo")
< *E745* *E728* *E703* *E729* *E730* *E731*
List, Dictionary and Funcref types are not automatically converted.
*E706*
You will get an error if you try to change the type of a variable. You need
to |:unlet| it first to avoid this error. String and Number are considered
equivalent though. Consider this sequence of commands: >
:let l = "string"
:let l = 44 " changes type from String to Number
:let l = [1, 2, 3] " error!
1.2 Function references ~
*Funcref* *E695* *E718*
A Funcref variable is obtained with the |function()| function. It can be used
in an expression in the place of a function name, before the parenthesis
around the arguments, to invoke the function it refers to. Example: >
:let Fn = function("MyFunc")
:echo Fn()
< *E704* *E705* *E707*
A Funcref variable must start with a capital, "s:", "w:" or "b:". You cannot
have both a Funcref variable and a function with the same name.
A special case is defining a function and directly assigning its Funcref to a
Dictionary entry. Example: >
:function dict.init() dict
: let self.val = 0
:endfunction
The key of the Dictionary can start with a lower case letter. The actual
function name is not used here. Also see |numbered-function|.
A Funcref can also be used with the |:call| command: >
:call Fn()
:call dict.init()
The name of the referenced function can be obtained with |string()|. >
:let func = string(Fn)
You can use |call()| to invoke a Funcref and use a list variable for the
arguments: >
:let r = call(Fn, mylist)
1.3 Lists ~
*List* *Lists* *E686*
A List is an ordered sequence of items. An item can be of any type. Items
can be accessed by their index number. Items can be added and removed at any
position in the sequence.
List creation ~
*E696* *E697*
A List is created with a comma separated list of items in square brackets.
Examples: >
:let mylist = [1, two, 3, "four"]
:let emptylist = []
An item can be any expression. Using a List for an item creates a
nested List: >
:let nestlist = [[11, 12], [21, 22], [31, 32]]
An extra comma after the last item is ignored.
List index ~
*list-index* *E684*
An item in the List can be accessed by putting the index in square brackets
after the List. Indexes are zero-based, thus the first item has index zero. >
:let item = mylist[0] " get the first item: 1
:let item = mylist[2] " get the third item: 3
When the resulting item is a list this can be repeated: >
:let item = nestlist[0][1] " get the first list, second item: 12
<
A negative index is counted from the end. Index -1 refers to the last item in
the List, -2 to the last but one item, etc. >
:let last = mylist[-1] " get the last item: "four"
To avoid an error for an invalid index use the |get()| function. When an item
is not available it returns zero or the default value you specify: >
:echo get(mylist, idx)
:echo get(mylist, idx, "NONE")
List concatenation ~
Two lists can be concatenated with the "+" operator: >
:let longlist = mylist + [5, 6]
:let mylist += [7, 8]
To prepend or append an item turn the item into a list by putting [] around
it. To change a list in-place see |list-modification| below.
Sublist ~
A part of the List can be obtained by specifying the first and last index,
separated by a colon in square brackets: >
:let shortlist = mylist[2:-1] " get List [3, "four"]
Omitting the first index is similar to zero. Omitting the last index is
similar to -1. The difference is that there is no error if the items are not
available. >
:let endlist = mylist[2:] " from item 2 to the end: [3, "four"]
:let shortlist = mylist[2:2] " List with one item: [3]
:let otherlist = mylist[:] " make a copy of the List
The second index can be just before the first index. In that case the result
is an empty list. If the second index is lower, this results in an error. >
:echo mylist[2:1] " result: []
:echo mylist[2:0] " error!
NOTE: mylist[s:e] means using the variable "s:e" as index. Watch out for
using a single letter variable before the ":". Insert a space when needed:
mylist[s : e].
List identity ~
*list-identity*
When variable "aa" is a list and you assign it to another variable "bb", both
variables refer to the same list. Thus changing the list "aa" will also
change "bb": >
:let aa = [1, 2, 3]
:let bb = aa
:call add(aa, 4)
:echo bb
< [1, 2, 3, 4]
Making a copy of a list is done with the |copy()| function. Using [:] also
works, as explained above. This creates a shallow copy of the list: Changing
a list item in the list will also change the item in the copied list: >
:let aa = [[1, 'a'], 2, 3]
:let bb = copy(aa)
:call add(aa, 4)
:let aa[0][1] = 'aaa'
:echo aa
< [[1, aaa], 2, 3, 4] >
:echo bb
< [[1, aaa], 2, 3]
To make a completely independent list use |deepcopy()|. This also makes a
copy of the values in the list, recursively. Up to a hundred levels deep.
The operator "is" can be used to check if two variables refer to the same
List. "isnot" does the opposite. In contrast "==" compares if two lists have
the same value. >
:let alist = [1, 2, 3]
:let blist = [1, 2, 3]
:echo alist is blist
< 0 >
:echo alist == blist
< 1
Note about comparing lists: Two lists are considered equal if they have the
same length and all items compare equal, as with using "==". There is one
exception: When comparing a number with a string they are considered
different. There is no automatic type conversion, as with using "==" on
variables. Example: >
echo 4 == "4"
< 1 >
echo [4] == ["4"]
< 0
Thus comparing Lists is more strict than comparing numbers and strings. You
can compare simple values this way too by putting them in a string: >
:let a = 5
:let b = "5"
echo a == b
< 1 >
echo [a] == [b]
< 0
List unpack ~
To unpack the items in a list to individual variables, put the variables in
square brackets, like list items: >
:let [var1, var2] = mylist
When the number of variables does not match the number of items in the list
this produces an error. To handle any extra items from the list append ";"
and a variable name: >
:let [var1, var2; rest] = mylist
This works like: >
:let var1 = mylist[0]
:let var2 = mylist[1]
:let rest = mylist[2:]
Except that there is no error if there are only two items. "rest" will be an
empty list then.
List modification ~
*list-modification*
To change a specific item of a list use |:let| this way: >
:let list[4] = "four"
:let listlist[0][3] = item
To change part of a list you can specify the first and last item to be
modified. The value must at least have the number of items in the range: >
:let list[3:5] = [3, 4, 5]
Adding and removing items from a list is done with functions. Here are a few
examples: >
:call insert(list, 'a') " prepend item 'a'
:call insert(list, 'a', 3) " insert item 'a' before list[3]
:call add(list, "new") " append String item
:call add(list, [1, 2]) " append a List as one new item
:call extend(list, [1, 2]) " extend the list with two more items
:let i = remove(list, 3) " remove item 3
:unlet list[3] " idem
:let l = remove(list, 3, -1) " remove items 3 to last item
:unlet list[3 : ] " idem
:call filter(list, 'v:val !~ "x"') " remove items with an 'x'
Changing the order of items in a list: >
:call sort(list) " sort a list alphabetically
:call reverse(list) " reverse the order of items
For loop ~
The |:for| loop executes commands for each item in a list. A variable is set
to each item in the list in sequence. Example: >
:for item in mylist
: call Doit(item)
:endfor
This works like: >
:let index = 0
:while index < len(mylist)
: let item = mylist[index]
: :call Doit(item)
: let index = index + 1
:endwhile
Note that all items in the list should be of the same type, otherwise this
results in error |E706|. To avoid this |:unlet| the variable at the end of
the loop.
If all you want to do is modify each item in the list then the |map()|
function will be a simpler method than a for loop.
Just like the |:let| command, |:for| also accepts a list of variables. This
requires the argument to be a list of lists. >
:for [lnum, col] in [[1, 3], [2, 8], [3, 0]]
: call Doit(lnum, col)
:endfor
This works like a |:let| command is done for each list item. Again, the types
must remain the same to avoid an error.
It is also possible to put remaining items in a List variable: >
:for [i, j; rest] in listlist
: call Doit(i, j)
: if !empty(rest)
: echo "remainder: " . string(rest)
: endif
:endfor
List functions ~
*E714*
Functions that are useful with a List: >
:let r = call(funcname, list) " call a function with an argument list
:if empty(list) " check if list is empty
:let l = len(list) " number of items in list
:let big = max(list) " maximum value in list
:let small = min(list) " minimum value in list
:let xs = count(list, 'x') " count nr of times 'x' appears in list
:let i = index(list, 'x') " index of first 'x' in list
:let lines = getline(1, 10) " get ten text lines from buffer
:call append('$', lines) " append text lines in buffer
:let list = split("a b c") " create list from items in a string
:let string = join(list, ', ') " create string from list items
:let s = string(list) " String representation of list
:call map(list, '">> " . v:val') " prepend ">> " to each item
Don't forget that a combination of features can make things simple. For
example, to add up all the numbers in a list: >
:exe 'let sum = ' . join(nrlist, '+')
1.4 Dictionaries ~
*Dictionaries* *Dictionary*
A Dictionary is an associative array: Each entry has a key and a value. The
entry can be located with the key. The entries are stored without a specific
ordering.
Dictionary creation ~
*E720* *E721* *E722* *E723*
A Dictionary is created with a comma separated list of entries in curly
braces. Each entry has a key and a value, separated by a colon. Each key can
only appear once. Examples: >
:let mydict = {1: 'one', 2: 'two', 3: 'three'}
:let emptydict = {}
< *E713* *E716* *E717*
A key is always a String. You can use a Number, it will be converted to a
String automatically. Thus the String '4' and the number 4 will find the same
entry. Note that the String '04' and the Number 04 are different, since the
Number will be converted to the String '4'.
A value can be any expression. Using a Dictionary for a value creates a
nested Dictionary: >
:let nestdict = {1: {11: 'a', 12: 'b'}, 2: {21: 'c'}}
An extra comma after the last entry is ignored.
Accessing entries ~
The normal way to access an entry is by putting the key in square brackets: >
:let val = mydict["one"]
:let mydict["four"] = 4
You can add new entries to an existing Dictionary this way, unlike Lists.
For keys that consist entirely of letters, digits and underscore the following
form can be used |expr-entry|: >
:let val = mydict.one
:let mydict.four = 4
Since an entry can be any type, also a List and a Dictionary, the indexing and
key lookup can be repeated: >
:echo dict.key[idx].key
Dictionary to List conversion ~
You may want to loop over the entries in a dictionary. For this you need to
turn the Dictionary into a List and pass it to |:for|.
Most often you want to loop over the keys, using the |keys()| function: >
:for key in keys(mydict)
: echo key . ': ' . mydict[key]
:endfor
The List of keys is unsorted. You may want to sort them first: >
:for key in sort(keys(mydict))
To loop over the values use the |values()| function: >
:for v in values(mydict)
: echo "value: " . v
:endfor
If you want both the key and the value use the |items()| function. It returns
a List in which each item is a List with two items, the key and the value: >
:for entry in items(mydict)
: echo entry[0] . ': ' . entry[1]
:endfor
Dictionary identity ~
*dict-identity*
Just like Lists you need to use |copy()| and |deepcopy()| to make a copy of a
Dictionary. Otherwise, assignment results in referring to the same
Dictionary: >
:let onedict = {'a': 1, 'b': 2}
:let adict = onedict
:let adict['a'] = 11
:echo onedict['a']
11
Two Dictionaries compare equal if all the key-value pairs compare equal. For
more info see |list-identity|.
Dictionary modification ~
*dict-modification*
To change an already existing entry of a Dictionary, or to add a new entry,
use |:let| this way: >
:let dict[4] = "four"
:let dict['one'] = item
Removing an entry from a Dictionary is done with |remove()| or |:unlet|.
Three ways to remove the entry with key "aaa" from dict: >
:let i = remove(dict, 'aaa')
:unlet dict.aaa
:unlet dict['aaa']
Merging a Dictionary with another is done with |extend()|: >
:call extend(adict, bdict)
This extends adict with all entries from bdict. Duplicate keys cause entries
in adict to be overwritten. An optional third argument can change this.
Note that the order of entries in a Dictionary is irrelevant, thus don't
expect ":echo adict" to show the items from bdict after the older entries in
adict.
Weeding out entries from a Dictionary can be done with |filter()|: >
:call filter(dict 'v:val =~ "x"')
This removes all entries from "dict" with a value not matching 'x'.
Dictionary function ~
*Dictionary-function* *self* *E725*
When a function is defined with the "dict" attribute it can be used in a
special way with a dictionary. Example: >
:function Mylen() dict
: return len(self.data)
:endfunction
:let mydict = {'data': [0, 1, 2, 3], 'len': function("Mylen")}
:echo mydict.len()
This is like a method in object oriented programming. The entry in the
Dictionary is a |Funcref|. The local variable "self" refers to the dictionary
the function was invoked from.
It is also possible to add a function without the "dict" attribute as a
Funcref to a Dictionary, but the "self" variable is not available then.
*numbered-function*
To avoid the extra name for the function it can be defined and directly
assigned to a Dictionary in this way: >
:let mydict = {'data': [0, 1, 2, 3]}
:function mydict.len() dict
: return len(self.data)
:endfunction
:echo mydict.len()
The function will then get a number and the value of dict.len is a |Funcref|
that references this function. The function can only be used through a
|Funcref|. It will automatically be deleted when there is no |Funcref|
remaining that refers to it.
It is not necessary to use the "dict" attribute for a numbered function.
Functions for Dictionaries ~
*E715*
Functions that can be used with a Dictionary: >
:if has_key(dict, 'foo') " TRUE if dict has entry with key "foo"
:if empty(dict) " TRUE if dict is empty
:let l = len(dict) " number of items in dict
:let big = max(dict) " maximum value in dict
:let small = min(dict) " minimum value in dict
:let xs = count(dict, 'x') " count nr of times 'x' appears in dict
:let s = string(dict) " String representation of dict
:call map(dict, '">> " . v:val') " prepend ">> " to each item
1.5 More about variables ~
*more-variables*
If you need to know the type of a variable or expression, use the |type()|
function.
When the '!' flag is included in the 'viminfo' option, global variables that
start with an uppercase letter, and don't contain a lowercase letter, are
stored in the viminfo file |viminfo-file|.
When the 'sessionoptions' option contains "global", global variables that
start with an uppercase letter and contain at least one lowercase letter are
stored in the session file |session-file|.
variable name can be stored where ~
my_var_6 not
My_Var_6 session file
MY_VAR_6 viminfo file
It's possible to form a variable name with curly braces, see
|curly-braces-names|.
==============================================================================
2. Expression syntax *expression-syntax*
Expression syntax summary, from least to most significant:
|expr1| expr2 ? expr1 : expr1 if-then-else
|expr2| expr3 || expr3 .. logical OR
|expr3| expr4 && expr4 .. logical AND
|expr4| expr5 == expr5 equal
expr5 != expr5 not equal
expr5 > expr5 greater than
expr5 >= expr5 greater than or equal
expr5 < expr5 smaller than
expr5 <= expr5 smaller than or equal
expr5 =~ expr5 regexp matches
expr5 !~ expr5 regexp doesn't match
expr5 ==? expr5 equal, ignoring case
expr5 ==# expr5 equal, match case
etc. As above, append ? for ignoring case, # for
matching case
expr5 is expr5 same |List| instance
expr5 isnot expr5 different |List| instance
|expr5| expr6 + expr6 .. number addition or list concatenation
expr6 - expr6 .. number subtraction
expr6 . expr6 .. string concatenation
|expr6| expr7 * expr7 .. number multiplication
expr7 / expr7 .. number division
expr7 % expr7 .. number modulo
|expr7| ! expr7 logical NOT
- expr7 unary minus
+ expr7 unary plus
|expr8| expr8[expr1] byte of a String or item of a |List|
expr8[expr1 : expr1] substring of a String or sublist of a |List|
expr8.name entry in a |Dictionary|
expr8(expr1, ...) function call with |Funcref| variable
|expr9| number number constant
"string" string constant, backslash is special
'string' string constant, ' is doubled
[expr1, ...] |List|
{expr1: expr1, ...} |Dictionary|
&option option value
(expr1) nested expression
variable internal variable
va{ria}ble internal variable with curly braces
$VAR environment variable
@r contents of register 'r'
function(expr1, ...) function call
func{ti}on(expr1, ...) function call with curly braces
".." indicates that the operations in this level can be concatenated.
Example: >
&nu || &list && &shell == "csh"
All expressions within one level are parsed from left to right.
expr1 *expr1* *E109*
-----
expr2 ? expr1 : expr1
The expression before the '?' is evaluated to a number. If it evaluates to
non-zero, the result is the value of the expression between the '?' and ':',
otherwise the result is the value of the expression after the ':'.
Example: >
:echo lnum == 1 ? "top" : lnum
Since the first expression is an "expr2", it cannot contain another ?:. The
other two expressions can, thus allow for recursive use of ?:.
Example: >
:echo lnum == 1 ? "top" : lnum == 1000 ? "last" : lnum
To keep this readable, using |line-continuation| is suggested: >
:echo lnum == 1
:\ ? "top"
:\ : lnum == 1000
:\ ? "last"
:\ : lnum
expr2 and expr3 *expr2* *expr3*
---------------
*expr-barbar* *expr-&&*
The "||" and "&&" operators take one argument on each side. The arguments
are (converted to) Numbers. The result is:
input output ~
n1 n2 n1 || n2 n1 && n2 ~
zero zero zero zero
zero non-zero non-zero zero
non-zero zero non-zero zero
non-zero non-zero non-zero non-zero
The operators can be concatenated, for example: >
&nu || &list && &shell == "csh"
Note that "&&" takes precedence over "||", so this has the meaning of: >
&nu || (&list && &shell == "csh")
Once the result is known, the expression "short-circuits", that is, further
arguments are not evaluated. This is like what happens in C. For example: >
let a = 1
echo a || b
This is valid even if there is no variable called "b" because "a" is non-zero,
so the result must be non-zero. Similarly below: >
echo exists("b") && b == "yes"
This is valid whether "b" has been defined or not. The second clause will
only be evaluated if "b" has been defined.
expr4 *expr4*
-----
expr5 {cmp} expr5
Compare two expr5 expressions, resulting in a 0 if it evaluates to false, or 1
if it evaluates to true.
*expr-==* *expr-!=* *expr->* *expr->=*
*expr-<* *expr-<=* *expr-=~* *expr-!~*
*expr-==#* *expr-!=#* *expr->#* *expr->=#*
*expr-<#* *expr-<=#* *expr-=~#* *expr-!~#*
*expr-==?* *expr-!=?* *expr->?* *expr->=?*
*expr-<?* *expr-<=?* *expr-=~?* *expr-!~?*
*expr-is*
use 'ignorecase' match case ignore case ~
equal == ==# ==?
not equal != !=# !=?
greater than > ># >?
greater than or equal >= >=# >=?
smaller than < <# <?
smaller than or equal <= <=# <=?
regexp matches =~ =~# =~?
regexp doesn't match !~ !~# !~?
same instance is
different instance isnot
Examples:
"abc" ==# "Abc" evaluates to 0
"abc" ==? "Abc" evaluates to 1
"abc" == "Abc" evaluates to 1 if 'ignorecase' is set, 0 otherwise
*E691* *E692*
A |List| can only be compared with a |List| and only "equal", "not equal" and
"is" can be used. This compares the values of the list, recursively.
Ignoring case means case is ignored when comparing item values.
*E735* *E736*
A |Dictionary| can only be compared with a |Dictionary| and only "equal", "not
equal" and "is" can be used. This compares the key/values of the |Dictionary|
recursively. Ignoring case means case is ignored when comparing item values.
*E693* *E694*
A |Funcref| can only be compared with a |Funcref| and only "equal" and "not
equal" can be used. Case is never ignored.
When using "is" or "isnot" with a |List| this checks if the expressions are
referring to the same |List| instance. A copy of a |List| is different from
the original |List|. When using "is" without a |List| it is equivalent to
using "equal", using "isnot" equivalent to using "not equal". Except that a
different type means the values are different. "4 == '4'" is true, "4 is '4'"
is false.
When comparing a String with a Number, the String is converted to a Number,
and the comparison is done on Numbers. This means that "0 == 'x'" is TRUE,
because 'x' converted to a Number is zero.
When comparing two Strings, this is done with strcmp() or stricmp(). This
results in the mathematical difference (comparing byte values), not
necessarily the alphabetical difference in the local language.
When using the operators with a trailing '#", or the short version and
'ignorecase' is off, the comparing is done with strcmp().
When using the operators with a trailing '?', or the short version and
'ignorecase' is set, the comparing is done with stricmp().
The "=~" and "!~" operators match the lefthand argument with the righthand
argument, which is used as a pattern. See |pattern| for what a pattern is.
This matching is always done like 'magic' was set and 'cpoptions' is empty, no
matter what the actual value of 'magic' or 'cpoptions' is. This makes scripts
portable. To avoid backslashes in the regexp pattern to be doubled, use a
single-quote string, see |literal-string|.
Since a string is considered to be a single line, a multi-line pattern
(containing \n, backslash-n) will not match. However, a literal NL character
can be matched like an ordinary character. Examples:
"foo\nbar" =~ "\n" evaluates to 1
"foo\nbar" =~ "\\n" evaluates to 0
expr5 and expr6 *expr5* *expr6*
---------------
expr6 + expr6 .. Number addition or |List| concatenation *expr-+*
expr6 - expr6 .. Number subtraction *expr--*
expr6 . expr6 .. String concatenation *expr-.*
For |Lists| only "+" is possible and then both expr6 must be a list. The
result is a new list with the two lists Concatenated.
expr7 * expr7 .. number multiplication *expr-star*
expr7 / expr7 .. number division *expr-/*
expr7 % expr7 .. number modulo *expr-%*
For all, except ".", Strings are converted to Numbers.
Note the difference between "+" and ".":
"123" + "456" = 579
"123" . "456" = "123456"
When the righthand side of '/' is zero, the result is 0x7fffffff.
When the righthand side of '%' is zero, the result is 0.
None of these work for |Funcref|s.
expr7 *expr7*
-----
! expr7 logical NOT *expr-!*
- expr7 unary minus *expr-unary--*
+ expr7 unary plus *expr-unary-+*
For '!' non-zero becomes zero, zero becomes one.
For '-' the sign of the number is changed.
For '+' the number is unchanged.
A String will be converted to a Number first.
These three can be repeated and mixed. Examples:
!-1 == 0
!!8 == 1
--9 == 9
expr8 *expr8*
-----
expr8[expr1] item of String or |List| *expr-[]* *E111*
If expr8 is a Number or String this results in a String that contains the
expr1'th single byte from expr8. expr8 is used as a String, expr1 as a
Number. Note that this doesn't recognize multi-byte encodings.
Index zero gives the first character. This is like it works in C. Careful:
text column numbers start with one! Example, to get the character under the
cursor: >
:let c = getline(line("."))[col(".") - 1]
If the length of the String is less than the index, the result is an empty
String. A negative index always results in an empty string (reason: backwards
compatibility). Use [-1:] to get the last byte.
If expr8 is a |List| then it results the item at index expr1. See |list-index|
for possible index values. If the index is out of range this results in an
error. Example: >
:let item = mylist[-1] " get last item
Generally, if a |List| index is equal to or higher than the length of the
|List|, or more negative than the length of the |List|, this results in an
error.
expr8[expr1a : expr1b] substring or sublist *expr-[:]*
If expr8 is a Number or String this results in the substring with the bytes
from expr1a to and including expr1b. expr8 is used as a String, expr1a and
expr1b are used as a Number. Note that this doesn't recognize multi-byte
encodings.
If expr1a is omitted zero is used. If expr1b is omitted the length of the
string minus one is used.
A negative number can be used to measure from the end of the string. -1 is
the last character, -2 the last but one, etc.
If an index goes out of range for the string characters are omitted. If
expr1b is smaller than expr1a the result is an empty string.
Examples: >
:let c = name[-1:] " last byte of a string
:let c = name[-2:-2] " last but one byte of a string
:let s = line(".")[4:] " from the fifth byte to the end
:let s = s[:-3] " remove last two bytes
If expr8 is a |List| this results in a new |List| with the items indicated by
the indexes expr1a and expr1b. This works like with a String, as explained
just above, except that indexes out of range cause an error. Examples: >
:let l = mylist[:3] " first four items
:let l = mylist[4:4] " List with one item
:let l = mylist[:] " shallow copy of a List
Using expr8[expr1] or expr8[expr1a : expr1b] on a |Funcref| results in an
error.
expr8.name entry in a |Dictionary| *expr-entry*
If expr8 is a |Dictionary| and it is followed by a dot, then the following
name will be used as a key in the |Dictionary|. This is just like:
expr8[name].
The name must consist of alphanumeric characters, just like a variable name,
but it may start with a number. Curly braces cannot be used.
There must not be white space before or after the dot.
Examples: >
:let dict = {"one": 1, 2: "two"}
:echo dict.one
:echo dict .2
Note that the dot is also used for String concatenation. To avoid confusion
always put spaces around the dot for String concatenation.
expr8(expr1, ...) |Funcref| function call
When expr8 is a |Funcref| type variable, invoke the function it refers to.
*expr9*
number
------
number number constant *expr-number*
Decimal, Hexadecimal (starting with 0x or 0X), or Octal (starting with 0).
string *expr-string* *E114*
------
"string" string constant *expr-quote*
Note that double quotes are used.
A string constant accepts these special characters:
\... three-digit octal number (e.g., "\316")
\.. two-digit octal number (must be followed by non-digit)
\. one-digit octal number (must be followed by non-digit)
\x.. byte specified with two hex numbers (e.g., "\x1f")
\x. byte specified with one hex number (must be followed by non-hex char)
\X.. same as \x..
\X. same as \x.
\u.... character specified with up to 4 hex numbers, stored according to the
current value of 'encoding' (e.g., "\u02a4")
\U.... same as \u....
\b backspace <BS>
\e escape <Esc>
\f formfeed <FF>
\n newline <NL>
\r return <CR>
\t tab <Tab>
\\ backslash
\" double quote
\<xxx> Special key named "xxx". e.g. "\<C-W>" for CTRL-W.
Note that "\000" and "\x00" force the end of the string.
literal-string *literal-string* *E115*
---------------
'string' string constant *expr-'*
Note that single quotes are used.
This string is taken as it is. No backslashes are removed or have a special
meaning. The only exception is that two quotes stand for one quote.
Single quoted strings are useful for patterns, so that backslashes do not need
to be doubled. These two commands are equivalent: >
if a =~ "\\s*"
if a =~ '\s*'
option *expr-option* *E112* *E113*
------
&option option value, local value if possible
&g:option global option value
&l:option local option value
Examples: >
echo "tabstop is " . &tabstop
if &insertmode
Any option name can be used here. See |options|. When using the local value
and there is no buffer-local or window-local value, the global value is used
anyway.
register *expr-register*
--------
@r contents of register 'r'
The result is the contents of the named register, as a single string.
Newlines are inserted where required. To get the contents of the unnamed
register use @" or @@. See |registers| for an explanation of the available
registers.
When using the '=' register you get the expression itself, not what it
evaluates to. Use |eval()| to evaluate it.
nesting *expr-nesting* *E110*
-------
(expr1) nested expression
environment variable *expr-env*
--------------------
$VAR environment variable
The String value of any environment variable. When it is not defined, the
result is an empty string.
*expr-env-expand*
Note that there is a difference between using $VAR directly and using
expand("$VAR"). Using it directly will only expand environment variables that
are known inside the current Vim session. Using expand() will first try using
the environment variables known inside the current Vim session. If that
fails, a shell will be used to expand the variable. This can be slow, but it
does expand all variables that the shell knows about. Example: >
:echo $version
:echo expand("$version")
The first one probably doesn't echo anything, the second echoes the $version
variable (if your shell supports it).
internal variable *expr-variable*
-----------------
variable internal variable
See below |internal-variables|.
function call *expr-function* *E116* *E118* *E119* *E120*
-------------
function(expr1, ...) function call
See below |functions|.
==============================================================================
3. Internal variable *internal-variables* *E121*
*E461*
An internal variable name can be made up of letters, digits and '_'. But it
cannot start with a digit. It's also possible to use curly braces, see
|curly-braces-names|.
An internal variable is created with the ":let" command |:let|.
An internal variable is explicitly destroyed with the ":unlet" command
|:unlet|.
Using a name that is not an internal variable or refers to a variable that has
been destroyed results in an error.
There are several name spaces for variables. Which one is to be used is
specified by what is prepended:
(nothing) In a function: local to a function; otherwise: global
|buffer-variable| b: Local to the current buffer.
|window-variable| w: Local to the current window.
|global-variable| g: Global.
|local-variable| l: Local to a function.
|script-variable| s: Local to a |:source|'ed Vim script.
|function-argument| a: Function argument (only inside a function).
|vim-variable| v: Global, predefined by Vim.
The scope name by itself can be used as a |Dictionary|. For example, to
delete all script-local variables: >
:for k in keys(s:)
: unlet s:[k]
:endfor
<
*buffer-variable* *b:var*
A variable name that is preceded with "b:" is local to the current buffer.
Thus you can have several "b:foo" variables, one for each buffer.
This kind of variable is deleted when the buffer is wiped out or deleted with
|:bdelete|.
One local buffer variable is predefined:
*b:changedtick-variable* *changetick*
b:changedtick The total number of changes to the current buffer. It is
incremented for each change. An undo command is also a change
in this case. This can be used to perform an action only when
the buffer has changed. Example: >
:if my_changedtick != b:changedtick
: let my_changedtick = b:changedtick
: call My_Update()
:endif
<
*window-variable* *w:var*
A variable name that is preceded with "w:" is local to the current window. It
is deleted when the window is closed.
*global-variable* *g:var*
Inside functions global variables are accessed with "g:". Omitting this will
access a variable local to a function. But "g:" can also be used in any other
place if you like.
*local-variable* *l:var*
Inside functions local variables are accessed without prepending anything.
But you can also prepend "l:" if you like.
*script-variable* *s:var*
In a Vim script variables starting with "s:" can be used. They cannot be
accessed from outside of the scripts, thus are local to the script.
They can be used in:
- commands executed while the script is sourced
- functions defined in the script
- autocommands defined in the script
- functions and autocommands defined in functions and autocommands which were
defined in the script (recursively)
- user defined commands defined in the script
Thus not in:
- other scripts sourced from this one
- mappings
- etc.
script variables can be used to avoid conflicts with global variable names.
Take this example:
let s:counter = 0
function MyCounter()
let s:counter = s:counter + 1
echo s:counter
endfunction
command Tick call MyCounter()
You can now invoke "Tick" from any script, and the "s:counter" variable in
that script will not be changed, only the "s:counter" in the script where
"Tick" was defined is used.
Another example that does the same: >
let s:counter = 0
command Tick let s:counter = s:counter + 1 | echo s:counter
When calling a function and invoking a user-defined command, the context for
script variables is set to the script where the function or command was
defined.
The script variables are also available when a function is defined inside a
function that is defined in a script. Example: >
let s:counter = 0
function StartCounting(incr)
if a:incr
function MyCounter()
let s:counter = s:counter + 1
endfunction
else
function MyCounter()
let s:counter = s:counter - 1
endfunction
endif
endfunction
This defines the MyCounter() function either for counting up or counting down
when calling StartCounting(). It doesn't matter from where StartCounting() is
called, the s:counter variable will be accessible in MyCounter().
When the same script is sourced again it will use the same script variables.
They will remain valid as long as Vim is running. This can be used to
maintain a counter: >
if !exists("s:counter")
let s:counter = 1
echo "script executed for the first time"
else
let s:counter = s:counter + 1
echo "script executed " . s:counter . " times now"
endif
Note that this means that filetype plugins don't get a different set of script
variables for each buffer. Use local buffer variables instead |b:var|.
Predefined Vim variables: *vim-variable* *v:var*
*v:beval_col* *beval_col-variable*
v:beval_col The number of the column, over which the mouse pointer is.
This is the byte index in the |v:beval_lnum| line.
Only valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.
*v:beval_bufnr* *beval_bufnr-variable*
v:beval_bufnr The number of the buffer, over which the mouse pointer is. Only
valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.
*v:beval_lnum* *beval_lnum-variable*
v:beval_lnum The number of the line, over which the mouse pointer is. Only
valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.
*v:beval_text* *beval_text-variable*
v:beval_text The text under or after the mouse pointer. Usually a word as
it is useful for debugging a C program. 'iskeyword' applies,
but a dot and "->" before the position is included. When on a
']' the text before it is used, including the matching '[' and
word before it. When on a Visual area within one line the
highlighted text is used.
Only valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.
*v:beval_winnr* *beval_winnr-variable*
v:beval_winnr The number of the window, over which the mouse pointer is. Only
valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.
*v:charconvert_from* *charconvert_from-variable*
v:charconvert_from
The name of the character encoding of a file to be converted.
Only valid while evaluating the 'charconvert' option.
*v:charconvert_to* *charconvert_to-variable*
v:charconvert_to
The name of the character encoding of a file after conversion.
Only valid while evaluating the 'charconvert' option.
*v:cmdarg* *cmdarg-variable*
v:cmdarg This variable is used for two purposes:
1. The extra arguments given to a file read/write command.
Currently these are "++enc=" and "++ff=". This variable is
set before an autocommand event for a file read/write
command is triggered. There is a leading space to make it
possible to append this variable directly after the
read/write command. Note: The "+cmd" argument isn't
included here, because it will be executed anyway.
2. When printing a PostScript file with ":hardcopy" this is
the argument for the ":hardcopy" command. This can be used
in 'printexpr'.
*v:cmdbang* *cmdbang-variable*
v:cmdbang Set like v:cmdarg for a file read/write command. When a "!"
was used the value is 1, otherwise it is 0. Note that this
can only be used in autocommands. For user commands |<bang>|
can be used.
*v:count* *count-variable*
v:count The count given for the last Normal mode command. Can be used
to get the count before a mapping. Read-only. Example: >
:map _x :<C-U>echo "the count is " . v:count<CR>
< Note: The <C-U> is required to remove the line range that you
get when typing ':' after a count.
Also used for evaluating the 'formatexpr' option.
"count" also works, for backwards compatibility.
*v:count1* *count1-variable*
v:count1 Just like "v:count", but defaults to one when no count is
used.
*v:ctype* *ctype-variable*
v:ctype The current locale setting for characters of the runtime
environment. This allows Vim scripts to be aware of the
current locale encoding. Technical: it's the value of
LC_CTYPE. When not using a locale the value is "C".
This variable can not be set directly, use the |:language|
command.
See |multi-lang|.
*v:dying* *dying-variable*
v:dying Normally zero. When a deadly signal is caught it's set to
one. When multiple signals are caught the number increases.
Can be used in an autocommand to check if Vim didn't
terminate normally. {only works on Unix}
Example: >
:au VimLeave * if v:dying | echo "\nAAAAaaaarrrggghhhh!!!\n" | endif
<
*v:errmsg* *errmsg-variable*
v:errmsg Last given error message. It's allowed to set this variable.
Example: >
:let v:errmsg = ""
:silent! next
:if v:errmsg != ""
: ... handle error
< "errmsg" also works, for backwards compatibility.
*v:exception* *exception-variable*
v:exception The value of the exception most recently caught and not
finished. See also |v:throwpoint| and |throw-variables|.
Example: >
:try
: throw "oops"
:catch /.*/
: echo "caught" v:exception
:endtry
< Output: "caught oops".
*v:fcs_reason* *fcs_reason-variable*
v:fcs_reason The reason why the |FileChangedShell| event was triggered.
Can be used in an autocommand to decide what to do and/or what
to set v:fcs_choice to. Possible values:
deleted file no longer exists
conflict file contents, mode or timestamp was
changed and buffer is modified
changed file contents has changed
mode mode of file changed
time only file timestamp changed
*v:fcs_choice* *fcs_choice-variable*
v:fcs_choice What should happen after a |FileChangedShell| event was
triggered. Can be used in an autocommand to tell Vim what to
do with the affected buffer:
reload Reload the buffer (does not work if
the file was deleted).
ask Ask the user what to do, as if there
was no autocommand. Except that when
only the timestamp changed nothing
will happen.
<empty> Nothing, the autocommand should do
everything that needs to be done.
The default is empty. If another (invalid) value is used then
Vim behaves like it is empty, there is no warning message.
*v:fname_in* *fname_in-variable*
v:fname_in The name of the input file. Valid while evaluating:
option used for ~
'charconvert' file to be converted
'diffexpr' original file
'patchexpr' original file
'printexpr' file to be printed
And set to the swap file name for |SwapExists|.
*v:fname_out* *fname_out-variable*
v:fname_out The name of the output file. Only valid while
evaluating:
option used for ~
'charconvert' resulting converted file (*)
'diffexpr' output of diff
'patchexpr' resulting patched file
(*) When doing conversion for a write command (e.g., ":w
file") it will be equal to v:fname_in. When doing conversion
for a read command (e.g., ":e file") it will be a temporary
file and different from v:fname_in.
*v:fname_new* *fname_new-variable*
v:fname_new The name of the new version of the file. Only valid while
evaluating 'diffexpr'.
*v:fname_diff* *fname_diff-variable*
v:fname_diff The name of the diff (patch) file. Only valid while
evaluating 'patchexpr'.
*v:folddashes* *folddashes-variable*
v:folddashes Used for 'foldtext': dashes representing foldlevel of a closed
fold.
Read-only in the |sandbox|. |fold-foldtext|
*v:foldlevel* *foldlevel-variable*
v:foldlevel Used for 'foldtext': foldlevel of closed fold.
Read-only in the |sandbox|. |fold-foldtext|
*v:foldend* *foldend-variable*
v:foldend Used for 'foldtext': last line of closed fold.
Read-only in the |sandbox|. |fold-foldtext|
*v:foldstart* *foldstart-variable*
v:foldstart Used for 'foldtext': first line of closed fold.
Read-only in the |sandbox|. |fold-foldtext|
*v:insertmode* *insertmode-variable*
v:insertmode Used for the |InsertEnter| and |InsertChange| autocommand
events. Values:
i Insert mode
r Replace mode
v Virtual Replace mode
*v:key* *key-variable*
v:key Key of the current item of a |Dictionary|. Only valid while
evaluating the expression used with |map()| and |filter()|.
Read-only.
*v:lang* *lang-variable*
v:lang The current locale setting for messages of the runtime
environment. This allows Vim scripts to be aware of the
current language. Technical: it's the value of LC_MESSAGES.
The value is system dependent.
This variable can not be set directly, use the |:language|
command.
It can be different from |v:ctype| when messages are desired
in a different language than what is used for character
encoding. See |multi-lang|.
*v:lc_time* *lc_time-variable*
v:lc_time The current locale setting for time messages of the runtime
environment. This allows Vim scripts to be aware of the
current language. Technical: it's the value of LC_TIME.
This variable can not be set directly, use the |:language|
command. See |multi-lang|.
*v:lnum* *lnum-variable*
v:lnum Line number for the 'foldexpr' |fold-expr| and 'indentexpr'
expressions, tab page number for 'guitablabel'. Only valid
while one of these expressions is being evaluated. Read-only
when in the |sandbox|.
*v:prevcount* *prevcount-variable*
v:prevcount The count given for the last but one Normal mode command.
This is the v:count value of the previous command. Useful if
you want to cancel Visual mode and then use the count. >
:vmap % <Esc>:call MyFilter(v:prevcount)<CR>
< Read-only.
*v:profiling* *profiling-variable*
v:profiling Normally zero. Set to one after using ":profile start".
See |profiling|.
*v:progname* *progname-variable*
v:progname Contains the name (with path removed) with which Vim was
invoked. Allows you to do special initialisations for "view",
"evim" etc., or any other name you might symlink to Vim.
Read-only.
*v:register* *register-variable*
v:register The name of the register supplied to the last normal mode
command. Empty if none were supplied. |getreg()| |setreg()|
*v:scrollstart* *scrollstart-variable*
v:scrollstart String describing the script or function that caused the
screen to scroll up. It's only set when it is empty, thus the
first reason is remembered. It is set to "Unknown" for a
typed command.
This can be used to find out why your script causes the
hit-enter prompt.
*v:servername* *servername-variable*
v:servername The resulting registered |x11-clientserver| name if any.
Read-only.
*v:shell_error* *shell_error-variable*
v:shell_error Result of the last shell command. When non-zero, the last
shell command had an error. When zero, there was no problem.
This only works when the shell returns the error code to Vim.
The value -1 is often used when the command could not be
executed. Read-only.
Example: >
:!mv foo bar
:if v:shell_error
: echo 'could not rename "foo" to "bar"!'
:endif
< "shell_error" also works, for backwards compatibility.
*v:statusmsg* *statusmsg-variable*
v:statusmsg Last given status message. It's allowed to set this variable.
*v:swapname* *swapname-variable*
v:swapname Only valid when executing |SwapExists| autocommands: Name of
the swap file found. Read-only.
*v:swapchoice* *swapchoice-variable*
v:swapchoice |SwapExists| autocommands can set this to the selected choice
for handling an existing swap file:
'o' Open read-only
'e' Edit anyway
'r' Recover
'd' Delete swapfile
'q' Quit
'a' Abort
The value should be a single-character string. An empty value
results in the user being asked, as would happen when there is
no SwapExists autocommand. The default is empty.
*v:swapcommand* *swapcommand-variable*
v:swapcommand Normal mode command to be executed after a file has been
opened. Can be used for a |SwapExists| autocommand to have
another Vim open the file and jump to the right place. For
example, when jumping to a tag the value is ":tag tagname\r".
For ":edit +cmd file" the value is ":cmd\r".
*v:termresponse* *termresponse-variable*
v:termresponse The escape sequence returned by the terminal for the |t_RV|
termcap entry. It is set when Vim receives an escape sequence
that starts with ESC [ or CSI and ends in a 'c', with only
digits, ';' and '.' in between.
When this option is set, the TermResponse autocommand event is
fired, so that you can react to the response from the
terminal.
The response from a new xterm is: "<Esc>[ Pp ; Pv ; Pc c". Pp
is the terminal type: 0 for vt100 and 1 for vt220. Pv is the
patch level (since this was introduced in patch 95, it's
always 95 or bigger). Pc is always zero.
{only when compiled with |+termresponse| feature}
*v:this_session* *this_session-variable*
v:this_session Full filename of the last loaded or saved session file. See
|:mksession|. It is allowed to set this variable. When no
session file has been saved, this variable is empty.
"this_session" also works, for backwards compatibility.
*v:throwpoint* *throwpoint-variable*
v:throwpoint The point where the exception most recently caught and not
finished was thrown. Not set when commands are typed. See
also |v:exception| and |throw-variables|.
Example: >
:try
: throw "oops"
:catch /.*/
: echo "Exception from" v:throwpoint
:endtry
< Output: "Exception from test.vim, line 2"
*v:val* *val-variable*
v:val Value of the current item of a |List| or |Dictionary|. Only
valid while evaluating the expression used with |map()| and
|filter()|. Read-only.
*v:version* *version-variable*
v:version Version number of Vim: Major version number times 100 plus
minor version number. Version 5.0 is 500. Version 5.1 (5.01)
is 501. Read-only. "version" also works, for backwards
compatibility.
Use |has()| to check if a certain patch was included, e.g.: >
if has("patch123")
< Note that patch numbers are specific to the version, thus both
version 5.0 and 5.1 may have a patch 123, but these are
completely different.
*v:warningmsg* *warningmsg-variable*
v:warningmsg Last given warning message. It's allowed to set this variable.
==============================================================================
4. Builtin Functions *functions*
See |function-list| for a list grouped by what the function is used for.
(Use CTRL-] on the function name to jump to the full explanation.)
USAGE RESULT DESCRIPTION ~
add( {list}, {item}) List append {item} to |List| {list}
append( {lnum}, {string}) Number append {string} below line {lnum}
append( {lnum}, {list}) Number append lines {list} below line {lnum}
argc() Number number of files in the argument list
argidx() Number current index in the argument list
argv( {nr}) String {nr} entry of the argument list
browse( {save}, {title}, {initdir}, {default})
String put up a file requester
browsedir( {title}, {initdir}) String put up a directory requester
bufexists( {expr}) Number TRUE if buffer {expr} exists
buflisted( {expr}) Number TRUE if buffer {expr} is listed
bufloaded( {expr}) Number TRUE if buffer {expr} is loaded
bufname( {expr}) String Name of the buffer {expr}
bufnr( {expr}) Number Number of the buffer {expr}
bufwinnr( {expr}) Number window number of buffer {expr}
byte2line( {byte}) Number line number at byte count {byte}
byteidx( {expr}, {nr}) Number byte index of {nr}'th char in {expr}
call( {func}, {arglist} [, {dict}])
any call {func} with arguments {arglist}
changenr() Number current change number
char2nr( {expr}) Number ASCII value of first char in {expr}
cindent( {lnum}) Number C indent for line {lnum}
col( {expr}) Number column nr of cursor or mark
complete({startcol}, {matches}) String set Insert mode completion
complete_add( {expr}) Number add completion match
complete_check() Number check for key typed during completion
confirm( {msg} [, {choices} [, {default} [, {type}]]])
Number number of choice picked by user
copy( {expr}) any make a shallow copy of {expr}
count( {list}, {expr} [, {start} [, {ic}]])
Number count how many {expr} are in {list}
cscope_connection( [{num} , {dbpath} [, {prepend}]])
Number checks existence of cscope connection
cursor( {lnum}, {col} [, {coladd}])
Number move cursor to {lnum}, {col}, {coladd}
cursor( {list}) Number move cursor to position in {list}
deepcopy( {expr}) any make a full copy of {expr}
delete( {fname}) Number delete file {fname}
did_filetype() Number TRUE if FileType autocommand event used
diff_filler( {lnum}) Number diff filler lines about {lnum}
diff_hlID( {lnum}, {col}) Number diff highlighting at {lnum}/{col}
empty( {expr}) Number TRUE if {expr} is empty
escape( {string}, {chars}) String escape {chars} in {string} with '\'
eval( {string}) any evaluate {string} into its value
eventhandler( ) Number TRUE if inside an event handler
executable( {expr}) Number 1 if executable {expr} exists
exists( {expr}) Number TRUE if {expr} exists
expand( {expr}) String expand special keywords in {expr}
filereadable( {file}) Number TRUE if {file} is a readable file
filter( {expr}, {string}) List/Dict remove items from {expr} where
{string} is 0
finddir( {name}[, {path}[, {count}]])
String Find directory {name} in {path}
findfile( {name}[, {path}[, {count}]])
String Find file {name} in {path}
filewritable( {file}) Number TRUE if {file} is a writable file
fnamemodify( {fname}, {mods}) String modify file name
foldclosed( {lnum}) Number first line of fold at {lnum} if closed
foldclosedend( {lnum}) Number last line of fold at {lnum} if closed
foldlevel( {lnum}) Number fold level at {lnum}
foldtext( ) String line displayed for closed fold
foreground( ) Number bring the Vim window to the foreground
function( {name}) Funcref reference to function {name}
get( {list}, {idx} [, {def}]) any get item {idx} from {list} or {def}
get( {dict}, {key} [, {def}]) any get item {key} from {dict} or {def}
getbufline( {expr}, {lnum} [, {end}])
List lines {lnum} to {end} of buffer {expr}
getchar( [expr]) Number get one character from the user
getcharmod( ) Number modifiers for the last typed character
getbufvar( {expr}, {varname}) variable {varname} in buffer {expr}
getcmdline() String return the current command-line
getcmdpos() Number return cursor position in command-line
getcmdtype() String return the current command-line type
getcwd() String the current working directory
getfperm( {fname}) String file permissions of file {fname}
getfsize( {fname}) Number size in bytes of file {fname}
getfontname( [{name}]) String name of font being used
getftime( {fname}) Number last modification time of file
getftype( {fname}) String description of type of file {fname}
getline( {lnum}) String line {lnum} of current buffer
getline( {lnum}, {end}) List lines {lnum} to {end} of current buffer
getloclist({nr}) List list of location list items
getpos( {expr}) List position of cursor, mark, etc.
getqflist() List list of quickfix items
getreg( [{regname} [, 1]]) String contents of register
getregtype( [{regname}]) String type of register
getwinposx() Number X coord in pixels of GUI Vim window
getwinposy() Number Y coord in pixels of GUI Vim window
getwinvar( {nr}, {varname}) variable {varname} in window {nr}
glob( {expr}) String expand file wildcards in {expr}
globpath( {path}, {expr}) String do glob({expr}) for all dirs in {path}
has( {feature}) Number TRUE if feature {feature} supported
has_key( {dict}, {key}) Number TRUE if {dict} has entry {key}
hasmapto( {what} [, {mode} [, {abbr}]])
Number TRUE if mapping to {what} exists
histadd( {history},{item}) String add an item to a history
histdel( {history} [, {item}]) String remove an item from a history
histget( {history} [, {index}]) String get the item {index} from a history
histnr( {history}) Number highest index of a history
hlexists( {name}) Number TRUE if highlight group {name} exists
hlID( {name}) Number syntax ID of highlight group {name}
hostname() String name of the machine Vim is running on
iconv( {expr}, {from}, {to}) String convert encoding of {expr}
indent( {lnum}) Number indent of line {lnum}
index( {list}, {expr} [, {start} [, {ic}]])
Number index in {list} where {expr} appears
input( {prompt} [, {text} [, {completion}]])
String get input from the user
inputdialog( {p} [, {t} [, {c}]]) String like input() but in a GUI dialog
inputrestore() Number restore typeahead
inputsave() Number save and clear typeahead
inputsecret( {prompt} [, {text}]) String like input() but hiding the text
insert( {list}, {item} [, {idx}]) List insert {item} in {list} [before {idx}]
isdirectory( {directory}) Number TRUE if {directory} is a directory
islocked( {expr}) Number TRUE if {expr} is locked
items( {dict}) List key-value pairs in {dict}
join( {list} [, {sep}]) String join {list} items into one String
keys( {dict}) List keys in {dict}
len( {expr}) Number the length of {expr}
libcall( {lib}, {func}, {arg}) String call {func} in library {lib} with {arg}
libcallnr( {lib}, {func}, {arg}) Number idem, but return a Number
line( {expr}) Number line nr of cursor, last line or mark
line2byte( {lnum}) Number byte count of line {lnum}
lispindent( {lnum}) Number Lisp indent for line {lnum}
localtime() Number current time
map( {expr}, {string}) List/Dict change each item in {expr} to {expr}
maparg( {name}[, {mode} [, {abbr}]])
String rhs of mapping {name} in mode {mode}
mapcheck( {name}[, {mode} [, {abbr}]])
String check for mappings matching {name}
match( {expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]])
Number position where {pat} matches in {expr}
matchend( {expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]])
Number position where {pat} ends in {expr}
matchlist( {expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]])
List match and submatches of {pat} in {expr}
matchstr( {expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]])
String {count}'th match of {pat} in {expr}
max({list}) Number maximum value of items in {list}
min({list}) Number minumum value of items in {list}
mkdir({name} [, {path} [, {prot}]])
Number create directory {name}
mode() String current editing mode
nextnonblank( {lnum}) Number line nr of non-blank line >= {lnum}
nr2char( {expr}) String single char with ASCII value {expr}
prevnonblank( {lnum}) Number line nr of non-blank line <= {lnum}
printf( {fmt}, {expr1}...) String format text
pumvisible() Number whether popup menu is visible
range( {expr} [, {max} [, {stride}]])
List items from {expr} to {max}
readfile({fname} [, {binary} [, {max}]])
List get list of lines from file {fname}
reltime( [{start} [, {end}]]) List get time value
reltimestr( {time}) String turn time value into a String
remote_expr( {server}, {string} [, {idvar}])
String send expression
remote_foreground( {server}) Number bring Vim server to the foreground
remote_peek( {serverid} [, {retvar}])
Number check for reply string
remote_read( {serverid}) String read reply string
remote_send( {server}, {string} [, {idvar}])
String send key sequence
remove( {list}, {idx} [, {end}]) any remove items {idx}-{end} from {list}
remove( {dict}, {key}) any remove entry {key} from {dict}
rename( {from}, {to}) Number rename (move) file from {from} to {to}
repeat( {expr}, {count}) String repeat {expr} {count} times
resolve( {filename}) String get filename a shortcut points to
reverse( {list}) List reverse {list} in-place
search( {pattern} [, {flags}]) Number search for {pattern}
searchdecl({name} [, {global} [, {thisblock}]])
Number search for variable declaration
searchpair( {start}, {middle}, {end} [, {flags} [, {skip} [, {stopline}]]])
Number search for other end of start/end pair
searchpairpos( {start}, {middle}, {end} [, {flags} [, {skip} [, {stopline}]]])
List search for other end of start/end pair
searchpos( {pattern} [, {flags} [, {stopline}]])
List search for {pattern}
server2client( {clientid}, {string})
Number send reply string
serverlist() String get a list of available servers
setbufvar( {expr}, {varname}, {val}) set {varname} in buffer {expr} to {val}
setcmdpos( {pos}) Number set cursor position in command-line
setline( {lnum}, {line}) Number set line {lnum} to {line}
setloclist( {nr}, {list}[, {action}])
Number modify location list using {list}
setqflist( {list}[, {action}]) Number modify quickfix list using {list}
setreg( {n}, {v}[, {opt}]) Number set register to value and type
setwinvar( {nr}, {varname}, {val}) set {varname} in window {nr} to {val}
simplify( {filename}) String simplify filename as much as possible
sort( {list} [, {func}]) List sort {list}, using {func} to compare
soundfold( {word}) String sound-fold {word}
spellbadword() String badly spelled word at cursor
spellsuggest( {word} [, {max} [, {capital}]])
List spelling suggestions
split( {expr} [, {pat} [, {keepempty}]])
List make |List| from {pat} separated {expr}
str2nr( {expr} [, {base}]) Number convert string to number
strftime( {format}[, {time}]) String time in specified format
stridx( {haystack}, {needle}[, {start}])
Number index of {needle} in {haystack}
string( {expr}) String String representation of {expr} value
strlen( {expr}) Number length of the String {expr}
strpart( {src}, {start}[, {len}])
String {len} characters of {src} at {start}
strridx( {haystack}, {needle} [, {start}])
Number last index of {needle} in {haystack}
strtrans( {expr}) String translate string to make it printable
submatch( {nr}) String specific match in ":substitute"
substitute( {expr}, {pat}, {sub}, {flags})
String all {pat} in {expr} replaced with {sub}
synID( {lnum}, {col}, {trans}) Number syntax ID at {lnum} and {col}
synIDattr( {synID}, {what} [, {mode}])
String attribute {what} of syntax ID {synID}
synIDtrans( {synID}) Number translated syntax ID of {synID}
system( {expr} [, {input}]) String output of shell command/filter {expr}
tabpagebuflist( [{arg}]) List list of buffer numbers in tab page
tabpagenr( [{arg}]) Number number of current or last tab page
tabpagewinnr( {tabarg}[, {arg}])
Number number of current window in tab page
taglist( {expr}) List list of tags matching {expr}
tagfiles() List tags files used
tempname() String name for a temporary file
tolower( {expr}) String the String {expr} switched to lowercase
toupper( {expr}) String the String {expr} switched to uppercase
tr( {src}, {fromstr}, {tostr}) String translate chars of {src} in {fromstr}
to chars in {tostr}
type( {name}) Number type of variable {name}
values( {dict}) List values in {dict}
virtcol( {expr}) Number screen column of cursor or mark
visualmode( [expr]) String last visual mode used
winbufnr( {nr}) Number buffer number of window {nr}
wincol() Number window column of the cursor
winheight( {nr}) Number height of window {nr}
winline() Number window line of the cursor
winnr( [{expr}]) Number number of current window
winrestcmd() String returns command to restore window sizes
winrestview({dict}) None restore view of current window
winsaveview() Dict save view of current window
winwidth( {nr}) Number width of window {nr}
writefile({list}, {fname} [, {binary}])
Number write list of lines to file {fname}
add({list}, {expr}) *add()*
Append the item {expr} to |List| {list}. Returns the
resulting |List|. Examples: >
:let alist = add([1, 2, 3], item)
:call add(mylist, "woodstock")
< Note that when {expr} is a |List| it is appended as a single
item. Use |extend()| to concatenate |Lists|.
Use |insert()| to add an item at another position.
append({lnum}, {expr}) *append()*
When {expr} is a |List|: Append each item of the |List| as a
text line below line {lnum} in the current buffer.
Otherwise append {expr} as one text line below line {lnum} in
the current buffer.
{lnum} can be zero to insert a line before the first one.
Returns 1 for failure ({lnum} out of range or out of memory),
0 for success. Example: >
:let failed = append(line('$'), "# THE END")
:let failed = append(0, ["Chapter 1", "the beginning"])
<
*argc()*
argc() The result is the number of files in the argument list of the
current window. See |arglist|.
*argidx()*
argidx() The result is the current index in the argument list. 0 is
the first file. argc() - 1 is the last one. See |arglist|.
*argv()*
argv({nr}) The result is the {nr}th file in the argument list of the
current window. See |arglist|. "argv(0)" is the first one.
Example: >
:let i = 0
:while i < argc()
: let f = escape(argv(i), '. ')
: exe 'amenu Arg.' . f . ' :e ' . f . '<CR>'
: let i = i + 1
:endwhile
<
*browse()*
browse({save}, {title}, {initdir}, {default})
Put up a file requester. This only works when "has("browse")"
returns non-zero (only in some GUI versions).
The input fields are:
{save} when non-zero, select file to write
{title} title for the requester
{initdir} directory to start browsing in
{default} default file name
When the "Cancel" button is hit, something went wrong, or
browsing is not possible, an empty string is returned.
*browsedir()*
browsedir({title}, {initdir})
Put up a directory requester. This only works when
"has("browse")" returns non-zero (only in some GUI versions).
On systems where a directory browser is not supported a file
browser is used. In that case: select a file in the directory
to be used.
The input fields are:
{title} title for the requester
{initdir} directory to start browsing in
When the "Cancel" button is hit, something went wrong, or
browsing is not possible, an empty string is returned.
bufexists({expr}) *bufexists()*
The result is a Number, which is non-zero if a buffer called
{expr} exists.
If the {expr} argument is a number, buffer numbers are used.
If the {expr} argument is a string it must match a buffer name
exactly. The name can be:
- Relative to the current directory.
- A full path.
- The name of a buffer with 'filetype' set to "nofile".
- A URL name.
Unlisted buffers will be found.
Note that help files are listed by their short name in the
output of |:buffers|, but bufexists() requires using their
long name to be able to find them.
Use "bufexists(0)" to test for the existence of an alternate
file name.
*buffer_exists()*
Obsolete name: buffer_exists().
buflisted({expr}) *buflisted()*
The result is a Number, which is non-zero if a buffer called
{expr} exists and is listed (has the 'buflisted' option set).
The {expr} argument is used like with |bufexists()|.
bufloaded({expr}) *bufloaded()*
The result is a Number, which is non-zero if a buffer called
{expr} exists and is loaded (shown in a window or hidden).
The {expr} argument is used like with |bufexists()|.
bufname({expr}) *bufname()*
The result is the name of a buffer, as it is displayed by the
":ls" command.
If {expr} is a Number, that buffer number's name is given.
Number zero is the alternate buffer for the current window.
If {expr} is a String, it is used as a |file-pattern| to match
with the buffer names. This is always done like 'magic' is
set and 'cpoptions' is empty. When there is more than one
match an empty string is returned.
"" or "%" can be used for the current buffer, "#" for the
alternate buffer.
A full match is preferred, otherwise a match at the start, end
or middle of the buffer name is accepted.
Listed buffers are found first. If there is a single match
with a listed buffer, that one is returned. Next unlisted
buffers are searched for.
If the {expr} is a String, but you want to use it as a buffer
number, force it to be a Number by adding zero to it: >
:echo bufname("3" + 0)
< If the buffer doesn't exist, or doesn't have a name, an empty
string is returned. >
bufname("#") alternate buffer name
bufname(3) name of buffer 3
bufname("%") name of current buffer
bufname("file2") name of buffer where "file2" matches.
< *buffer_name()*
Obsolete name: buffer_name().
*bufnr()*
bufnr({expr} [, {create}])
The result is the number of a buffer, as it is displayed by
the ":ls" command. For the use of {expr}, see |bufname()|
above.
If the buffer doesn't exist, -1 is returned. Or, if the
{create} argument is present and not zero, a new, unlisted,
buffer is created and its number is returned.
bufnr("$") is the last buffer: >
:let last_buffer = bufnr("$")
< The result is a Number, which is the highest buffer number
of existing buffers. Note that not all buffers with a smaller
number necessarily exist, because ":bwipeout" may have removed
them. Use bufexists() to test for the existence of a buffer.
*buffer_number()*
Obsolete name: buffer_number().
*last_buffer_nr()*
Obsolete name for bufnr("$"): last_buffer_nr().
bufwinnr({expr}) *bufwinnr()*
The result is a Number, which is the number of the first
window associated with buffer {expr}. For the use of {expr},
see |bufname()| above. If buffer {expr} doesn't exist or
there is no such window, -1 is returned. Example: >
echo "A window containing buffer 1 is " . (bufwinnr(1))
< The number can be used with |CTRL-W_w| and ":wincmd w"
|:wincmd|.
byte2line({byte}) *byte2line()*
Return the line number that contains the character at byte
count {byte} in the current buffer. This includes the
end-of-line character, depending on the 'fileformat' option
for the current buffer. The first character has byte count
one.
Also see |line2byte()|, |go| and |:goto|.
{not available when compiled without the |+byte_offset|
feature}
byteidx({expr}, {nr}) *byteidx()*
Return byte index of the {nr}'th character in the string
{expr}. Use zero for the first character, it returns zero.
This function is only useful when there are multibyte
characters, otherwise the returned value is equal to {nr}.
Composing characters are counted as a separate character.
Example : >
echo matchstr(str, ".", byteidx(str, 3))
< will display the fourth character. Another way to do the
same: >
let s = strpart(str, byteidx(str, 3))
echo strpart(s, 0, byteidx(s, 1))
< If there are less than {nr} characters -1 is returned.
If there are exactly {nr} characters the length of the string
is returned.
call({func}, {arglist} [, {dict}]) *call()* *E699*
Call function {func} with the items in |List| {arglist} as
arguments.
{func} can either be a |Funcref| or the name of a function.
a:firstline and a:lastline are set to the cursor line.
Returns the return value of the called function.
{dict} is for functions with the "dict" attribute. It will be
used to set the local variable "self". |Dictionary-function|
changenr() *changenr()*
Return the number of the most recent change. This is the same
number as what is displayed with |:undolist| and can be used
with the |:undo| command.
When a change was made it is the number of that change. After
redo it is the number of the redone change. After undo it is
one less than the number of the undone change.
char2nr({expr}) *char2nr()*
Return number value of the first char in {expr}. Examples: >
char2nr(" ") returns 32
char2nr("ABC") returns 65
< The current 'encoding' is used. Example for "utf-8": >
char2nr("?") returns 225
char2nr("?"[0]) returns 195
< nr2char() does the opposite.
cindent({lnum}) *cindent()*
Get the amount of indent for line {lnum} according the C
indenting rules, as with 'cindent'.
The indent is counted in spaces, the value of 'tabstop' is
relevant. {lnum} is used just like in |getline()|.
When {lnum} is invalid or Vim was not compiled the |+cindent|
feature, -1 is returned.
See |C-indenting|.
*col()*
col({expr}) The result is a Number, which is the byte index of the column
position given with {expr}. The accepted positions are:
. the cursor position
$ the end of the cursor line (the result is the
number of characters in the cursor line plus one)
'x position of mark x (if the mark is not set, 0 is
returned)
To get the line number use |col()|. To get both use
|getpos()|.
For the screen column position use |virtcol()|.
Note that only marks in the current file can be used.
Examples: >
col(".") column of cursor
col("$") length of cursor line plus one
col("'t") column of mark t
col("'" . markname) column of mark markname
< The first column is 1. 0 is returned for an error.
For the cursor position, when 'virtualedit' is active, the
column is one higher if the cursor is after the end of the
line. This can be used to obtain the column in Insert mode: >
:imap <F2> <C-O>:let save_ve = &ve<CR>
\<C-O>:set ve=all<CR>
\<C-O>:echo col(".") . "\n" <Bar>
\let &ve = save_ve<CR>
<
complete({startcol}, {matches}) *complete()* *E785*
Set the matches for Insert mode completion.
Can only be used in Insert mode. You need to use a mapping
with an expression argument |:map-<expr>| or CTRL-R =
|i_CTRL-R|. It does not work after CTRL-O.
{startcol} is the byte offset in the line where the completed
text start. The text up to the cursor is the original text
that will be replaced by the matches. Use col('.') for an
empty string. "col('.') - 1" will replace one character by a
match.
{matches} must be a |List|. Each |List| item is one match.
See |complete-items| for the kind of items that are possible.
Note that the after calling this function you need to avoid
inserting anything that would completion to stop.
The match can be selected with CTRL-N and CTRL-P as usual with
Insert mode completion. The popup menu will appear if
specified, see |ins-completion-menu|.
Example: >
inoremap <expr> <F5> ListMonths()
func! ListMonths()
call complete(col('.'), ['January', 'February', 'March',
\ 'April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'August', 'September',
\ 'October', 'November', 'December'])
return ''
endfunc
< This isn't very useful, but it shows how it works. Note that
an empty string is returned to avoid a zero being inserted.
complete_add({expr}) *complete_add()*
Add {expr} to the list of matches. Only to be used by the
function specified with the 'completefunc' option.
Returns 0 for failure (empty string or out of memory),
1 when the match was added, 2 when the match was already in
the list.
See |complete-functions| for an explanation of {expr}. It is
the same as one item in the list that 'omnifunc' would return.
complete_check() *complete_check()*
Check for a key typed while looking for completion matches.
This is to be used when looking for matches takes some time.
Returns non-zero when searching for matches is to be aborted,
zero otherwise.
Only to be used by the function specified with the
'completefunc' option.
*confirm()*
confirm({msg} [, {choices} [, {default} [, {type}]]])
Confirm() offers the user a dialog, from which a choice can be
made. It returns the number of the choice. For the first
choice this is 1.
Note: confirm() is only supported when compiled with dialog
support, see |+dialog_con| and |+dialog_gui|.
{msg} is displayed in a |dialog| with {choices} as the
alternatives. When {choices} is missing or empty, "&OK" is
used (and translated).
{msg} is a String, use '\n' to include a newline. Only on
some systems the string is wrapped when it doesn't fit.
{choices} is a String, with the individual choices separated
by '\n', e.g. >
confirm("Save changes?", "&Yes\n&No\n&Cancel")
< The letter after the '&' is the shortcut key for that choice.
Thus you can type 'c' to select "Cancel". The shortcut does
not need to be the first letter: >
confirm("file has been modified", "&Save\nSave &All")
< For the console, the first letter of each choice is used as
the default shortcut key.
The optional {default} argument is the number of the choice
that is made if the user hits <CR>. Use 1 to make the first
choice the default one. Use 0 to not set a default. If
{default} is omitted, 1 is used.
The optional {type} argument gives the type of dialog. This
is only used for the icon of the Win32 GUI. It can be one of
these values: "Error", "Question", "Info", "Warning" or
"Generic". Only the first character is relevant. When {type}
is omitted, "Generic" is used.
If the user aborts the dialog by pressing <Esc>, CTRL-C,
or another valid interrupt key, confirm() returns 0.
An example: >
:let choice = confirm("What do you want?", "&Apples\n&Oranges\n&Bananas", 2)
:if choice == 0
: echo "make up your mind!"
:elseif choice == 3
: echo "tasteful"
:else
: echo "I prefer bananas myself."
:endif
< In a GUI dialog, buttons are used. The layout of the buttons
depends on the 'v' flag in 'guioptions'. If it is included,
the buttons are always put vertically. Otherwise, confirm()
tries to put the buttons in one horizontal line. If they
don't fit, a vertical layout is used anyway. For some systems
the horizontal layout is always used.
*copy()*
copy({expr}) Make a copy of {expr}. For Numbers and Strings this isn't
different from using {expr} directly.
When {expr} is a |List| a shallow copy is created. This means
that the original |List| can be changed without changing the
copy, and vise versa. But the items are identical, thus
changing an item changes the contents of both |Lists|. Also
see |deepcopy()|.
count({comp}, {expr} [, {ic} [, {start}]]) *count()*
Return the number of times an item with value {expr} appears
in |List| or |Dictionary| {comp}.
If {start} is given then start with the item with this index.
{start} can only be used with a |List|.
When {ic} is given and it's non-zero then case is ignored.
*cscope_connection()*
cscope_connection([{num} , {dbpath} [, {prepend}]])
Checks for the existence of a |cscope| connection. If no
parameters are specified, then the function returns:
0, if cscope was not available (not compiled in), or
if there are no cscope connections;
1, if there is at least one cscope connection.
If parameters are specified, then the value of {num}
determines how existence of a cscope connection is checked:
{num} Description of existence check
----- ------------------------------
0 Same as no parameters (e.g., "cscope_connection()").
1 Ignore {prepend}, and use partial string matches for
{dbpath}.
2 Ignore {prepend}, and use exact string matches for
{dbpath}.
3 Use {prepend}, use partial string matches for both
{dbpath} and {prepend}.
4 Use {prepend}, use exact string matches for both
{dbpath} and {prepend}.
Note: All string comparisons are case sensitive!
Examples. Suppose we had the following (from ":cs show"): >
# pid database name prepend path
0 27664 cscope.out /usr/local
<
Invocation Return Val ~
---------- ---------- >
cscope_connection() 1
cscope_connection(1, "out") 1
cscope_connection(2, "out") 0
cscope_connection(3, "out") 0
cscope_connection(3, "out", "local") 1
cscope_connection(4, "out") 0
cscope_connection(4, "out", "local") 0
cscope_connection(4, "cscope.out", "/usr/local") 1
<
cursor({lnum}, {col} [, {off}]) *cursor()*
cursor({list})
Positions the cursor at the column {col} in the line {lnum}.
The first column is one.
When there is one argument {list} this is used as a |List|
with two or three items {lnum}, {col} and {off}. This is like
the return value of |getpos()|, but without the first item.
Does not change the jumplist.
If {lnum} is greater than the number of lines in the buffer,
the cursor will be positioned at the last line in the buffer.
If {lnum} is zero, the cursor will stay in the current line.
If {col} is greater than the number of bytes in the line,
the cursor will be positioned at the last character in the
line.
If {col} is zero, the cursor will stay in the current column.
When 'virtualedit' is used {off} specifies the offset in
screen columns from the start of the character. E.g., a
position within a Tab or after the last character.
deepcopy({expr}[, {noref}]) *deepcopy()* *E698*
Make a copy of {expr}. For Numbers and Strings this isn't
different from using {expr} directly.
When {expr} is a |List| a full copy is created. This means
that the original |List| can be changed without changing the
copy, and vise versa. When an item is a |List|, a copy for it
is made, recursively. Thus changing an item in the copy does
not change the contents of the original |List|.
When {noref} is omitted or zero a contained |List| or
|Dictionary| is only copied once. All references point to
this single copy. With {noref} set to 1 every occurrence of a
|List| or |Dictionary| results in a new copy. This also means
that a cyclic reference causes deepcopy() to fail.
*E724*
Nesting is possible up to 100 levels. When there is an item
that refers back to a higher level making a deep copy with
{noref} set to 1 will fail.
Also see |copy()|.
delete({fname}) *delete()*
Deletes the file by the name {fname}. The result is a Number,
which is 0 if the file was deleted successfully, and non-zero
when the deletion failed.
Use |remove()| to delete an item from a |List|.
*did_filetype()*
did_filetype() Returns non-zero when autocommands are being executed and the
FileType event has been triggered at least once. Can be used
to avoid triggering the FileType event again in the scripts
that detect the file type. |FileType|
When editing another file, the counter is reset, thus this
really checks if the FileType event has been triggered for the
current buffer. This allows an autocommand that starts
editing another buffer to set 'filetype' and load a syntax
file.
diff_filler({lnum}) *diff_filler()*
Returns the number of filler lines above line {lnum}.
These are the lines that were inserted at this point in
another diff'ed window. These filler lines are shown in the
display but don't exist in the buffer.
{lnum} is used like with |getline()|. Thus "." is the current
line, "'m" mark m, etc.
Returns 0 if the current window is not in diff mode.
diff_hlID({lnum}, {col}) *diff_hlID()*
Returns the highlight ID for diff mode at line {lnum} column
{col} (byte index). When the current line does not have a
diff change zero is returned.
{lnum} is used like with |getline()|. Thus "." is the current
line, "'m" mark m, etc.
{col} is 1 for the leftmost column, {lnum} is 1 for the first
line.
The highlight ID can be used with |synIDattr()| to obtain
syntax information about the highlighting.
empty({expr}) *empty()*
Return the Number 1 if {expr} is empty, zero otherwise.
A |List| or |Dictionary| is empty when it does not have any
items. A Number is empty when its value is zero.
For a long |List| this is much faster then comparing the
length with zero.
escape({string}, {chars}) *escape()*
Escape the characters in {chars} that occur in {string} with a
backslash. Example: >
:echo escape('c:\program files\vim', ' \')
< results in: >
c:\\program\ files\\vim
< *eval()*
eval({string}) Evaluate {string} and return the result. Especially useful to
turn the result of |string()| back into the original value.
This works for Numbers, Strings and composites of them.
Also works for |Funcref|s that refer to existing functions.
eventhandler() *eventhandler()*
Returns 1 when inside an event handler. That is that Vim got
interrupted while waiting for the user to type a character,
e.g., when dropping a file on Vim. This means interactive
commands cannot be used. Otherwise zero is returned.
executable({expr}) *executable()*
This function checks if an executable with the name {expr}
exists. {expr} must be the name of the program without any
arguments.
executable() uses the value of $PATH and/or the normal
searchpath for programs. *PATHEXT*
On MS-DOS and MS-Windows the ".exe", ".bat", etc. can
optionally be included. Then the extensions in $PATHEXT are
tried. Thus if "foo.exe" does not exist, "foo.exe.bat" can be
found. If $PATHEXT is not set then ".exe;.com;.bat;.cmd" is
used. A dot by itself can be used in $PATHEXT to try using
the name without an extension. When 'shell' looks like a
Unix shell, then the name is also tried without adding an
extension.
On MS-DOS and MS-Windows it only checks if the file exists and
is not a directory, not if it's really executable.
The result is a Number:
1 exists
0 does not exist
-1 not implemented on this system
*exists()*
exists({expr}) The result is a Number, which is non-zero if {expr} is
defined, zero otherwise. The {expr} argument is a string,
which contains one of these:
&option-name Vim option (only checks if it exists,
not if it really works)
+option-name Vim option that works.
$ENVNAME environment variable (could also be
done by comparing with an empty
string)
*funcname built-in function (see |functions|)
or user defined function (see
|user-functions|).
varname internal variable (see
|internal-variables|). Also works
for |curly-braces-names|, |Dictionary|
entries, |List| items, etc. Beware
that this may cause functions to be
invoked cause an error message for an
invalid expression.
:cmdname Ex command: built-in command, user
command or command modifier |:command|.
Returns:
1 for match with start of a command
2 full match with a command
3 matches several user commands
To check for a supported command
always check the return value to be 2.
#event autocommand defined for this event
#event#pattern autocommand defined for this event and
pattern (the pattern is taken
literally and compared to the
autocommand patterns character by
character)
#group autocommand group exists
#group#event autocommand defined for this group and
event.
#group#event#pattern
autocommand defined for this group,
event and pattern.
##event autocommand for this event is
supported.
For checking for a supported feature use |has()|.
Examples: >
exists("&shortname")
exists("$HOSTNAME")
exists("*strftime")
exists("*s:MyFunc")
exists("bufcount")
exists(":Make")
exists("#CursorHold")
exists("#BufReadPre#*.gz")
exists("#filetypeindent")
exists("#filetypeindent#FileType")
exists("#filetypeindent#FileType#*")
exists("##ColorScheme")
< There must be no space between the symbol (&/$/*/#) and the
name.
Note that the argument must be a string, not the name of the
variable itself! For example: >
exists(bufcount)
< This doesn't check for existence of the "bufcount" variable,
but gets the contents of "bufcount", and checks if that
exists.
expand({expr} [, {flag}]) *expand()*
Expand wildcards and the following special keywords in {expr}.
The result is a String.
When there are several matches, they are separated by <NL>
characters. [Note: in version 5.0 a space was used, which
caused problems when a file name contains a space]
If the expansion fails, the result is an empty string. A name
for a non-existing file is not included.
When {expr} starts with '%', '#' or '<', the expansion is done
like for the |cmdline-special| variables with their associated
modifiers. Here is a short overview:
% current file name
# alternate file name
#n alternate file name n
<cfile> file name under the cursor
<afile> autocmd file name
<abuf> autocmd buffer number (as a String!)
<amatch> autocmd matched name
<sfile> sourced script file name
<cword> word under the cursor
<cWORD> WORD under the cursor
<client> the {clientid} of the last received
message |server2client()|
Modifiers:
:p expand to full path
:h head (last path component removed)
:t tail (last path component only)
:r root (one extension removed)
:e extension only
Example: >
:let &tags = expand("%:p:h") . "/tags"
< Note that when expanding a string that starts with '%', '#' or
'<', any following text is ignored. This does NOT work: >
:let doesntwork = expand("%:h.bak")
< Use this: >
:let doeswork = expand("%:h") . ".bak"
< Also note that expanding "<cfile>" and others only returns the
referenced file name without further expansion. If "<cfile>"
is "~/.cshrc", you need to do another expand() to have the
"~/" expanded into the path of the home directory: >
:echo expand(expand("<cfile>"))
<
There cannot be white space between the variables and the
following modifier. The |fnamemodify()| function can be used
to modify normal file names.
When using '%' or '#', and the current or alternate file name
is not defined, an empty string is used. Using "%:p" in a
buffer with no name, results in the current directory, with a
'/' added.
When {expr} does not start with '%', '#' or '<', it is
expanded like a file name is expanded on the command line.
'suffixes' and 'wildignore' are used, unless the optional
{flag} argument is given and it is non-zero. Names for
non-existing files are included. The "**" item can be used to
search in a directory tree. For example, to find all "README"
files in the current directory and below: >
:echo expand("**/README")
<
Expand() can also be used to expand variables and environment
variables that are only known in a shell. But this can be
slow, because a shell must be started. See |expr-env-expand|.
The expanded variable is still handled like a list of file
names. When an environment variable cannot be expanded, it is
left unchanged. Thus ":echo expand('$FOOBAR')" results in
"$FOOBAR".
See |glob()| for finding existing files. See |system()| for
getting the raw output of an external command.
extend({expr1}, {expr2} [, {expr3}]) *extend()*
{expr1} and {expr2} must be both |Lists| or both
|Dictionaries|.
If they are |Lists|: Append {expr2} to {expr1}.
If {expr3} is given insert the items of {expr2} before item
{expr3} in {expr1}. When {expr3} is zero insert before the
first item. When {expr3} is equal to len({expr1}) then
{expr2} is appended.
Examples: >
:echo sort(extend(mylist, [7, 5]))
:call extend(mylist, [2, 3], 1)
< Use |add()| to concatenate one item to a list. To concatenate
two lists into a new list use the + operator: >
:let newlist = [1, 2, 3] + [4, 5]
<
If they are |Dictionaries|:
Add all entries from {expr2} to {expr1}.
If a key exists in both {expr1} and {expr2} then {expr3} is
used to decide what to do:
{expr3} = "keep": keep the value of {expr1}
{expr3} = "force": use the value of {expr2}
{expr3} = "error": give an error message *E737*
When {expr3} is omitted then "force" is assumed.
{expr1} is changed when {expr2} is not empty. If necessary
make a copy of {expr1} first.
{expr2} remains unchanged.
Returns {expr1}.
filereadable({file}) *filereadable()*
The result is a Number, which is TRUE when a file with the
name {file} exists, and can be read. If {file} doesn't exist,
or is a directory, the result is FALSE. {file} is any
expression, which is used as a String.
*file_readable()*
Obsolete name: file_readable().
filter({expr}, {string}) *filter()*
{expr} must be a |List| or a |Dictionary|.
For each item in {expr} evaluate {string} and when the result
is zero remove the item from the |List| or |Dictionary|.
Inside {string} |v:val| has the value of the current item.
For a |Dictionary| |v:key| has the key of the current item.
Examples: >
:call filter(mylist, 'v:val !~ "OLD"')
< Removes the items where "OLD" appears. >
:call filter(mydict, 'v:key >= 8')
< Removes the items with a key below 8. >
:call filter(var, 0)
< Removes all the items, thus clears the |List| or |Dictionary|.
Note that {string} is the result of expression and is then
used as an expression again. Often it is good to use a
|literal-string| to avoid having to double backslashes.
The operation is done in-place. If you want a |List| or
|Dictionary| to remain unmodified make a copy first: >
:let l = filter(copy(mylist), 'v:val =~ "KEEP"')
< Returns {expr}, the |List| or |Dictionary| that was filtered.
When an error is encountered while evaluating {string} no
further items in {expr} are processed.
finddir({name}[, {path}[, {count}]]) *finddir()*
Find directory {name} in {path}. Returns the path of the
first found match. When the found directory is below the
current directory a relative path is returned. Otherwise a
full path is returned.
If {path} is omitted or empty then 'path' is used.
If the optional {count} is given, find {count}'s occurrence of
{name} in {path} instead of the first one.
This is quite similar to the ex-command |:find|.
{only available when compiled with the +file_in_path feature}
findfile({name}[, {path}[, {count}]]) *findfile()*
Just like |finddir()|, but find a file instead of a directory.
Uses 'suffixesadd'.
Example: >
:echo findfile("tags.vim", ".;")
< Searches from the current directory upwards until it finds
the file "tags.vim".
filewritable({file}) *filewritable()*
The result is a Number, which is 1 when a file with the
name {file} exists, and can be written. If {file} doesn't
exist, or is not writable, the result is 0. If (file) is a
directory, and we can write to it, the result is 2.
fnamemodify({fname}, {mods}) *fnamemodify()*
Modify file name {fname} according to {mods}. {mods} is a
string of characters like it is used for file names on the
command line. See |filename-modifiers|.
Example: >
:echo fnamemodify("main.c", ":p:h")
< results in: >
/home/mool/vim/vim/src
< Note: Environment variables and "~" don't work in {fname}, use
|expand()| first then.
foldclosed({lnum}) *foldclosed()*
The result is a Number. If the line {lnum} is in a closed
fold, the result is the number of the first line in that fold.
If the line {lnum} is not in a closed fold, -1 is returned.
foldclosedend({lnum}) *foldclosedend()*
The result is a Number. If the line {lnum} is in a closed
fold, the result is the number of the last line in that fold.
If the line {lnum} is not in a closed fold, -1 is returned.
foldlevel({lnum}) *foldlevel()*
The result is a Number, which is the foldlevel of line {lnum}
in the current buffer. For nested folds the deepest level is
returned. If there is no fold at line {lnum}, zero is
returned. It doesn't matter if the folds are open or closed.
When used while updating folds (from 'foldexpr') -1 is
returned for lines where folds are still to be updated and the
foldlevel is unknown. As a special case the level of the
previous line is usually available.
*foldtext()*
foldtext() Returns a String, to be displayed for a closed fold. This is
the default function used for the 'foldtext' option and should
only be called from evaluating 'foldtext'. It uses the
|v:foldstart|, |v:foldend| and |v:folddashes| variables.
The returned string looks like this: >
+-- 45 lines: abcdef
< The number of dashes depends on the foldlevel. The "45" is
the number of lines in the fold. "abcdef" is the text in the
first non-blank line of the fold. Leading white space, "//"
or "/*" and the text from the 'foldmarker' and 'commentstring'
options is removed.
{not available when compiled without the |+folding| feature}
foldtextresult({lnum}) *foldtextresult()*
Returns the text that is displayed for the closed fold at line
{lnum}. Evaluates 'foldtext' in the appropriate context.
When there is no closed fold at {lnum} an empty string is
returned.
{lnum} is used like with |getline()|. Thus "." is the current
line, "'m" mark m, etc.
Useful when exporting folded text, e.g., to HTML.
{not available when compiled without the |+folding| feature}
*foreground()*
foreground() Move the Vim window to the foreground. Useful when sent from
a client to a Vim server. |remote_send()|
On Win32 systems this might not work, the OS does not always
allow a window to bring itself to the foreground. Use
|remote_foreground()| instead.
{only in the Win32, Athena, Motif and GTK GUI versions and the
Win32 console version}
function({name}) *function()* *E700*
Return a |Funcref| variable that refers to function {name}.
{name} can be a user defined function or an internal function.
garbagecollect() *garbagecollect()*
Cleanup unused |Lists| and |Dictionaries| that have circular
references. There is hardly ever a need to invoke this
function, as it is automatically done when Vim runs out of
memory or is waiting for the user to press a key after
'updatetime'. Items without circular references are always
freed when they become unused.
This is useful if you have deleted a very big |List| and/or
|Dictionary| with circular references in a script that runs
for a long time.
get({list}, {idx} [, {default}]) *get()*
Get item {idx} from |List| {list}. When this item is not
available return {default}. Return zero when {default} is
omitted.
get({dict}, {key} [, {default}])
Get item with key {key} from |Dictionary| {dict}. When this
item is not available return {default}. Return zero when
{default} is omitted.
*getbufline()*
getbufline({expr}, {lnum} [, {end}])
Return a |List| with the lines starting from {lnum} to {end}
(inclusive) in the buffer {expr}. If {end} is omitted, a
|List| with only the line {lnum} is returned.
For the use of {expr}, see |bufname()| above.
For {lnum} and {end} "$" can be used for the last line of the
buffer. Otherwise a number must be used.
When {lnum} is smaller than 1 or bigger than the number of
lines in the buffer, an empty |List| is returned.
When {end} is greater than the number of lines in the buffer,
it is treated as {end} is set to the number of lines in the
buffer. When {end} is before {lnum} an empty |List| is
returned.
This function works only for loaded buffers. For unloaded and
non-existing buffers, an empty |List| is returned.
Example: >
:let lines = getbufline(bufnr("myfile"), 1, "$")
getbufvar({expr}, {varname}) *getbufvar()*
The result is the value of option or local buffer variable
{varname} in buffer {expr}. Note that the name without "b:"
must be used.
This also works for a global or buffer-local option, but it
doesn't work for a global variable, window-local variable or
window-local option.
For the use of {expr}, see |bufname()| above.
When the buffer or variable doesn't exist an empty string is
returned, there is no error message.
Examples: >
:let bufmodified = getbufvar(1, "&mod")
:echo "todo myvar = " . getbufvar("todo", "myvar")
<
getchar([expr]) *getchar()*
Get a single character from the user. If it is an 8-bit
character, the result is a number. Otherwise a String is
returned with the encoded character. For a special key it's a
sequence of bytes starting with 0x80 (decimal: 128).
If [expr] is omitted, wait until a character is available.
If [expr] is 0, only get a character when one is available.
If [expr] is 1, only check if a character is available, it is
not consumed. If a normal character is
available, it is returned, otherwise a
non-zero value is returned.
If a normal character available, it is returned as a Number.
Use nr2char() to convert it to a String.
The returned value is zero if no character is available.
The returned value is a string of characters for special keys
and when a modifier (shift, control, alt) was used.
There is no prompt, you will somehow have to make clear to the
user that a character has to be typed.
There is no mapping for the character.
Key codes are replaced, thus when the user presses the <Del>
key you get the code for the <Del> key, not the raw character
sequence. Examples: >
getchar() == "\<Del>"
getchar() == "\<S-Left>"
< This example redefines "f" to ignore case: >
:nmap f :call FindChar()<CR>
:function FindChar()
: let c = nr2char(getchar())
: while col('.') < col('$') - 1
: normal l
: if getline('.')[col('.') - 1] ==? c
: break
: endif
: endwhile
:endfunction
getcharmod() *getcharmod()*
The result is a Number which is the state of the modifiers for
the last obtained character with getchar() or in another way.
These values are added together:
2 shift
4 control
8 alt (meta)
16 mouse double click
32 mouse triple click
64 mouse quadruple click
128 Macintosh only: command
Only the modifiers that have not been included in the
character itself are obtained. Thus Shift-a results in "A"
with no modifier.
getcmdline() *getcmdline()*
Return the current command-line. Only works when the command
line is being edited, thus requires use of |c_CTRL-\_e| or
|c_CTRL-R_=|.
Example: >
:cmap <F7> <C-\>eescape(getcmdline(), ' \')<CR>
< Also see |getcmdtype()|, |getcmdpos()| and |setcmdpos()|.
getcmdpos() *getcmdpos()*
Return the position of the cursor in the command line as a
byte count. The first column is 1.
Only works when editing the command line, thus requires use of
|c_CTRL-\_e| or |c_CTRL-R_=|. Returns 0 otherwise.
Also see |getcmdtype()|, |setcmdpos()| and |getcmdline()|.
getcmdtype() *getcmdtype()*
Return the current command-line type. Possible return values
are:
: normal Ex command
> debug mode command |debug-mode|
/ forward search command
? backward search command
@ |input()| command
- |:insert| or |:append| command
Only works when editing the command line, thus requires use of
|c_CTRL-\_e| or |c_CTRL-R_=|. Returns an empty string
otherwise.
Also see |getcmdpos()|, |setcmdpos()| and |getcmdline()|.
*getcwd()*
getcwd() The result is a String, which is the name of the current
working directory.
getfsize({fname}) *getfsize()*
The result is a Number, which is the size in bytes of the
given file {fname}.
If {fname} is a directory, 0 is returned.
If the file {fname} can't be found, -1 is returned.
getfontname([{name}]) *getfontname()*
Without an argument returns the name of the normal font being
used. Like what is used for the Normal highlight group
|hl-Normal|.
With an argument a check is done whether {name} is a valid
font name. If not then an empty string is returned.
Otherwise the actual font name is returned, or {name} if the
GUI does not support obtaining the real name.
Only works when the GUI is running, thus not you your vimrc or
Note that the GTK 2 GUI accepts any font name, thus checking
for a valid name does not work.
gvimrc file. Use the |GUIEnter| autocommand to use this
function just after the GUI has started.
getfperm({fname}) *getfperm()*
The result is a String, which is the read, write, and execute
permissions of the given file {fname}.
If {fname} does not exist or its directory cannot be read, an
empty string is returned.
The result is of the form "rwxrwxrwx", where each group of
"rwx" flags represent, in turn, the permissions of the owner
of the file, the group the file belongs to, and other users.
If a user does not have a given permission the flag for this
is replaced with the string "-". Example: >
:echo getfperm("/etc/passwd")
< This will hopefully (from a security point of view) display
the string "rw-r--r--" or even "rw-------".
getftime({fname}) *getftime()*
The result is a Number, which is the last modification time of
the given file {fname}. The value is measured as seconds
since 1st Jan 1970, and may be passed to strftime(). See also
|localtime()| and |strftime()|.
If the file {fname} can't be found -1 is returned.
getftype({fname}) *getftype()*
The result is a String, which is a description of the kind of
file of the given file {fname}.
If {fname} does not exist an empty string is returned.
Here is a table over different kinds of files and their
results:
Normal file "file"
Directory "dir"
Symbolic link "link"
Block device "bdev"
Character device "cdev"
Socket "socket"
FIFO "fifo"
All other "other"
Example: >
getftype("/home")
< Note that a type such as "link" will only be returned on
systems that support it. On some systems only "dir" and
"file" are returned.
*getline()*
getline({lnum} [, {end}])
Without {end} the result is a String, which is line {lnum}
from the current buffer. Example: >
getline(1)
< When {lnum} is a String that doesn't start with a
digit, line() is called to translate the String into a Number.
To get the line under the cursor: >
getline(".")
< When {lnum} is smaller than 1 or bigger than the number of
lines in the buffer, an empty string is returned.
When {end} is given the result is a |List| where each item is
a line from the current buffer in the range {lnum} to {end},
including line {end}.
{end} is used in the same way as {lnum}.
Non-existing lines are silently omitted.
When {end} is before {lnum} an empty |List| is returned.
Example: >
:let start = line('.')
:let end = search("^$") - 1
:let lines = getline(start, end)
getloclist({nr}) *getloclist()*
Returns a list with all the entries in the location list for
window {nr}. When {nr} is zero the current window is used.
For a location list window, the displayed location list is
returned. For an invalid window number {nr}, an empty list is
returned. Otherwise, same as getqflist().
getqflist() *getqflist()*
Returns a list with all the current quickfix errors. Each
list item is a dictionary with these entries:
bufnr number of buffer that has the file name, use
bufname() to get the name
lnum line number in the buffer (first line is 1)
col column number (first column is 1)
vcol non-zero: "col" is visual column
zero: "col" is byte index
nr error number
text description of the error
type type of the error, 'E', '1', etc.
valid non-zero: recognized error message
When there is no error list or it's empty an empty list is
returned.
Useful application: Find pattern matches in multiple files and
do something with them: >
:vimgrep /theword/jg *.c
:for d in getqflist()
: echo bufname(d.bufnr) ':' d.lnum '=' d.text
:endfor
getreg([{regname} [, 1]]) *getreg()*
The result is a String, which is the contents of register
{regname}. Example: >
:let cliptext = getreg('*')
< getreg('=') returns the last evaluated value of the expression
register. (For use in maps.)
getreg('=', 1) returns the expression itself, so that it can
be restored with |setreg()|. For other registers the extra
argument is ignored, thus you can always give it.
If {regname} is not specified, |v:register| is used.
getregtype([{regname}]) *getregtype()*
The result is a String, which is type of register {regname}.
The value will be one of:
"v" for |characterwise| text
"V" for |linewise| text
"<CTRL-V>{width}" for |blockwise-visual| text
0 for an empty or unknown register
<CTRL-V> is one character with value 0x16.
If {regname} is not specified, |v:register| is used.
*getwinposx()*
getwinposx() The result is a Number, which is the X coordinate in pixels of
the left hand side of the GUI Vim window. The result will be
-1 if the information is not available.
*getwinposy()*
getwinposy() The result is a Number, which is the Y coordinate in pixels of
the top of the GUI Vim window. The result will be -1 if the
information is not available.
getwinvar({nr}, {varname}) *getwinvar()*
The result is the value of option or local window variable
{varname} in window {nr}. When {nr} is zero the current
window is used.
This also works for a global option, buffer-local option and
window-local option, but it doesn't work for a global variable
or buffer-local variable.
Note that the name without "w:" must be used.
Examples: >
:let list_is_on = getwinvar(2, '&list')
:echo "myvar = " . getwinvar(1, 'myvar')
<
*glob()*
glob({expr}) Expand the file wildcards in {expr}. The result is a String.
When there are several matches, they are separated by <NL>
characters.
If the expansion fails, the result is an empty string.
A name for a non-existing file is not included.
For most systems backticks can be used to get files names from
any external command. Example: >
:let tagfiles = glob("`find . -name tags -print`")
:let &tags = substitute(tagfiles, "\n", ",", "g")
< The result of the program inside the backticks should be one
item per line. Spaces inside an item are allowed.
See |expand()| for expanding special Vim variables. See
|system()| for getting the raw output of an external command.
globpath({path}, {expr}) *globpath()*
Perform glob() on all directories in {path} and concatenate
the results. Example: >
:echo globpath(&rtp, "syntax/c.vim")
< {path} is a comma-separated list of directory names. Each
directory name is prepended to {expr} and expanded like with
glob(). A path separator is inserted when needed.
To add a comma inside a directory name escape it with a
backslash. Note that on MS-Windows a directory may have a
trailing backslash, remove it if you put a comma after it.
If the expansion fails for one of the directories, there is no
error message.
The 'wildignore' option applies: Names matching one of the
patterns in 'wildignore' will be skipped.
The "**" item can be used to search in a directory tree.
For example, to find all "README.txt" files in the directories
in 'runtimepath' and below: >
:echo globpath(&rtp, "**/README.txt")
<
*has()*
has({feature}) The result is a Number, which is 1 if the feature {feature} is
supported, zero otherwise. The {feature} argument is a
string. See |feature-list| below.
Also see |exists()|.
has_key({dict}, {key}) *has_key()*
The result is a Number, which is 1 if |Dictionary| {dict} has
an entry with key {key}. Zero otherwise.
hasmapto({what} [, {mode} [, {abbr}]]) *hasmapto()*
The result is a Number, which is 1 if there is a mapping that
contains {what} in somewhere in the rhs (what it is mapped to)
and this mapping exists in one of the modes indicated by
{mode}.
When {abbr} is there and it is non-zero use abbreviations
instead of mappings. Don't forget to specify Insert and/or
Command-line mode.
Both the global mappings and the mappings local to the current
buffer are checked for a match.
If no matching mapping is found 0 is returned.
The following characters are recognized in {mode}:
n Normal mode
v Visual mode
o Operator-pending mode
i Insert mode
l Language-Argument ("r", "f", "t", etc.)
c Command-line mode
When {mode} is omitted, "nvo" is used.
This function is useful to check if a mapping already exists
to a function in a Vim script. Example: >
:if !hasmapto('\ABCdoit')
: map <Leader>d \ABCdoit
:endif
< This installs the mapping to "\ABCdoit" only if there isn't
already a mapping to "\ABCdoit".
histadd({history}, {item}) *histadd()*
Add the String {item} to the history {history} which can be
one of: *hist-names*
"cmd" or ":" command line history
"search" or "/" search pattern history
"expr" or "=" typed expression history
"input" or "@" input line history
If {item} does already exist in the history, it will be
shifted to become the newest entry.
The result is a Number: 1 if the operation was successful,
otherwise 0 is returned.
Example: >
:call histadd("input", strftime("%Y %b %d"))
:let date=input("Enter date: ")
< This function is not available in the |sandbox|.
histdel({history} [, {item}]) *histdel()*
Clear {history}, i.e. delete all its entries. See |hist-names|
for the possible values of {history}.
If the parameter {item} is given as String, this is seen
as regular expression. All entries matching that expression
will be removed from the history (if there are any).
Upper/lowercase must match, unless "\c" is used |/\c|.
If {item} is a Number, it will be interpreted as index, see
|:history-indexing|. The respective entry will be removed
if it exists.
The result is a Number: 1 for a successful operation,
otherwise 0 is returned.
Examples:
Clear expression register history: >
:call histdel("expr")
<
Remove all entries starting with "*" from the search history: >
:call histdel("/", '^\*')
<
The following three are equivalent: >
:call histdel("search", histnr("search"))
:call histdel("search", -1)
:call histdel("search", '^'.histget("search", -1).'$')
<
To delete the last search pattern and use the last-but-one for
the "n" command and 'hlsearch': >
:call histdel("search", -1)
:let @/ = histget("search", -1)
histget({history} [, {index}]) *histget()*
The result is a String, the entry with Number {index} from
{history}. See |hist-names| for the possible values of
{history}, and |:history-indexing| for {index}. If there is
no such entry, an empty String is returned. When {index} is
omitted, the most recent item from the history is used.
Examples:
Redo the second last search from history. >
:execute '/' . histget("search", -2)
< Define an Ex command ":H {num}" that supports re-execution of
the {num}th entry from the output of |:history|. >
:command -nargs=1 H execute histget("cmd", 0+<args>)
<
histnr({history}) *histnr()*
The result is the Number of the current entry in {history}.
See |hist-names| for the possible values of {history}.
If an error occurred, -1 is returned.
Example: >
:let inp_index = histnr("expr")
<
hlexists({name}) *hlexists()*
The result is a Number, which is non-zero if a highlight group
called {name} exists. This is when the group has been
defined in some way. Not necessarily when highlighting has
been defined for it, it may also have been used for a syntax
item.
*highlight_exists()*
Obsolete name: highlight_exists().
*hlID()*
hlID({name}) The result is a Number, which is the ID of the highlight group
with name {name}. When the highlight group doesn't exist,
zero is returned.
This can be used to retrieve information about the highlight
group. For example, to get the background color of the
"Comment" group: >
:echo synIDattr(synIDtrans(hlID("Comment")), "bg")
< *highlightID()*
Obsolete name: highlightID().
hostname() *hostname()*
The result is a String, which is the name of the machine on
which Vim is currently running. Machine names greater than
256 characters long are truncated.
iconv({expr}, {from}, {to}) *iconv()*
The result is a String, which is the text {expr} converted
from encoding {from} to encoding {to}.
When the conversion fails an empty string is returned.
The encoding names are whatever the iconv() library function
can accept, see ":!man 3 iconv".
Most conversions require Vim to be compiled with the |+iconv|
feature. Otherwise only UTF-8 to latin1 conversion and back
can be done.
This can be used to display messages with special characters,
no matter what 'encoding' is set to. Write the message in
UTF-8 and use: >
echo iconv(utf8_str, "utf-8", &enc)
< Note that Vim uses UTF-8 for all Unicode encodings, conversion
from/to UCS-2 is automatically changed to use UTF-8. You
cannot use UCS-2 in a string anyway, because of the NUL bytes.
{only available when compiled with the +multi_byte feature}
*indent()*
indent({lnum}) The result is a Number, which is indent of line {lnum} in the
current buffer. The indent is counted in spaces, the value
of 'tabstop' is relevant. {lnum} is used just like in
|getline()|.
When {lnum} is invalid -1 is returned.
index({list}, {expr} [, {start} [, {ic}]]) *index()*
Return the lowest index in |List| {list} where the item has a
value equal to {expr}.
If {start} is given then start looking at the item with index
{start} (may be negative for an item relative to the end).
When {ic} is given and it is non-zero, ignore case. Otherwise
case must match.
-1 is returned when {expr} is not found in {list}.
Example: >
:let idx = index(words, "the")
:if index(numbers, 123) >= 0
input({prompt} [, {text} [, {completion}]]) *input()*
The result is a String, which is whatever the user typed on
the command-line. The parameter is either a prompt string, or
a blank string (for no prompt). A '\n' can be used in the
prompt to start a new line.
The highlighting set with |:echohl| is used for the prompt.
The input is entered just like a command-line, with the same
editing commands and mappings. There is a separate history
for lines typed for input().
Example: >
:if input("Coffee or beer? ") == "beer"
: echo "Cheers!"
:endif
<
If the optional {text} is present and not empty, this is used
for the default reply, as if the user typed this. Example: >
:let color = input("Color? ", "white")
< The optional {completion} argument specifies the type of
completion supported for the input. Without it completion is
not performed. The supported completion types are the same as
that can be supplied to a user-defined command using the
"-complete=" argument. Refer to |:command-completion| for
more information. Example: >
let fname = input("File: ", "", "file")
<
NOTE: This function must not be used in a startup file, for
the versions that only run in GUI mode (e.g., the Win32 GUI).
Note: When input() is called from within a mapping it will
consume remaining characters from that mapping, because a
mapping is handled like the characters were typed.
Use |inputsave()| before input() and |inputrestore()|
after input() to avoid that. Another solution is to avoid
that further characters follow in the mapping, e.g., by using
|:execute| or |:normal|.
Example with a mapping: >
:nmap \x :call GetFoo()<CR>:exe "/" . Foo<CR>
:function GetFoo()
: call inputsave()
: let g:Foo = input("enter search pattern: ")
: call inputrestore()
:endfunction
inputdialog({prompt} [, {text} [, {cancelreturn}]]) *inputdialog()*
Like input(), but when the GUI is running and text dialogs are
supported, a dialog window pops up to input the text.
Example: >
:let n = inputdialog("value for shiftwidth", &sw)
:if n != ""
: let &sw = n
:endif
< When the dialog is cancelled {cancelreturn} is returned. When
omitted an empty string is returned.
Hitting <Enter> works like pressing the OK button. Hitting
<Esc> works like pressing the Cancel button.
NOTE: Command-line completion is not supported.
inputlist({textlist}) *inputlist()*
{textlist} must be a list of strings. This list is displayed,
one string per line. The user will be prompted to enter a
number, which is returned.
The user can also select an item by clicking on it with the
mouse. For the first string 0 is returned. When clicking
above the first item a negative number is returned. When
clicking on the prompt one more than the length of {textlist}
is returned.
Make sure {textlist} has less then 'lines' entries, otherwise
it won't work. It's a good idea to put the entry number at
the start of the string. Example: >
let color = inputlist(['Select color:', '1. red',
\ '2. green', '3. blue'])
inputrestore() *inputrestore()*
Restore typeahead that was saved with a previous inputsave().
Should be called the same number of times inputsave() is
called. Calling it more often is harmless though.
Returns 1 when there is nothing to restore, 0 otherwise.
inputsave() *inputsave()*
Preserve typeahead (also from mappings) and clear it, so that
a following prompt gets input from the user. Should be
followed by a matching inputrestore() after the prompt. Can
be used several times, in which case there must be just as
many inputrestore() calls.
Returns 1 when out of memory, 0 otherwise.
inputsecret({prompt} [, {text}]) *inputsecret()*
This function acts much like the |input()| function with but
two exceptions:
a) the user's response will be displayed as a sequence of
asterisks ("*") thereby keeping the entry secret, and
b) the user's response will not be recorded on the input
|history| stack.
The result is a String, which is whatever the user actually
typed on the command-line in response to the issued prompt.
NOTE: Command-line completion is not supported.
insert({list}, {item} [, {idx}]) *insert()*
Insert {item} at the start of |List| {list}.
If {idx} is specified insert {item} before the item with index
{idx}. If {idx} is zero it goes before the first item, just
like omitting {idx}. A negative {idx} is also possible, see
|list-index|. -1 inserts just before the last item.
Returns the resulting |List|. Examples: >
:let mylist = insert([2, 3, 5], 1)
:call insert(mylist, 4, -1)
:call insert(mylist, 6, len(mylist))
< The last example can be done simpler with |add()|.
Note that when {item} is a |List| it is inserted as a single
item. Use |extend()| to concatenate |Lists|.
isdirectory({directory}) *isdirectory()*
The result is a Number, which is non-zero when a directory
with the name {directory} exists. If {directory} doesn't
exist, or isn't a directory, the result is FALSE. {directory}
is any expression, which is used as a String.
islocked({expr}) *islocked()*
The result is a Number, which is non-zero when {expr} is the
name of a locked variable.
{expr} must be the name of a variable, |List| item or
|Dictionary| entry, not the variable itself! Example: >
:let alist = [0, ['a', 'b'], 2, 3]
:lockvar 1 alist
:echo islocked('alist') " 1
:echo islocked('alist[1]') " 0
< When {expr} is a variable that does not exist you get an error
message. Use |exists()| to check for existance.
items({dict}) *items()*
Return a |List| with all the key-value pairs of {dict}. Each
|List| item is a list with two items: the key of a {dict}
entry and the value of this entry. The |List| is in arbitrary
order.
join({list} [, {sep}]) *join()*
Join the items in {list} together into one String.
When {sep} is specified it is put in between the items. If
{sep} is omitted a single space is used.
Note that {sep} is not added at the end. You might want to
add it there too: >
let lines = join(mylist, "\n") . "\n"
< String items are used as-is. |Lists| and |Dictionaries| are
converted into a string like with |string()|.
The opposite function is |split()|.
keys({dict}) *keys()*
Return a |List| with all the keys of {dict}. The |List| is in
arbitrary order.
*len()* *E701*
len({expr}) The result is a Number, which is the length of the argument.
When {expr} is a String or a Number the length in bytes is
used, as with |strlen()|.
When {expr} is a |List| the number of items in the |List| is
returned.
When {expr} is a |Dictionary| the number of entries in the
|Dictionary| is returned.
Otherwise an error is given.
*libcall()* *E364* *E368*
libcall({libname}, {funcname}, {argument})
Call function {funcname} in the run-time library {libname}
with single argument {argument}.
This is useful to call functions in a library that you
especially made to be used with Vim. Since only one argument
is possible, calling standard library functions is rather
limited.
The result is the String returned by the function. If the
function returns NULL, this will appear as an empty string ""
to Vim.
If the function returns a number, use libcallnr()!
If {argument} is a number, it is passed to the function as an
int; if {argument} is a string, it is passed as a
null-terminated string.
This function will fail in |restricted-mode|.
libcall() allows you to write your own 'plug-in' extensions to
Vim without having to recompile the program. It is NOT a
means to call system functions! If you try to do so Vim will
very probably crash.
For Win32, the functions you write must be placed in a DLL
and use the normal C calling convention (NOT Pascal which is
used in Windows System DLLs). The function must take exactly
one parameter, either a character pointer or a long integer,
and must return a character pointer or NULL. The character
pointer returned must point to memory that will remain valid
after the function has returned (e.g. in static data in the
DLL). If it points to allocated memory, that memory will
leak away. Using a static buffer in the function should work,
it's then freed when the DLL is unloaded.
WARNING: If the function returns a non-valid pointer, Vim may
crash! This also happens if the function returns a number,
because Vim thinks it's a pointer.
For Win32 systems, {libname} should be the filename of the DLL
without the ".DLL" suffix. A full path is only required if
the DLL is not in the usual places.
For Unix: When compiling your own plugins, remember that the
object code must be compiled as position-independent ('PIC').
{only in Win32 on some Unix versions, when the |+libcall|
feature is present}
Examples: >
:echo libcall("libc.so", "getenv", "HOME")
:echo libcallnr("/usr/lib/libc.so", "getpid", "")
<
*libcallnr()*
libcallnr({libname}, {funcname}, {argument})
Just like libcall(), but used for a function that returns an
int instead of a string.
{only in Win32 on some Unix versions, when the |+libcall|
feature is present}
Example (not very useful...): >
:call libcallnr("libc.so", "printf", "Hello World!\n")
:call libcallnr("libc.so", "sleep", 10)
<
*line()*
line({expr}) The result is a Number, which is the line number of the file
position given with {expr}. The accepted positions are:
. the cursor position
$ the last line in the current buffer
'x position of mark x (if the mark is not set, 0 is
returned)
w0 first line visible in current window
w$ last line visible in current window
Note that a mark in another file can be used.
To get the column number use |col()|. To get both use
|getpos()|.
Examples: >
line(".") line number of the cursor
line("'t") line number of mark t
line("'" . marker) line number of mark marker
< *last-position-jump*
This autocommand jumps to the last known position in a file
just after opening it, if the '" mark is set: >
:au BufReadPost * if line("'\"") > 0 && line("'\"") <= line("$") | exe "normal g'\"" | endif
line2byte({lnum}) *line2byte()*
Return the byte count from the start of the buffer for line
{lnum}. This includes the end-of-line character, depending on
the 'fileformat' option for the current buffer. The first
line returns 1.
This can also be used to get the byte count for the line just
below the last line: >
line2byte(line("$") + 1)
< This is the file size plus one.
When {lnum} is invalid, or the |+byte_offset| feature has been
disabled at compile time, -1 is returned.
Also see |byte2line()|, |go| and |:goto|.
lispindent({lnum}) *lispindent()*
Get the amount of indent for line {lnum} according the lisp
indenting rules, as with 'lisp'.
The indent is counted in spaces, the value of 'tabstop' is
relevant. {lnum} is used just like in |getline()|.
When {lnum} is invalid or Vim was not compiled the
|+lispindent| feature, -1 is returned.
localtime() *localtime()*
Return the current time, measured as seconds since 1st Jan
1970. See also |strftime()| and |getftime()|.
map({expr}, {string}) *map()*
{expr} must be a |List| or a |Dictionary|.
Replace each item in {expr} with the result of evaluating
{string}.
Inside {string} |v:val| has the value of the current item.
For a |Dictionary| |v:key| has the key of the current item.
Example: >
:call map(mylist, '"> " . v:val . " <"')
< This puts "> " before and " <" after each item in "mylist".
Note that {string} is the result of an expression and is then
used as an expression again. Often it is good to use a
|literal-string| to avoid having to double backslashes. You
still have to double ' quotes
The operation is done in-place. If you want a |List| or
|Dictionary| to remain unmodified make a copy first: >
:let tlist = map(copy(mylist), ' & . "\t"')
< Returns {expr}, the |List| or |Dictionary| that was filtered.
When an error is encountered while evaluating {string} no
further items in {expr} are processed.
maparg({name}[, {mode} [, {abbr}]]) *maparg()*
Return the rhs of mapping {name} in mode {mode}. When there
is no mapping for {name}, an empty String is returned.
{mode} can be one of these strings:
"n" Normal
"v" Visual
"o" Operator-pending
"i" Insert
"c" Cmd-line
"l" langmap |language-mapping|
"" Normal, Visual and Operator-pending
When {mode} is omitted, the modes for "" are used.
When {abbr} is there and it is non-zero use abbreviations
instead of mappings.
The {name} can have special key names, like in the ":map"
command. The returned String has special characters
translated like in the output of the ":map" command listing.
The mappings local to the current buffer are checked first,
then the global mappings.
This function can be used to map a key even when it's already
mapped, and have it do the original mapping too. Sketch: >
exe 'nnoremap <Tab> ==' . maparg('<Tab>', 'n')
mapcheck({name}[, {mode} [, {abbr}]]) *mapcheck()*
Check if there is a mapping that matches with {name} in mode
{mode}. See |maparg()| for {mode} and special names in
{name}.
When {abbr} is there and it is non-zero use abbreviations
instead of mappings.
A match happens with a mapping that starts with {name} and
with a mapping which is equal to the start of {name}.
matches mapping "a" "ab" "abc" ~
mapcheck("a") yes yes yes
mapcheck("abc") yes yes yes
mapcheck("ax") yes no no
mapcheck("b") no no no
The difference with maparg() is that mapcheck() finds a
mapping that matches with {name}, while maparg() only finds a
mapping for {name} exactly.
When there is no mapping that starts with {name}, an empty
String is returned. If there is one, the rhs of that mapping
is returned. If there are several mappings that start with
{name}, the rhs of one of them is returned.
The mappings local to the current buffer are checked first,
then the global mappings.
This function can be used to check if a mapping can be added
without being ambiguous. Example: >
:if mapcheck("_vv") == ""
: map _vv :set guifont=7x13<CR>
:endif
< This avoids adding the "_vv" mapping when there already is a
mapping for "_v" or for "_vvv".
match({expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]]) *match()*
When {expr} is a |List| then this returns the index of the
first item where {pat} matches. Each item is used as a
String, |Lists| and |Dictionaries| are used as echoed.
Otherwise, {expr} is used as a String. The result is a
Number, which gives the index (byte offset) in {expr} where
{pat} matches.
A match at the first character or |List| item returns zero.
If there is no match -1 is returned.
Example: >
:echo match("testing", "ing") " results in 4
:echo match([1, 'x'], '\a') " results in 1
< See |string-match| for how {pat} is used.
*strpbrk()*
Vim doesn't have a strpbrk() function. But you can do: >
:let sepidx = match(line, '[.,;: \t]')
< *strcasestr()*
Vim doesn't have a strcasestr() function. But you can add
"\c" to the pattern to ignore case: >
:let idx = match(haystack, '\cneedle')
<
If {start} is given, the search starts from byte index
{start} in a String or item {start} in a |List|.
The result, however, is still the index counted from the
first character/item. Example: >
:echo match("testing", "ing", 2)
< result is again "4". >
:echo match("testing", "ing", 4)
< result is again "4". >
:echo match("testing", "t", 2)
< result is "3".
For a String, if {start} > 0 then it is like the string starts
{start} bytes later, thus "^" will match at {start}. Except
when {count} is given, then it's like matches before the
{start} byte are ignored (this is a bit complicated to keep it
backwards compatible).
For a String, if {start} < 0, it will be set to 0. For a list
the index is counted from the end.
If {start} is out of range ({start} > strlen({expr}) for a
String or {start} > len({expr}) for a |List|) -1 is returned.
When {count} is given use the {count}'th match. When a match
is found in a String the search for the next one starts one
character further. Thus this example results in 1: >
echo match("testing", "..", 0, 2)
< In a |List| the search continues in the next item.
Note that when {count} is added the way {start} works changes,
see above.
See |pattern| for the patterns that are accepted.
The 'ignorecase' option is used to set the ignore-caseness of
the pattern. 'smartcase' is NOT used. The matching is always
done like 'magic' is set and 'cpoptions' is empty.
matchend({expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]]) *matchend()*
Same as match(), but return the index of first character after
the match. Example: >
:echo matchend("testing", "ing")
< results in "7".
*strspn()* *strcspn()*
Vim doesn't have a strspn() or strcspn() function, but you can
do it with matchend(): >
:let span = matchend(line, '[a-zA-Z]')
:let span = matchend(line, '[^a-zA-Z]')
< Except that -1 is returned when there are no matches.
The {start}, if given, has the same meaning as for match(). >
:echo matchend("testing", "ing", 2)
< results in "7". >
:echo matchend("testing", "ing", 5)
< result is "-1".
When {expr} is a |List| the result is equal to match().
matchlist({expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]]) *matchlist()*
Same as match(), but return a |List|. The first item in the
list is the matched string, same as what matchstr() would
return. Following items are submatches, like "\1", "\2", etc.
in |:substitute|.
When there is no match an empty list is returned.
matchstr({expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]]) *matchstr()*
Same as match(), but return the matched string. Example: >
:echo matchstr("testing", "ing")
< results in "ing".
When there is no match "" is returned.
The {start}, if given, has the same meaning as for match(). >
:echo matchstr("testing", "ing", 2)
< results in "ing". >
:echo matchstr("testing", "ing", 5)
< result is "".
When {expr} is a |List| then the matching item is returned.
The type isn't changed, it's not necessarily a String.
*max()*
max({list}) Return the maximum value of all items in {list}.
If {list} is not a list or one of the items in {list} cannot
be used as a Number this results in an error.
An empty |List| results in zero.
*min()*
min({list}) Return the minumum value of all items in {list}.
If {list} is not a list or one of the items in {list} cannot
be used as a Number this results in an error.
An empty |List| results in zero.
*mkdir()* *E749*
mkdir({name} [, {path} [, {prot}]])
Create directory {name}.
If {path} is "p" then intermediate directories are created as
necessary. Otherwise it must be "".
If {prot} is given it is used to set the protection bits of
the new directory. The default is 0755 (rwxr-xr-x: r/w for
the user readable for others). Use 0700 to make it unreadable
for others.
This function is not available in the |sandbox|.
Not available on all systems. To check use: >
:if exists("*mkdir")
<
*mode()*
mode() Return a string that indicates the current mode:
n Normal
v Visual by character
V Visual by line
CTRL-V Visual blockwise
s Select by character
S Select by line
CTRL-S Select blockwise
i Insert
R Replace
c Command-line
r Hit-enter prompt
This is useful in the 'statusline' option. In most other
places it always returns "c" or "n".
nextnonblank({lnum}) *nextnonblank()*
Return the line number of the first line at or below {lnum}
that is not blank. Example: >
if getline(nextnonblank(1)) =~ "Java"
< When {lnum} is invalid or there is no non-blank line at or
below it, zero is returned.
See also |prevnonblank()|.
nr2char({expr}) *nr2char()*
Return a string with a single character, which has the number
value {expr}. Examples: >
nr2char(64) returns "@"
nr2char(32) returns " "
< The current 'encoding' is used. Example for "utf-8": >
nr2char(300) returns I with bow character
< Note that a NUL character in the file is specified with
nr2char(10), because NULs are represented with newline
characters. nr2char(0) is a real NUL and terminates the
string, thus results in an empty string.
*getpos()*
getpos({expr}) Get the position for {expr}. For possible values of {expr}
see |line()|.
The result is a |List| with four numbers:
[bufnum, lnum, col, off]
"bufnum" is zero, unless a mark like '0 or 'A is used, then it
is the buffer number of the mark.
"lnum" and "col" are the position in the buffer. The first
column is 1.
The "off" number is zero, unless 'virtualedit' is used. Then
it is the offset in screen columns from the start of the
character. E.g., a position within a Tab or after the last
character.
This can be used to save and restore the cursor position: >
let save_cursor = getpos(".")
MoveTheCursorAround
call setpos('.', save_cursor)
< Also see |setpos()|.
prevnonblank({lnum}) *prevnonblank()*
Return the line number of the first line at or above {lnum}
that is not blank. Example: >
let ind = indent(prevnonblank(v:lnum - 1))
< When {lnum} is invalid or there is no non-blank line at or
above it, zero is returned.
Also see |nextnonblank()|.
printf({fmt}, {expr1} ...) *printf()*
Return a String with {fmt}, where "%" items are replaced by
the formatted form of their respective arguments. Example: >
printf("%4d: E%d %.30s", lnum, errno, msg)
< May result in:
" 99: E42 asdfasdfasdfasdfasdfasdfasdfas" ~
Often used items are:
%s string
%6s string right-aligned in 6 bytes
%.9s string truncated to 9 bytes
%c single byte
%d decimal number
%5d decimal number padded with spaces to 5 characters
%x hex number
%04x hex number padded with zeros to at least 4 characters
%X hex number using upper case letters
%o octal number
%% the % character itself
Conversion specifications start with '%' and end with the
conversion type. All other characters are copied unchanged to
the result.
The "%" starts a conversion specification. The following
arguments appear in sequence:
% [flags] [field-width] [.precision] type
flags
Zero or more of the following flags:
# The value should be converted to an "alternate
form". For c, d, and s conversions, this option
has no effect. For o conversions, the precision
of the number is increased to force the first
character of the output string to a zero (except
if a zero value is printed with an explicit
precision of zero).
For x and X conversions, a non-zero result has
the string "0x" (or "0X" for X conversions)
prepended to it.
0 (zero) Zero padding. For all conversions the converted
value is padded on the left with zeros rather
than blanks. If a precision is given with a
numeric conversion (d, o, x, and X), the 0 flag
is ignored.
- A negative field width flag; the converted value
is to be left adjusted on the field boundary.
The converted value is padded on the right with
blanks, rather than on the left with blanks or
zeros. A - overrides a 0 if both are given.
' ' (space) A blank should be left before a positive
number produced by a signed conversion (d).
+ A sign must always be placed before a number
produced by a signed conversion. A + overrides
a space if both are used.
field-width
An optional decimal digit string specifying a minimum
field width. If the converted value has fewer bytes
than the field width, it will be padded with spaces on
the left (or right, if the left-adjustment flag has
been given) to fill out the field width.
.precision
An optional precision, in the form of a period '.'
followed by an optional digit string. If the digit
string is omitted, the precision is taken as zero.
This gives the minimum number of digits to appear for
d, o, x, and X conversions, or the maximum number of
bytes to be printed from a string for s conversions.
type
A character that specifies the type of conversion to
be applied, see below.
A field width or precision, or both, may be indicated by an
asterisk '*' instead of a digit string. In this case, a
Number argument supplies the field width or precision. A
negative field width is treated as a left adjustment flag
followed by a positive field width; a negative precision is
treated as though it were missing. Example: >
:echo printf("%d: %.*s", nr, width, line)
< This limits the length of the text used from "line" to
"width" bytes.
The conversion specifiers and their meanings are:
doxX The Number argument is converted to signed decimal
(d), unsigned octal (o), or unsigned hexadecimal (x
and X) notation. The letters "abcdef" are used for
x conversions; the letters "ABCDEF" are used for X
conversions.
The precision, if any, gives the minimum number of
digits that must appear; if the converted value
requires fewer digits, it is padded on the left with
zeros.
In no case does a non-existent or small field width
cause truncation of a numeric field; if the result of
a conversion is wider than the field width, the field
is expanded to contain the conversion result.
c The Number argument is converted to a byte, and the
resulting character is written.
s The text of the String argument is used. If a
precision is specified, no more bytes than the number
specified are used.
% A '%' is written. No argument is converted. The
complete conversion specification is "%%".
Each argument can be Number or String and is converted
automatically to fit the conversion specifier. Any other
argument type results in an error message.
*E766* *E767*
The number of {exprN} arguments must exactly match the number
of "%" items. If there are not sufficient or too many
arguments an error is given. Up to 18 arguments can be used.
pumvisible() *pumvisible()*
Returns non-zero when the popup menu is visible, zero
otherwise. See |ins-completion-menu|.
This can be used to avoid some things that would remove the
popup menu.
*E726* *E727*
range({expr} [, {max} [, {stride}]]) *range()*
Returns a |List| with Numbers:
- If only {expr} is specified: [0, 1, ..., {expr} - 1]
- If {max} is specified: [{expr}, {expr} + 1, ..., {max}]
- If {stride} is specified: [{expr}, {expr} + {stride}, ...,
{max}] (increasing {expr} with {stride} each time, not
producing a value past {max}).
When the maximum is one before the start the result is an
empty list. When the maximum is more than one before the
start this is an error.
Examples: >
range(4) " [0, 1, 2, 3]
range(2, 4) " [2, 3, 4]
range(2, 9, 3) " [2, 5, 8]
range(2, -2, -1) " [2, 1, 0, -1, -2]
range(0) " []
range(2, 0) " error!
<
*readfile()*
readfile({fname} [, {binary} [, {max}]])
Read file {fname} and return a |List|, each line of the file
as an item. Lines broken at NL characters. Macintosh files
separated with CR will result in a single long line (unless a
NL appears somewhere).
When {binary} is equal to "b" binary mode is used:
- When the last line ends in a NL an extra empty list item is
added.
- No CR characters are removed.
Otherwise:
- CR characters that appear before a NL are removed.
- Whether the last line ends in a NL or not does not matter.
All NUL characters are replaced with a NL character.
When {max} is given this specifies the maximum number of lines
to be read. Useful if you only want to check the first ten
lines of a file: >
:for line in readfile(fname, '', 10)
: if line =~ 'Date' | echo line | endif
:endfor
< When {max} is negative -{max} lines from the end of the file
are returned, or as many as there are.
When {max} is zero the result is an empty list.
Note that without {max} the whole file is read into memory.
Also note that there is no recognition of encoding. Read a
file into a buffer if you need to.
When the file can't be opened an error message is given and
the result is an empty list.
Also see |writefile()|.
reltime([{start} [, {end}]]) *reltime()*
Return an item that represents a time value. The format of
the item depends on the system. It can be passed to
|reltimestr()| to convert it to a string.
Without an argument it returns the current time.
With one argument is returns the time passed since the time
specified in the argument.
With two arguments it returns the time passed betweein {start}
and {end}.
The {start} and {end} arguments must be values returned by
reltime().
{only available when compiled with the +reltime feature}
reltimestr({time}) *reltimestr()*
Return a String that represents the time value of {time}.
This is the number of seconds, a dot and the number of
microseconds. Example: >
let start = reltime()
call MyFunction()
echo reltimestr(reltime(start))
< Note that overhead for the commands will be added to the time.
The accuracy depends on the system.
Also see |profiling|.
{only available when compiled with the +reltime feature}
*remote_expr()* *E449*
remote_expr({server}, {string} [, {idvar}])
Send the {string} to {server}. The string is sent as an
expression and the result is returned after evaluation.
The result must be a String or a |List|. A |List| is turned
into a String by joining the items with a line break in
between (not at the end), like with join(expr, "\n").
If {idvar} is present, it is taken as the name of a
variable and a {serverid} for later use with
remote_read() is stored there.
See also |clientserver| |RemoteReply|.
This function is not available in the |sandbox|.
{only available when compiled with the |+clientserver| feature}
Note: Any errors will cause a local error message to be issued
and the result will be the empty string.
Examples: >
:echo remote_expr("gvim", "2+2")
:echo remote_expr("gvim1", "b:current_syntax")
<
remote_foreground({server}) *remote_foreground()*
Move the Vim server with the name {server} to the foreground.
This works like: >
remote_expr({server}, "foreground()")
< Except that on Win32 systems the client does the work, to work
around the problem that the OS doesn't always allow the server
to bring itself to the foreground.
Note: This does not restore the window if it was minimized,
like foreground() does.
This function is not available in the |sandbox|.
{only in the Win32, Athena, Motif and GTK GUI versions and the
Win32 console version}
remote_peek({serverid} [, {retvar}]) *remote_peek()*
Returns a positive number if there are available strings
from {serverid}. Copies any reply string into the variable
{retvar} if specified. {retvar} must be a string with the
name of a variable.
Returns zero if none are available.
Returns -1 if something is wrong.
See also |clientserver|.
This function is not available in the |sandbox|.
{only available when compiled with the |+clientserver| feature}
Examples: >
:let repl = ""
:echo "PEEK: ".remote_peek(id, "repl").": ".repl
remote_read({serverid}) *remote_read()*
Return the oldest available reply from {serverid} and consume
it. It blocks until a reply is available.
See also |clientserver|.
This function is not available in the |sandbox|.
{only available when compiled with the |+clientserver| feature}
Example: >
:echo remote_read(id)
<
*remote_send()* *E241*
remote_send({server}, {string} [, {idvar}])
Send the {string} to {server}. The string is sent as input
keys and the function returns immediately. At the Vim server
the keys are not mapped |:map|.
If {idvar} is present, it is taken as the name of a variable
and a {serverid} for later use with remote_read() is stored
there.
See also |clientserver| |RemoteReply|.
This function is not available in the |sandbox|.
{only available when compiled with the |+clientserver| feature}
Note: Any errors will be reported in the server and may mess
up the display.
Examples: >
:echo remote_send("gvim", ":DropAndReply ".file, "serverid").
\ remote_read(serverid)
:autocmd NONE RemoteReply *
\ echo remote_read(expand("<amatch>"))
:echo remote_send("gvim", ":sleep 10 | echo ".
\ 'server2client(expand("<client>"), "HELLO")<CR>')
<
remove({list}, {idx} [, {end}]) *remove()*
Without {end}: Remove the item at {idx} from |List| {list} and
return it.
With {end}: Remove items from {idx} to {end} (inclusive) and
return a list with these items. When {idx} points to the same
item as {end} a list with one item is returned. When {end}
points to an item before {idx} this is an error.
See |list-index| for possible values of {idx} and {end}.
Example: >
:echo "last item: " . remove(mylist, -1)
:call remove(mylist, 0, 9)
remove({dict}, {key})
Remove the entry from {dict} with key {key}. Example: >
:echo "removed " . remove(dict, "one")
< If there is no {key} in {dict} this is an error.
Use |delete()| to remove a file.
rename({from}, {to}) *rename()*
Rename the file by the name {from} to the name {to}. This
should also work to move files across file systems. The
result is a Number, which is 0 if the file was renamed
successfully, and non-zero when the renaming failed.
This function is not available in the |sandbox|.
repeat({expr}, {count}) *repeat()*
Repeat {expr} {count} times and return the concatenated
result. Example: >
:let seperator = repeat('-', 80)
< When {count} is zero or negative the result is empty.
When {expr} is a |List| the result is {expr} concatenated
{count} times. Example: >
:let longlist = repeat(['a', 'b'], 3)
< Results in ['a', 'b', 'a', 'b', 'a', 'b'].
resolve({filename}) *resolve()* *E655*
On MS-Windows, when {filename} is a shortcut (a .lnk file),
returns the path the shortcut points to in a simplified form.
On Unix, repeat resolving symbolic links in all path
components of {filename} and return the simplified result.
To cope with link cycles, resolving of symbolic links is
stopped after 100 iterations.
On other systems, return the simplified {filename}.
The simplification step is done as by |simplify()|.
resolve() keeps a leading path component specifying the
current directory (provided the result is still a relative
path name) and also keeps a trailing path separator.
*reverse()*
reverse({list}) Reverse the order of items in {list} in-place. Returns
{list}.
If you want a list to remain unmodified make a copy first: >
:let revlist = reverse(copy(mylist))
search({pattern} [, {flags} [, {stopline}]]) *search()*
Search for regexp pattern {pattern}. The search starts at the
cursor position (you can use |cursor()| to set it).
{flags} is a String, which can contain these character flags:
'b' search backward instead of forward
'c' accept a match at the cursor position
'e' move to the End of the match
'n' do Not move the cursor
'p' return number of matching sub-pattern (see below)
's' set the ' mark at the previous location of the cursor
'w' wrap around the end of the file
'W' don't wrap around the end of the file
If neither 'w' or 'W' is given, the 'wrapscan' option applies.
If the 's' flag is supplied, the ' mark is set, only if the
cursor is moved. The 's' flag cannot be combined with the 'n'
flag.
When the {stopline} argument is given then the search stops
after searching this line. This is useful to restrict the
search to a range of lines. Examples: >
let match = search('(', 'b', line("w0"))
let end = search('END', '', line("w$"))
< When {stopline} is used and it is not zero this also implies
that the search does not wrap around the end of the file.
If there is no match a 0 is returned and the cursor doesn't
move. No error message is given.
When a match has been found its line number is returned.
*search()-sub-match*
With the 'p' flag the returned value is one more than the
first sub-match in \(\). One if none of them matched but the
whole pattern did match.
To get the column number too use |searchpos()|.
The cursor will be positioned at the match, unless the 'n'
flag is used.
Example (goes over all files in the argument list): >
:let n = 1
:while n <= argc() " loop over all files in arglist
: exe "argument " . n
: " start at the last char in the file and wrap for the
: " first search to find match at start of file
: normal G$
: let flags = "w"
: while search("foo", flags) > 0
: s/foo/bar/g
: let flags = "W"
: endwhile
: update " write the file if modified
: let n = n + 1
:endwhile
<
Example for using some flags: >
:echo search('\<if\|\(else\)\|\(endif\)', 'ncpe')
< This will search for the keywords "if", "else", and "endif"
under or after the cursor. Because of the 'p' flag, it
returns 1, 2, or 3 depending on which keyword is found, or 0
if the search fails. With the cursor on the first word of the
line:
if (foo == 0) | let foo = foo + 1 | endif ~
the function returns 1. Without the 'c' flag, the function
finds the "endif" and returns 3. The same thing happens
without the 'e' flag if the cursor is on the "f" of "if".
The 'n' flag tells the function not to move the cursor.
searchdecl({name} [, {global} [, {thisblock}]]) *searchdecl()*
Search for the declaration of {name}.
With a non-zero {global} argument it works like |gD|, find
first match in the file. Otherwise it works like |gd|, find
first match in the function.
With a non-zero {thisblock} argument matches in a {} block
that ends before the cursor position are ignored. Avoids
finding variable declarations only valid in another scope.
Moves the cursor to the found match.
Returns zero for success, non-zero for failure.
Example: >
if searchdecl('myvar') == 0
echo getline('.')
endif
<
*searchpair()*
searchpair({start}, {middle}, {end} [, {flags} [, {skip} [, {stopline}]]])
Search for the match of a nested start-end pair. This can be
used to find the "endif" that matches an "if", while other
if/endif pairs in between are ignored.
The search starts at the cursor. The default is to search
forward, include 'b' in {flags} to search backward.
If a match is found, the cursor is positioned at it and the
line number is returned. If no match is found 0 or -1 is
returned and the cursor doesn't move. No error message is
given.
{start}, {middle} and {end} are patterns, see |pattern|. They
must not contain \( \) pairs. Use of \%( \) is allowed. When
{middle} is not empty, it is found when searching from either
direction, but only when not in a nested start-end pair. A
typical use is: >
searchpair('\<if\>', '\<else\>', '\<endif\>')
< By leaving {middle} empty the "else" is skipped.
{flags} 'b', 'c', 'n', 's', 'w' and 'W' are used like with
|search()|. Additionally:
'r' Repeat until no more matches found; will find the
outer pair
'm' return number of Matches instead of line number with
the match; will be > 1 when 'r' is used.
When a match for {start}, {middle} or {end} is found, the
{skip} expression is evaluated with the cursor positioned on
the start of the match. It should return non-zero if this
match is to be skipped. E.g., because it is inside a comment
or a string.
When {skip} is omitted or empty, every match is accepted.
When evaluating {skip} causes an error the search is aborted
and -1 returned.
For {stopline} see |search()|.
The value of 'ignorecase' is used. 'magic' is ignored, the
patterns are used like it's on.
The search starts exactly at the cursor. A match with
{start}, {middle} or {end} at the next character, in the
direction of searching, is the first one found. Example: >
if 1
if 2
endif 2
endif 1
< When starting at the "if 2", with the cursor on the "i", and
searching forwards, the "endif 2" is found. When starting on
the character just before the "if 2", the "endif 1" will be
found. That's because the "if 2" will be found first, and
then this is considered to be a nested if/endif from "if 2" to
"endif 2".
When searching backwards and {end} is more than one character,
it may be useful to put "\zs" at the end of the pattern, so
that when the cursor is inside a match with the end it finds
the matching start.
Example, to find the "endif" command in a Vim script: >
:echo searchpair('\<if\>', '\<el\%[seif]\>', '\<en\%[dif]\>', 'W',
\ 'getline(".") =~ "^\\s*\""')
< The cursor must be at or after the "if" for which a match is
to be found. Note that single-quote strings are used to avoid
having to double the backslashes. The skip expression only
catches comments at the start of a line, not after a command.
Also, a word "en" or "if" halfway a line is considered a
match.
Another example, to search for the matching "{" of a "}": >
:echo searchpair('{', '', '}', 'bW')
< This works when the cursor is at or before the "}" for which a
match is to be found. To reject matches that syntax
highlighting recognized as strings: >
:echo searchpair('{', '', '}', 'bW',
\ 'synIDattr(synID(line("."), col("."), 0), "name") =~? "string"')
<
*searchpairpos()*
searchpairpos({start}, {middle}, {end} [, {flags} [, {skip} [, {stopline}]]])
Same as searchpair(), but returns a |List| with the line and
column position of the match. The first element of the |List|
is the line number and the second element is the byte index of
the column position of the match. If no match is found,
returns [0, 0].
>
:let [lnum,col] = searchpairpos('{', '', '}', 'n')
<
See |match-parens| for a bigger and more useful example.
searchpos({pattern} [, {flags} [, {stopline}]]) *searchpos()*
Same as |search()|, but returns a |List| with the line and
column position of the match. The first element of the |List|
is the line number and the second element is the byte index of
the column position of the match. If no match is found,
returns [0, 0].
Example: >
:let [lnum, col] = searchpos('mypattern', 'n')
< When the 'p' flag is given then there is an extra item with
the sub-pattern match number |search()-sub-match|. Example: >
:let [lnum, col, submatch] = searchpos('\(\l\)\|\(\u\)', 'np')
< In this example "submatch" is 2 when a lowercase letter is
found |/\l|, 3 when an uppercase letter is found |/\u|.
server2client( {clientid}, {string}) *server2client()*
Send a reply string to {clientid}. The most recent {clientid}
that sent a string can be retrieved with expand("<client>").
{only available when compiled with the |+clientserver| feature}
Note:
This id has to be stored before the next command can be
received. I.e. before returning from the received command and
before calling any commands that waits for input.
See also |clientserver|.
Example: >
:echo server2client(expand("<client>"), "HELLO")
<
serverlist() *serverlist()*
Return a list of available server names, one per line.
When there are no servers or the information is not available
an empty string is returned. See also |clientserver|.
{only available when compiled with the |+clientserver| feature}
Example: >
:echo serverlist()
<
setbufvar({expr}, {varname}, {val}) *setbufvar()*
Set option or local variable {varname} in buffer {expr} to
{val}.
This also works for a global or local window option, but it
doesn't work for a global or local window variable.
For a local window option the global value is unchanged.
For the use of {expr}, see |bufname()| above.
Note that the variable name without "b:" must be used.
Examples: >
:call setbufvar(1, "&mod", 1)
:call setbufvar("todo", "myvar", "foobar")
< This function is not available in the |sandbox|.
setcmdpos({pos}) *setcmdpos()*
Set the cursor position in the command line to byte position
{pos}. The first position is 1.
Use |getcmdpos()| to obtain the current position.
Only works while editing the command line, thus you must use
|c_CTRL-\_e|, |c_CTRL-R_=| or |c_CTRL-R_CTRL-R| with '='. For
|c_CTRL-\_e| and |c_CTRL-R_CTRL-R| with '=' the position is
set after the command line is set to the expression. For
|c_CTRL-R_=| it is set after evaluating the expression but
before inserting the resulting text.
When the number is too big the cursor is put at the end of the
line. A number smaller than one has undefined results.
Returns 0 when successful, 1 when not editing the command
line.
setline({lnum}, {line}) *setline()*
Set line {lnum} of the current buffer to {line}.
{lnum} is used like with |getline()|.
When {lnum} is just below the last line the {line} will be
added as a new line.
If this succeeds, 0 is returned. If this fails (most likely
because {lnum} is invalid) 1 is returned. Example: >
:call setline(5, strftime("%c"))
< When {line} is a |List| then line {lnum} and following lines
will be set to the items in the list. Example: >
:call setline(5, ['aaa', 'bbb', 'ccc'])
< This is equivalent to: >
:for [n, l] in [[5, 6, 7], ['aaa', 'bbb', 'ccc']]
: call setline(n, l)
:endfor
< Note: The '[ and '] marks are not set.
setloclist({nr}, {list} [, {action}]) *setloclist()*
Create or replace or add to the location list for window {nr}.
When {nr} is zero the current window is used. For a location
list window, the displayed location list is modified. For an
invalid window number {nr}, -1 is returned.
Otherwise, same as setqflist().
*setpos()*
setpos({expr}, {list})
Set the position for {expr}. Possible values:
. the cursor
'x mark x
{list} must be a |List| with four numbers:
[bufnum, lnum, col, off]
"bufnum" is the buffer number. Zero can be used for the
current buffer. Setting the cursor is only possible for
the current buffer. To set a mark in another buffer you can
use the |bufnr()| function to turn a file name into a buffer
number.
Does not change the jumplist.
"lnum" and "col" are the position in the buffer. The first
column is 1. Use a zero "lnum" to delete a mark.
The "off" number is only used when 'virtualedit' is set. Then
it is the offset in screen columns from the start of the
character. E.g., a position within a Tab or after the last
character.
Also see |getpos()|
setqflist({list} [, {action}]) *setqflist()*
Create or replace or add to the quickfix list using the items
in {list}. Each item in {list} is a dictionary.
Non-dictionary items in {list} are ignored. Each dictionary
item can contain the following entries:
filename name of a file
lnum line number in the file
pattern search pattern used to locate the error
col column number
vcol when non-zero: "col" is visual column
when zero: "col" is byte index
nr error number
text description of the error
type single-character error type, 'E', 'W', etc.
The "col", "vcol", "nr", "type" and "text" entries are
optional. Either "lnum" or "pattern" entry can be used to
locate a matching error line.
If the "filename" entry is not present or neither the "lnum"
or "pattern" entries are present, then the item will not be
handled as an error line.
If both "pattern" and "lnum" are present then "pattern" will
be used.
If {action} is set to 'a', then the items from {list} are
added to the existing quickfix list. If there is no existing
list, then a new list is created. If {action} is set to 'r',
then the items from the current quickfix list are replaced
with the items from {list}. If {action} is not present or is
set to ' ', then a new list is created.
Returns zero for success, -1 for failure.
This function can be used to create a quickfix list
independent of the 'errorformat' setting. Use a command like
":cc 1" to jump to the first position.
*setreg()*
setreg({regname}, {value} [,{options}])
Set the register {regname} to {value}.
If {options} contains "a" or {regname} is upper case,
then the value is appended.
{options} can also contains a register type specification:
"c" or "v" |characterwise| mode
"l" or "V" |linewise| mode
"b" or "<CTRL-V>" |blockwise-visual| mode
If a number immediately follows "b" or "<CTRL-V>" then this is
used as the width of the selection - if it is not specified
then the width of the block is set to the number of characters
in the longest line (counting a <TAB> as 1 character).
If {options} contains no register settings, then the default
is to use character mode unless {value} ends in a <NL>.
Setting the '=' register is not possible.
Returns zero for success, non-zero for failure.
Examples: >
:call setreg(v:register, @*)
:call setreg('*', @%, 'ac')
:call setreg('a', "1\n2\n3", 'b5')
< This example shows using the functions to save and restore a
register. >
:let var_a = getreg('a', 1)
:let var_amode = getregtype('a')
....
:call setreg('a', var_a, var_amode)
< You can also change the type of a register by appending
nothing: >
:call setreg('a', '', 'al')
setwinvar({nr}, {varname}, {val}) *setwinvar()*
Set option or local variable {varname} in window {nr} to
{val}. When {nr} is zero the current window is used.
This also works for a global or local buffer option, but it
doesn't work for a global or local buffer variable.
For a local buffer option the global value is unchanged.
Note that the variable name without "w:" must be used.
Examples: >
:call setwinvar(1, "&list", 0)
:call setwinvar(2, "myvar", "foobar")
< This function is not available in the |sandbox|.
simplify({filename}) *simplify()*
Simplify the file name as much as possible without changing
the meaning. Shortcuts (on MS-Windows) or symbolic links (on
Unix) are not resolved. If the first path component in
{filename} designates the current directory, this will be
valid for the result as well. A trailing path separator is
not removed either.
Example: >
simplify("./dir/.././/file/") == "./file/"
< Note: The combination "dir/.." is only removed if "dir" is
a searchable directory or does not exist. On Unix, it is also
removed when "dir" is a symbolic link within the same
directory. In order to resolve all the involved symbolic
links before simplifying the path name, use |resolve()|.
sort({list} [, {func}]) *sort()* *E702*
Sort the items in {list} in-place. Returns {list}. If you
want a list to remain unmodified make a copy first: >
:let sortedlist = sort(copy(mylist))
< Uses the string representation of each item to sort on.
Numbers sort after Strings, |Lists| after Numbers.
For sorting text in the current buffer use |:sort|.
When {func} is given and it is one then case is ignored.
When {func} is a |Funcref| or a function name, this function
is called to compare items. The function is invoked with two
items as argument and must return zero if they are equal, 1 if
the first one sorts after the second one, -1 if the first one
sorts before the second one. Example: >
func MyCompare(i1, i2)
return a:i1 == a:i2 ? 0 : a:i1 > a:i2 ? 1 : -1
endfunc
let sortedlist = sort(mylist, "MyCompare")
<
*soundfold()*
soundfold({word})
Return the sound-folded equivalent of {word}. Uses the first
language in 'spellang' for the current window that supports
soundfolding. 'spell' must be set. When no sound folding is
possible the {word} is returned unmodified.
This can be used for making spelling suggestions. Note that
the method can be quite slow.
*spellbadword()*
spellbadword([{sentence}])
Without argument: The result is the badly spelled word under
or after the cursor. The cursor is moved to the start of the
bad word. When no bad word is found in the cursor line the
result is an empty string and the cursor doesn't move.
With argument: The result is the first word in {sentence} that
is badly spelled. If there are no spelling mistakes the
result is an empty string.