Skip to content

HTTPS clone URL

Subversion checkout URL

You can clone with
or
.
Download ZIP
Fetching contributors…

Cannot retrieve contributors at this time

8534 lines (7418 sloc) 328.157 kB
*eval.txt* For Vim version 7.3. Last change: 2012 Nov 21
VIM REFERENCE MANUAL by Bram Moolenaar
Expression evaluation *expression* *expr* *E15* *eval*
Using expressions is introduced in chapter 41 of the user manual |usr_41.txt|.
Note: Expression evaluation can be disabled at compile time. If this has been
done, the features in this document are not available. See |+eval| and
|no-eval-feature|.
1. Variables |variables|
1.1 Variable types
1.2 Function references |Funcref|
1.3 Lists |Lists|
1.4 Dictionaries |Dictionaries|
1.5 More about variables |more-variables|
2. Expression syntax |expression-syntax|
3. Internal variable |internal-variables|
4. Builtin Functions |functions|
5. Defining functions |user-functions|
6. Curly braces names |curly-braces-names|
7. Commands |expression-commands|
8. Exception handling |exception-handling|
9. Examples |eval-examples|
10. No +eval feature |no-eval-feature|
11. The sandbox |eval-sandbox|
12. Textlock |textlock|
{Vi does not have any of these commands}
==============================================================================
1. Variables *variables*
1.1 Variable types ~
*E712*
There are six types of variables:
Number A 32 or 64 bit signed number. |expr-number| *Number*
Examples: -123 0x10 0177
Float A floating point number. |floating-point-format| *Float*
{only when compiled with the |+float| feature}
Examples: 123.456 1.15e-6 -1.1e3
String A NUL terminated string of 8-bit unsigned characters (bytes).
|expr-string| Examples: "ab\txx\"--" 'x-z''a,c'
Funcref A reference to a function |Funcref|.
Example: function("strlen")
List An ordered sequence of items |List|.
Example: [1, 2, ['a', 'b']]
Dictionary An associative, unordered array: Each entry has a key and a
value. |Dictionary|
Example: {'blue': "#0000ff", 'red': "#ff0000"}
The Number and String types are converted automatically, depending on how they
are used.
Conversion from a Number to a String is by making the ASCII representation of
the Number. Examples:
Number 123 --> String "123" ~
Number 0 --> String "0" ~
Number -1 --> String "-1" ~
*octal*
Conversion from a String to a Number is done by converting the first digits
to a number. Hexadecimal "0xf9" and Octal "017" numbers are recognized. If
the String doesn't start with digits, the result is zero. Examples:
String "456" --> Number 456 ~
String "6bar" --> Number 6 ~
String "foo" --> Number 0 ~
String "0xf1" --> Number 241 ~
String "0100" --> Number 64 ~
String "-8" --> Number -8 ~
String "+8" --> Number 0 ~
To force conversion from String to Number, add zero to it: >
:echo "0100" + 0
< 64 ~
To avoid a leading zero to cause octal conversion, or for using a different
base, use |str2nr()|.
For boolean operators Numbers are used. Zero is FALSE, non-zero is TRUE.
Note that in the command >
:if "foo"
"foo" is converted to 0, which means FALSE. To test for a non-empty string,
use empty(): >
:if !empty("foo")
< *E745* *E728* *E703* *E729* *E730* *E731*
List, Dictionary and Funcref types are not automatically converted.
*E805* *E806* *E808*
When mixing Number and Float the Number is converted to Float. Otherwise
there is no automatic conversion of Float. You can use str2float() for String
to Float, printf() for Float to String and float2nr() for Float to Number.
*E706* *sticky-type-checking*
You will get an error if you try to change the type of a variable. You need
to |:unlet| it first to avoid this error. String and Number are considered
equivalent though, as well are Float and Number. Consider this sequence of
commands: >
:let l = "string"
:let l = 44 " changes type from String to Number
:let l = [1, 2, 3] " error! l is still a Number
:let l = 4.4 " changes type from Number to Float
:let l = "string" " error!
1.2 Function references ~
*Funcref* *E695* *E718*
A Funcref variable is obtained with the |function()| function. It can be used
in an expression in the place of a function name, before the parenthesis
around the arguments, to invoke the function it refers to. Example: >
:let Fn = function("MyFunc")
:echo Fn()
< *E704* *E705* *E707*
A Funcref variable must start with a capital, "s:", "w:", "t:" or "b:". You
cannot have both a Funcref variable and a function with the same name.
A special case is defining a function and directly assigning its Funcref to a
Dictionary entry. Example: >
:function dict.init() dict
: let self.val = 0
:endfunction
The key of the Dictionary can start with a lower case letter. The actual
function name is not used here. Also see |numbered-function|.
A Funcref can also be used with the |:call| command: >
:call Fn()
:call dict.init()
The name of the referenced function can be obtained with |string()|. >
:let func = string(Fn)
You can use |call()| to invoke a Funcref and use a list variable for the
arguments: >
:let r = call(Fn, mylist)
1.3 Lists ~
*List* *Lists* *E686*
A List is an ordered sequence of items. An item can be of any type. Items
can be accessed by their index number. Items can be added and removed at any
position in the sequence.
List creation ~
*E696* *E697*
A List is created with a comma separated list of items in square brackets.
Examples: >
:let mylist = [1, two, 3, "four"]
:let emptylist = []
An item can be any expression. Using a List for an item creates a
List of Lists: >
:let nestlist = [[11, 12], [21, 22], [31, 32]]
An extra comma after the last item is ignored.
List index ~
*list-index* *E684*
An item in the List can be accessed by putting the index in square brackets
after the List. Indexes are zero-based, thus the first item has index zero. >
:let item = mylist[0] " get the first item: 1
:let item = mylist[2] " get the third item: 3
When the resulting item is a list this can be repeated: >
:let item = nestlist[0][1] " get the first list, second item: 12
<
A negative index is counted from the end. Index -1 refers to the last item in
the List, -2 to the last but one item, etc. >
:let last = mylist[-1] " get the last item: "four"
To avoid an error for an invalid index use the |get()| function. When an item
is not available it returns zero or the default value you specify: >
:echo get(mylist, idx)
:echo get(mylist, idx, "NONE")
List concatenation ~
Two lists can be concatenated with the "+" operator: >
:let longlist = mylist + [5, 6]
:let mylist += [7, 8]
To prepend or append an item turn the item into a list by putting [] around
it. To change a list in-place see |list-modification| below.
Sublist ~
A part of the List can be obtained by specifying the first and last index,
separated by a colon in square brackets: >
:let shortlist = mylist[2:-1] " get List [3, "four"]
Omitting the first index is similar to zero. Omitting the last index is
similar to -1. >
:let endlist = mylist[2:] " from item 2 to the end: [3, "four"]
:let shortlist = mylist[2:2] " List with one item: [3]
:let otherlist = mylist[:] " make a copy of the List
If the first index is beyond the last item of the List or the second item is
before the first item, the result is an empty list. There is no error
message.
If the second index is equal to or greater than the length of the list the
length minus one is used: >
:let mylist = [0, 1, 2, 3]
:echo mylist[2:8] " result: [2, 3]
NOTE: mylist[s:e] means using the variable "s:e" as index. Watch out for
using a single letter variable before the ":". Insert a space when needed:
mylist[s : e].
List identity ~
*list-identity*
When variable "aa" is a list and you assign it to another variable "bb", both
variables refer to the same list. Thus changing the list "aa" will also
change "bb": >
:let aa = [1, 2, 3]
:let bb = aa
:call add(aa, 4)
:echo bb
< [1, 2, 3, 4]
Making a copy of a list is done with the |copy()| function. Using [:] also
works, as explained above. This creates a shallow copy of the list: Changing
a list item in the list will also change the item in the copied list: >
:let aa = [[1, 'a'], 2, 3]
:let bb = copy(aa)
:call add(aa, 4)
:let aa[0][1] = 'aaa'
:echo aa
< [[1, aaa], 2, 3, 4] >
:echo bb
< [[1, aaa], 2, 3]
To make a completely independent list use |deepcopy()|. This also makes a
copy of the values in the list, recursively. Up to a hundred levels deep.
The operator "is" can be used to check if two variables refer to the same
List. "isnot" does the opposite. In contrast "==" compares if two lists have
the same value. >
:let alist = [1, 2, 3]
:let blist = [1, 2, 3]
:echo alist is blist
< 0 >
:echo alist == blist
< 1
Note about comparing lists: Two lists are considered equal if they have the
same length and all items compare equal, as with using "==". There is one
exception: When comparing a number with a string they are considered
different. There is no automatic type conversion, as with using "==" on
variables. Example: >
echo 4 == "4"
< 1 >
echo [4] == ["4"]
< 0
Thus comparing Lists is more strict than comparing numbers and strings. You
can compare simple values this way too by putting them in a list: >
:let a = 5
:let b = "5"
:echo a == b
< 1 >
:echo [a] == [b]
< 0
List unpack ~
To unpack the items in a list to individual variables, put the variables in
square brackets, like list items: >
:let [var1, var2] = mylist
When the number of variables does not match the number of items in the list
this produces an error. To handle any extra items from the list append ";"
and a variable name: >
:let [var1, var2; rest] = mylist
This works like: >
:let var1 = mylist[0]
:let var2 = mylist[1]
:let rest = mylist[2:]
Except that there is no error if there are only two items. "rest" will be an
empty list then.
List modification ~
*list-modification*
To change a specific item of a list use |:let| this way: >
:let list[4] = "four"
:let listlist[0][3] = item
To change part of a list you can specify the first and last item to be
modified. The value must at least have the number of items in the range: >
:let list[3:5] = [3, 4, 5]
Adding and removing items from a list is done with functions. Here are a few
examples: >
:call insert(list, 'a') " prepend item 'a'
:call insert(list, 'a', 3) " insert item 'a' before list[3]
:call add(list, "new") " append String item
:call add(list, [1, 2]) " append a List as one new item
:call extend(list, [1, 2]) " extend the list with two more items
:let i = remove(list, 3) " remove item 3
:unlet list[3] " idem
:let l = remove(list, 3, -1) " remove items 3 to last item
:unlet list[3 : ] " idem
:call filter(list, 'v:val !~ "x"') " remove items with an 'x'
Changing the order of items in a list: >
:call sort(list) " sort a list alphabetically
:call reverse(list) " reverse the order of items
For loop ~
The |:for| loop executes commands for each item in a list. A variable is set
to each item in the list in sequence. Example: >
:for item in mylist
: call Doit(item)
:endfor
This works like: >
:let index = 0
:while index < len(mylist)
: let item = mylist[index]
: :call Doit(item)
: let index = index + 1
:endwhile
Note that all items in the list should be of the same type, otherwise this
results in error |E706|. To avoid this |:unlet| the variable at the end of
the loop.
If all you want to do is modify each item in the list then the |map()|
function will be a simpler method than a for loop.
Just like the |:let| command, |:for| also accepts a list of variables. This
requires the argument to be a list of lists. >
:for [lnum, col] in [[1, 3], [2, 8], [3, 0]]
: call Doit(lnum, col)
:endfor
This works like a |:let| command is done for each list item. Again, the types
must remain the same to avoid an error.
It is also possible to put remaining items in a List variable: >
:for [i, j; rest] in listlist
: call Doit(i, j)
: if !empty(rest)
: echo "remainder: " . string(rest)
: endif
:endfor
List functions ~
*E714*
Functions that are useful with a List: >
:let r = call(funcname, list) " call a function with an argument list
:if empty(list) " check if list is empty
:let l = len(list) " number of items in list
:let big = max(list) " maximum value in list
:let small = min(list) " minimum value in list
:let xs = count(list, 'x') " count nr of times 'x' appears in list
:let i = index(list, 'x') " index of first 'x' in list
:let lines = getline(1, 10) " get ten text lines from buffer
:call append('$', lines) " append text lines in buffer
:let list = split("a b c") " create list from items in a string
:let string = join(list, ', ') " create string from list items
:let s = string(list) " String representation of list
:call map(list, '">> " . v:val') " prepend ">> " to each item
Don't forget that a combination of features can make things simple. For
example, to add up all the numbers in a list: >
:exe 'let sum = ' . join(nrlist, '+')
1.4 Dictionaries ~
*Dictionaries* *Dictionary*
A Dictionary is an associative array: Each entry has a key and a value. The
entry can be located with the key. The entries are stored without a specific
ordering.
Dictionary creation ~
*E720* *E721* *E722* *E723*
A Dictionary is created with a comma separated list of entries in curly
braces. Each entry has a key and a value, separated by a colon. Each key can
only appear once. Examples: >
:let mydict = {1: 'one', 2: 'two', 3: 'three'}
:let emptydict = {}
< *E713* *E716* *E717*
A key is always a String. You can use a Number, it will be converted to a
String automatically. Thus the String '4' and the number 4 will find the same
entry. Note that the String '04' and the Number 04 are different, since the
Number will be converted to the String '4'.
A value can be any expression. Using a Dictionary for a value creates a
nested Dictionary: >
:let nestdict = {1: {11: 'a', 12: 'b'}, 2: {21: 'c'}}
An extra comma after the last entry is ignored.
Accessing entries ~
The normal way to access an entry is by putting the key in square brackets: >
:let val = mydict["one"]
:let mydict["four"] = 4
You can add new entries to an existing Dictionary this way, unlike Lists.
For keys that consist entirely of letters, digits and underscore the following
form can be used |expr-entry|: >
:let val = mydict.one
:let mydict.four = 4
Since an entry can be any type, also a List and a Dictionary, the indexing and
key lookup can be repeated: >
:echo dict.key[idx].key
Dictionary to List conversion ~
You may want to loop over the entries in a dictionary. For this you need to
turn the Dictionary into a List and pass it to |:for|.
Most often you want to loop over the keys, using the |keys()| function: >
:for key in keys(mydict)
: echo key . ': ' . mydict[key]
:endfor
The List of keys is unsorted. You may want to sort them first: >
:for key in sort(keys(mydict))
To loop over the values use the |values()| function: >
:for v in values(mydict)
: echo "value: " . v
:endfor
If you want both the key and the value use the |items()| function. It returns
a List in which each item is a List with two items, the key and the value: >
:for [key, value] in items(mydict)
: echo key . ': ' . value
:endfor
Dictionary identity ~
*dict-identity*
Just like Lists you need to use |copy()| and |deepcopy()| to make a copy of a
Dictionary. Otherwise, assignment results in referring to the same
Dictionary: >
:let onedict = {'a': 1, 'b': 2}
:let adict = onedict
:let adict['a'] = 11
:echo onedict['a']
11
Two Dictionaries compare equal if all the key-value pairs compare equal. For
more info see |list-identity|.
Dictionary modification ~
*dict-modification*
To change an already existing entry of a Dictionary, or to add a new entry,
use |:let| this way: >
:let dict[4] = "four"
:let dict['one'] = item
Removing an entry from a Dictionary is done with |remove()| or |:unlet|.
Three ways to remove the entry with key "aaa" from dict: >
:let i = remove(dict, 'aaa')
:unlet dict.aaa
:unlet dict['aaa']
Merging a Dictionary with another is done with |extend()|: >
:call extend(adict, bdict)
This extends adict with all entries from bdict. Duplicate keys cause entries
in adict to be overwritten. An optional third argument can change this.
Note that the order of entries in a Dictionary is irrelevant, thus don't
expect ":echo adict" to show the items from bdict after the older entries in
adict.
Weeding out entries from a Dictionary can be done with |filter()|: >
:call filter(dict, 'v:val =~ "x"')
This removes all entries from "dict" with a value not matching 'x'.
Dictionary function ~
*Dictionary-function* *self* *E725*
When a function is defined with the "dict" attribute it can be used in a
special way with a dictionary. Example: >
:function Mylen() dict
: return len(self.data)
:endfunction
:let mydict = {'data': [0, 1, 2, 3], 'len': function("Mylen")}
:echo mydict.len()
This is like a method in object oriented programming. The entry in the
Dictionary is a |Funcref|. The local variable "self" refers to the dictionary
the function was invoked from.
It is also possible to add a function without the "dict" attribute as a
Funcref to a Dictionary, but the "self" variable is not available then.
*numbered-function* *anonymous-function*
To avoid the extra name for the function it can be defined and directly
assigned to a Dictionary in this way: >
:let mydict = {'data': [0, 1, 2, 3]}
:function mydict.len() dict
: return len(self.data)
:endfunction
:echo mydict.len()
The function will then get a number and the value of dict.len is a |Funcref|
that references this function. The function can only be used through a
|Funcref|. It will automatically be deleted when there is no |Funcref|
remaining that refers to it.
It is not necessary to use the "dict" attribute for a numbered function.
If you get an error for a numbered function, you can find out what it is with
a trick. Assuming the function is 42, the command is: >
:function {42}
Functions for Dictionaries ~
*E715*
Functions that can be used with a Dictionary: >
:if has_key(dict, 'foo') " TRUE if dict has entry with key "foo"
:if empty(dict) " TRUE if dict is empty
:let l = len(dict) " number of items in dict
:let big = max(dict) " maximum value in dict
:let small = min(dict) " minimum value in dict
:let xs = count(dict, 'x') " count nr of times 'x' appears in dict
:let s = string(dict) " String representation of dict
:call map(dict, '">> " . v:val') " prepend ">> " to each item
1.5 More about variables ~
*more-variables*
If you need to know the type of a variable or expression, use the |type()|
function.
When the '!' flag is included in the 'viminfo' option, global variables that
start with an uppercase letter, and don't contain a lowercase letter, are
stored in the viminfo file |viminfo-file|.
When the 'sessionoptions' option contains "global", global variables that
start with an uppercase letter and contain at least one lowercase letter are
stored in the session file |session-file|.
variable name can be stored where ~
my_var_6 not
My_Var_6 session file
MY_VAR_6 viminfo file
It's possible to form a variable name with curly braces, see
|curly-braces-names|.
==============================================================================
2. Expression syntax *expression-syntax*
Expression syntax summary, from least to most significant:
|expr1| expr2 ? expr1 : expr1 if-then-else
|expr2| expr3 || expr3 .. logical OR
|expr3| expr4 && expr4 .. logical AND
|expr4| expr5 == expr5 equal
expr5 != expr5 not equal
expr5 > expr5 greater than
expr5 >= expr5 greater than or equal
expr5 < expr5 smaller than
expr5 <= expr5 smaller than or equal
expr5 =~ expr5 regexp matches
expr5 !~ expr5 regexp doesn't match
expr5 ==? expr5 equal, ignoring case
expr5 ==# expr5 equal, match case
etc. As above, append ? for ignoring case, # for
matching case
expr5 is expr5 same |List| instance
expr5 isnot expr5 different |List| instance
|expr5| expr6 + expr6 .. number addition or list concatenation
expr6 - expr6 .. number subtraction
expr6 . expr6 .. string concatenation
|expr6| expr7 * expr7 .. number multiplication
expr7 / expr7 .. number division
expr7 % expr7 .. number modulo
|expr7| ! expr7 logical NOT
- expr7 unary minus
+ expr7 unary plus
|expr8| expr8[expr1] byte of a String or item of a |List|
expr8[expr1 : expr1] substring of a String or sublist of a |List|
expr8.name entry in a |Dictionary|
expr8(expr1, ...) function call with |Funcref| variable
|expr9| number number constant
"string" string constant, backslash is special
'string' string constant, ' is doubled
[expr1, ...] |List|
{expr1: expr1, ...} |Dictionary|
&option option value
(expr1) nested expression
variable internal variable
va{ria}ble internal variable with curly braces
$VAR environment variable
@r contents of register 'r'
function(expr1, ...) function call
func{ti}on(expr1, ...) function call with curly braces
".." indicates that the operations in this level can be concatenated.
Example: >
&nu || &list && &shell == "csh"
All expressions within one level are parsed from left to right.
expr1 *expr1* *E109*
-----
expr2 ? expr1 : expr1
The expression before the '?' is evaluated to a number. If it evaluates to
non-zero, the result is the value of the expression between the '?' and ':',
otherwise the result is the value of the expression after the ':'.
Example: >
:echo lnum == 1 ? "top" : lnum
Since the first expression is an "expr2", it cannot contain another ?:. The
other two expressions can, thus allow for recursive use of ?:.
Example: >
:echo lnum == 1 ? "top" : lnum == 1000 ? "last" : lnum
To keep this readable, using |line-continuation| is suggested: >
:echo lnum == 1
:\ ? "top"
:\ : lnum == 1000
:\ ? "last"
:\ : lnum
You should always put a space before the ':', otherwise it can be mistaken for
use in a variable such as "a:1".
expr2 and expr3 *expr2* *expr3*
---------------
*expr-barbar* *expr-&&*
The "||" and "&&" operators take one argument on each side. The arguments
are (converted to) Numbers. The result is:
input output ~
n1 n2 n1 || n2 n1 && n2 ~
zero zero zero zero
zero non-zero non-zero zero
non-zero zero non-zero zero
non-zero non-zero non-zero non-zero
The operators can be concatenated, for example: >
&nu || &list && &shell == "csh"
Note that "&&" takes precedence over "||", so this has the meaning of: >
&nu || (&list && &shell == "csh")
Once the result is known, the expression "short-circuits", that is, further
arguments are not evaluated. This is like what happens in C. For example: >
let a = 1
echo a || b
This is valid even if there is no variable called "b" because "a" is non-zero,
so the result must be non-zero. Similarly below: >
echo exists("b") && b == "yes"
This is valid whether "b" has been defined or not. The second clause will
only be evaluated if "b" has been defined.
expr4 *expr4*
-----
expr5 {cmp} expr5
Compare two expr5 expressions, resulting in a 0 if it evaluates to false, or 1
if it evaluates to true.
*expr-==* *expr-!=* *expr->* *expr->=*
*expr-<* *expr-<=* *expr-=~* *expr-!~*
*expr-==#* *expr-!=#* *expr->#* *expr->=#*
*expr-<#* *expr-<=#* *expr-=~#* *expr-!~#*
*expr-==?* *expr-!=?* *expr->?* *expr->=?*
*expr-<?* *expr-<=?* *expr-=~?* *expr-!~?*
*expr-is* *expr-isnot* *expr-is#* *expr-isnot#*
*expr-is?* *expr-isnot?*
use 'ignorecase' match case ignore case ~
equal == ==# ==?
not equal != !=# !=?
greater than > ># >?
greater than or equal >= >=# >=?
smaller than < <# <?
smaller than or equal <= <=# <=?
regexp matches =~ =~# =~?
regexp doesn't match !~ !~# !~?
same instance is is# is?
different instance isnot isnot# isnot?
Examples:
"abc" ==# "Abc" evaluates to 0
"abc" ==? "Abc" evaluates to 1
"abc" == "Abc" evaluates to 1 if 'ignorecase' is set, 0 otherwise
*E691* *E692*
A |List| can only be compared with a |List| and only "equal", "not equal" and
"is" can be used. This compares the values of the list, recursively.
Ignoring case means case is ignored when comparing item values.
*E735* *E736*
A |Dictionary| can only be compared with a |Dictionary| and only "equal", "not
equal" and "is" can be used. This compares the key/values of the |Dictionary|
recursively. Ignoring case means case is ignored when comparing item values.
*E693* *E694*
A |Funcref| can only be compared with a |Funcref| and only "equal" and "not
equal" can be used. Case is never ignored.
When using "is" or "isnot" with a |List| or a |Dictionary| this checks if the
expressions are referring to the same |List| or |Dictionary| instance. A copy
of a |List| is different from the original |List|. When using "is" without
a |List| or a |Dictionary| it is equivalent to using "equal", using "isnot"
equivalent to using "not equal". Except that a different type means the
values are different: "4 == '4'" is true, "4 is '4'" is false and "0 is []" is
false and not an error. "is#"/"isnot#" and "is?"/"isnot?" can be used to match
and ignore case.
When comparing a String with a Number, the String is converted to a Number,
and the comparison is done on Numbers. This means that "0 == 'x'" is TRUE,
because 'x' converted to a Number is zero.
When comparing two Strings, this is done with strcmp() or stricmp(). This
results in the mathematical difference (comparing byte values), not
necessarily the alphabetical difference in the local language.
When using the operators with a trailing '#', or the short version and
'ignorecase' is off, the comparing is done with strcmp(): case matters.
When using the operators with a trailing '?', or the short version and
'ignorecase' is set, the comparing is done with stricmp(): case is ignored.
'smartcase' is not used.
The "=~" and "!~" operators match the lefthand argument with the righthand
argument, which is used as a pattern. See |pattern| for what a pattern is.
This matching is always done like 'magic' was set and 'cpoptions' is empty, no
matter what the actual value of 'magic' or 'cpoptions' is. This makes scripts
portable. To avoid backslashes in the regexp pattern to be doubled, use a
single-quote string, see |literal-string|.
Since a string is considered to be a single line, a multi-line pattern
(containing \n, backslash-n) will not match. However, a literal NL character
can be matched like an ordinary character. Examples:
"foo\nbar" =~ "\n" evaluates to 1
"foo\nbar" =~ "\\n" evaluates to 0
expr5 and expr6 *expr5* *expr6*
---------------
expr6 + expr6 .. Number addition or |List| concatenation *expr-+*
expr6 - expr6 .. Number subtraction *expr--*
expr6 . expr6 .. String concatenation *expr-.*
For |Lists| only "+" is possible and then both expr6 must be a list. The
result is a new list with the two lists Concatenated.
expr7 * expr7 .. Number multiplication *expr-star*
expr7 / expr7 .. Number division *expr-/*
expr7 % expr7 .. Number modulo *expr-%*
For all, except ".", Strings are converted to Numbers.
For bitwise operators see |and()|, |or()| and |xor()|.
Note the difference between "+" and ".":
"123" + "456" = 579
"123" . "456" = "123456"
Since '.' has the same precedence as '+' and '-', you need to read: >
1 . 90 + 90.0
As: >
(1 . 90) + 90.0
That works, since the String "190" is automatically converted to the Number
190, which can be added to the Float 90.0. However: >
1 . 90 * 90.0
Should be read as: >
1 . (90 * 90.0)
Since '.' has lower precedence than '*'. This does NOT work, since this
attempts to concatenate a Float and a String.
When dividing a Number by zero the result depends on the value:
0 / 0 = -0x80000000 (like NaN for Float)
>0 / 0 = 0x7fffffff (like positive infinity)
<0 / 0 = -0x7fffffff (like negative infinity)
(before Vim 7.2 it was always 0x7fffffff)
When the righthand side of '%' is zero, the result is 0.
None of these work for |Funcref|s.
. and % do not work for Float. *E804*
expr7 *expr7*
-----
! expr7 logical NOT *expr-!*
- expr7 unary minus *expr-unary--*
+ expr7 unary plus *expr-unary-+*
For '!' non-zero becomes zero, zero becomes one.
For '-' the sign of the number is changed.
For '+' the number is unchanged.
A String will be converted to a Number first.
These three can be repeated and mixed. Examples:
!-1 == 0
!!8 == 1
--9 == 9
expr8 *expr8*
-----
expr8[expr1] item of String or |List| *expr-[]* *E111*
If expr8 is a Number or String this results in a String that contains the
expr1'th single byte from expr8. expr8 is used as a String, expr1 as a
Number. This doesn't recognize multi-byte encodings, see |byteidx()| for
an alternative.
Index zero gives the first character. This is like it works in C. Careful:
text column numbers start with one! Example, to get the character under the
cursor: >
:let c = getline(".")[col(".") - 1]
If the length of the String is less than the index, the result is an empty
String. A negative index always results in an empty string (reason: backwards
compatibility). Use [-1:] to get the last byte.
If expr8 is a |List| then it results the item at index expr1. See |list-index|
for possible index values. If the index is out of range this results in an
error. Example: >
:let item = mylist[-1] " get last item
Generally, if a |List| index is equal to or higher than the length of the
|List|, or more negative than the length of the |List|, this results in an
error.
expr8[expr1a : expr1b] substring or sublist *expr-[:]*
If expr8 is a Number or String this results in the substring with the bytes
from expr1a to and including expr1b. expr8 is used as a String, expr1a and
expr1b are used as a Number. This doesn't recognize multi-byte encodings, see
|byteidx()| for computing the indexes.
If expr1a is omitted zero is used. If expr1b is omitted the length of the
string minus one is used.
A negative number can be used to measure from the end of the string. -1 is
the last character, -2 the last but one, etc.
If an index goes out of range for the string characters are omitted. If
expr1b is smaller than expr1a the result is an empty string.
Examples: >
:let c = name[-1:] " last byte of a string
:let c = name[-2:-2] " last but one byte of a string
:let s = line(".")[4:] " from the fifth byte to the end
:let s = s[:-3] " remove last two bytes
<
*sublist* *slice*
If expr8 is a |List| this results in a new |List| with the items indicated by
the indexes expr1a and expr1b. This works like with a String, as explained
just above, except that indexes out of range cause an error. Examples: >
:let l = mylist[:3] " first four items
:let l = mylist[4:4] " List with one item
:let l = mylist[:] " shallow copy of a List
Using expr8[expr1] or expr8[expr1a : expr1b] on a |Funcref| results in an
error.
expr8.name entry in a |Dictionary| *expr-entry*
If expr8 is a |Dictionary| and it is followed by a dot, then the following
name will be used as a key in the |Dictionary|. This is just like:
expr8[name].
The name must consist of alphanumeric characters, just like a variable name,
but it may start with a number. Curly braces cannot be used.
There must not be white space before or after the dot.
Examples: >
:let dict = {"one": 1, 2: "two"}
:echo dict.one
:echo dict .2
Note that the dot is also used for String concatenation. To avoid confusion
always put spaces around the dot for String concatenation.
expr8(expr1, ...) |Funcref| function call
When expr8 is a |Funcref| type variable, invoke the function it refers to.
*expr9*
number
------
number number constant *expr-number*
*hex-number* *octal-number*
Decimal, Hexadecimal (starting with 0x or 0X), or Octal (starting with 0).
*floating-point-format*
Floating point numbers can be written in two forms:
[-+]{N}.{M}
[-+]{N}.{M}e[-+]{exp}
{N} and {M} are numbers. Both {N} and {M} must be present and can only
contain digits.
[-+] means there is an optional plus or minus sign.
{exp} is the exponent, power of 10.
Only a decimal point is accepted, not a comma. No matter what the current
locale is.
{only when compiled with the |+float| feature}
Examples:
123.456
+0.0001
55.0
-0.123
1.234e03
1.0E-6
-3.1416e+88
These are INVALID:
3. empty {M}
1e40 missing .{M}
*float-pi* *float-e*
A few useful values to copy&paste: >
:let pi = 3.14159265359
:let e = 2.71828182846
Rationale:
Before floating point was introduced, the text "123.456" was interpreted as
the two numbers "123" and "456", both converted to a string and concatenated,
resulting in the string "123456". Since this was considered pointless, and we
could not find it intentionally being used in Vim scripts, this backwards
incompatibility was accepted in favor of being able to use the normal notation
for floating point numbers.
*floating-point-precision*
The precision and range of floating points numbers depends on what "double"
means in the library Vim was compiled with. There is no way to change this at
runtime.
The default for displaying a |Float| is to use 6 decimal places, like using
printf("%g", f). You can select something else when using the |printf()|
function. Example: >
:echo printf('%.15e', atan(1))
< 7.853981633974483e-01
string *expr-string* *E114*
------
"string" string constant *expr-quote*
Note that double quotes are used.
A string constant accepts these special characters:
\... three-digit octal number (e.g., "\316")
\.. two-digit octal number (must be followed by non-digit)
\. one-digit octal number (must be followed by non-digit)
\x.. byte specified with two hex numbers (e.g., "\x1f")
\x. byte specified with one hex number (must be followed by non-hex char)
\X.. same as \x..
\X. same as \x.
\u.... character specified with up to 4 hex numbers, stored according to the
current value of 'encoding' (e.g., "\u02a4")
\U.... same as \u....
\b backspace <BS>
\e escape <Esc>
\f formfeed <FF>
\n newline <NL>
\r return <CR>
\t tab <Tab>
\\ backslash
\" double quote
\<xxx> Special key named "xxx". e.g. "\<C-W>" for CTRL-W. This is for use
in mappings, the 0x80 byte is escaped. Don't use <Char-xxxx> to get a
utf-8 character, use \uxxxx as mentioned above.
Note that "\xff" is stored as the byte 255, which may be invalid in some
encodings. Use "\u00ff" to store character 255 according to the current value
of 'encoding'.
Note that "\000" and "\x00" force the end of the string.
literal-string *literal-string* *E115*
---------------
'string' string constant *expr-'*
Note that single quotes are used.
This string is taken as it is. No backslashes are removed or have a special
meaning. The only exception is that two quotes stand for one quote.
Single quoted strings are useful for patterns, so that backslashes do not need
to be doubled. These two commands are equivalent: >
if a =~ "\\s*"
if a =~ '\s*'
option *expr-option* *E112* *E113*
------
&option option value, local value if possible
&g:option global option value
&l:option local option value
Examples: >
echo "tabstop is " . &tabstop
if &insertmode
Any option name can be used here. See |options|. When using the local value
and there is no buffer-local or window-local value, the global value is used
anyway.
register *expr-register* *@r*
--------
@r contents of register 'r'
The result is the contents of the named register, as a single string.
Newlines are inserted where required. To get the contents of the unnamed
register use @" or @@. See |registers| for an explanation of the available
registers.
When using the '=' register you get the expression itself, not what it
evaluates to. Use |eval()| to evaluate it.
nesting *expr-nesting* *E110*
-------
(expr1) nested expression
environment variable *expr-env*
--------------------
$VAR environment variable
The String value of any environment variable. When it is not defined, the
result is an empty string.
*expr-env-expand*
Note that there is a difference between using $VAR directly and using
expand("$VAR"). Using it directly will only expand environment variables that
are known inside the current Vim session. Using expand() will first try using
the environment variables known inside the current Vim session. If that
fails, a shell will be used to expand the variable. This can be slow, but it
does expand all variables that the shell knows about. Example: >
:echo $version
:echo expand("$version")
The first one probably doesn't echo anything, the second echoes the $version
variable (if your shell supports it).
internal variable *expr-variable*
-----------------
variable internal variable
See below |internal-variables|.
function call *expr-function* *E116* *E118* *E119* *E120*
-------------
function(expr1, ...) function call
See below |functions|.
==============================================================================
3. Internal variable *internal-variables* *E461*
An internal variable name can be made up of letters, digits and '_'. But it
cannot start with a digit. It's also possible to use curly braces, see
|curly-braces-names|.
An internal variable is created with the ":let" command |:let|.
An internal variable is explicitly destroyed with the ":unlet" command
|:unlet|.
Using a name that is not an internal variable or refers to a variable that has
been destroyed results in an error.
There are several name spaces for variables. Which one is to be used is
specified by what is prepended:
(nothing) In a function: local to a function; otherwise: global
|buffer-variable| b: Local to the current buffer.
|window-variable| w: Local to the current window.
|tabpage-variable| t: Local to the current tab page.
|global-variable| g: Global.
|local-variable| l: Local to a function.
|script-variable| s: Local to a |:source|'ed Vim script.
|function-argument| a: Function argument (only inside a function).
|vim-variable| v: Global, predefined by Vim.
The scope name by itself can be used as a |Dictionary|. For example, to
delete all script-local variables: >
:for k in keys(s:)
: unlet s:[k]
:endfor
<
*buffer-variable* *b:var*
A variable name that is preceded with "b:" is local to the current buffer.
Thus you can have several "b:foo" variables, one for each buffer.
This kind of variable is deleted when the buffer is wiped out or deleted with
|:bdelete|.
One local buffer variable is predefined:
*b:changedtick-variable* *changetick*
b:changedtick The total number of changes to the current buffer. It is
incremented for each change. An undo command is also a change
in this case. This can be used to perform an action only when
the buffer has changed. Example: >
:if my_changedtick != b:changedtick
: let my_changedtick = b:changedtick
: call My_Update()
:endif
<
*window-variable* *w:var*
A variable name that is preceded with "w:" is local to the current window. It
is deleted when the window is closed.
*tabpage-variable* *t:var*
A variable name that is preceded with "t:" is local to the current tab page,
It is deleted when the tab page is closed. {not available when compiled
without the |+windows| feature}
*global-variable* *g:var*
Inside functions global variables are accessed with "g:". Omitting this will
access a variable local to a function. But "g:" can also be used in any other
place if you like.
*local-variable* *l:var*
Inside functions local variables are accessed without prepending anything.
But you can also prepend "l:" if you like. However, without prepending "l:"
you may run into reserved variable names. For example "count". By itself it
refers to "v:count". Using "l:count" you can have a local variable with the
same name.
*script-variable* *s:var*
In a Vim script variables starting with "s:" can be used. They cannot be
accessed from outside of the scripts, thus are local to the script.
They can be used in:
- commands executed while the script is sourced
- functions defined in the script
- autocommands defined in the script
- functions and autocommands defined in functions and autocommands which were
defined in the script (recursively)
- user defined commands defined in the script
Thus not in:
- other scripts sourced from this one
- mappings
- menus
- etc.
Script variables can be used to avoid conflicts with global variable names.
Take this example: >
let s:counter = 0
function MyCounter()
let s:counter = s:counter + 1
echo s:counter
endfunction
command Tick call MyCounter()
You can now invoke "Tick" from any script, and the "s:counter" variable in
that script will not be changed, only the "s:counter" in the script where
"Tick" was defined is used.
Another example that does the same: >
let s:counter = 0
command Tick let s:counter = s:counter + 1 | echo s:counter
When calling a function and invoking a user-defined command, the context for
script variables is set to the script where the function or command was
defined.
The script variables are also available when a function is defined inside a
function that is defined in a script. Example: >
let s:counter = 0
function StartCounting(incr)
if a:incr
function MyCounter()
let s:counter = s:counter + 1
endfunction
else
function MyCounter()
let s:counter = s:counter - 1
endfunction
endif
endfunction
This defines the MyCounter() function either for counting up or counting down
when calling StartCounting(). It doesn't matter from where StartCounting() is
called, the s:counter variable will be accessible in MyCounter().
When the same script is sourced again it will use the same script variables.
They will remain valid as long as Vim is running. This can be used to
maintain a counter: >
if !exists("s:counter")
let s:counter = 1
echo "script executed for the first time"
else
let s:counter = s:counter + 1
echo "script executed " . s:counter . " times now"
endif
Note that this means that filetype plugins don't get a different set of script
variables for each buffer. Use local buffer variables instead |b:var|.
Predefined Vim variables: *vim-variable* *v:var*
*v:beval_col* *beval_col-variable*
v:beval_col The number of the column, over which the mouse pointer is.
This is the byte index in the |v:beval_lnum| line.
Only valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.
*v:beval_bufnr* *beval_bufnr-variable*
v:beval_bufnr The number of the buffer, over which the mouse pointer is. Only
valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.
*v:beval_lnum* *beval_lnum-variable*
v:beval_lnum The number of the line, over which the mouse pointer is. Only
valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.
*v:beval_text* *beval_text-variable*
v:beval_text The text under or after the mouse pointer. Usually a word as
it is useful for debugging a C program. 'iskeyword' applies,
but a dot and "->" before the position is included. When on a
']' the text before it is used, including the matching '[' and
word before it. When on a Visual area within one line the
highlighted text is used.
Only valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option.
*v:beval_winnr* *beval_winnr-variable*
v:beval_winnr The number of the window, over which the mouse pointer is. Only
valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option. The first
window has number zero (unlike most other places where a
window gets a number).
*v:char* *char-variable*
v:char Argument for evaluating 'formatexpr' and used for the typed
character when using <expr> in an abbreviation |:map-<expr>|.
It is also used by the |InsertCharPre| event.
*v:charconvert_from* *charconvert_from-variable*
v:charconvert_from
The name of the character encoding of a file to be converted.
Only valid while evaluating the 'charconvert' option.
*v:charconvert_to* *charconvert_to-variable*
v:charconvert_to
The name of the character encoding of a file after conversion.
Only valid while evaluating the 'charconvert' option.
*v:cmdarg* *cmdarg-variable*
v:cmdarg This variable is used for two purposes:
1. The extra arguments given to a file read/write command.
Currently these are "++enc=" and "++ff=". This variable is
set before an autocommand event for a file read/write
command is triggered. There is a leading space to make it
possible to append this variable directly after the
read/write command. Note: The "+cmd" argument isn't
included here, because it will be executed anyway.
2. When printing a PostScript file with ":hardcopy" this is
the argument for the ":hardcopy" command. This can be used
in 'printexpr'.
*v:cmdbang* *cmdbang-variable*
v:cmdbang Set like v:cmdarg for a file read/write command. When a "!"
was used the value is 1, otherwise it is 0. Note that this
can only be used in autocommands. For user commands |<bang>|
can be used.
*v:count* *count-variable*
v:count The count given for the last Normal mode command. Can be used
to get the count before a mapping. Read-only. Example: >
:map _x :<C-U>echo "the count is " . v:count<CR>
< Note: The <C-U> is required to remove the line range that you
get when typing ':' after a count.
When there are two counts, as in "3d2w", they are multiplied,
just like what happens in the command, "d6w" for the example.
Also used for evaluating the 'formatexpr' option.
"count" also works, for backwards compatibility.
*v:count1* *count1-variable*
v:count1 Just like "v:count", but defaults to one when no count is
used.
*v:ctype* *ctype-variable*
v:ctype The current locale setting for characters of the runtime
environment. This allows Vim scripts to be aware of the
current locale encoding. Technical: it's the value of
LC_CTYPE. When not using a locale the value is "C".
This variable can not be set directly, use the |:language|
command.
See |multi-lang|.
*v:dying* *dying-variable*
v:dying Normally zero. When a deadly signal is caught it's set to
one. When multiple signals are caught the number increases.
Can be used in an autocommand to check if Vim didn't
terminate normally. {only works on Unix}
Example: >
:au VimLeave * if v:dying | echo "\nAAAAaaaarrrggghhhh!!!\n" | endif
< Note: if another deadly signal is caught when v:dying is one,
VimLeave autocommands will not be executed.
*v:errmsg* *errmsg-variable*
v:errmsg Last given error message. It's allowed to set this variable.
Example: >
:let v:errmsg = ""
:silent! next
:if v:errmsg != ""
: ... handle error
< "errmsg" also works, for backwards compatibility.
*v:exception* *exception-variable*
v:exception The value of the exception most recently caught and not
finished. See also |v:throwpoint| and |throw-variables|.
Example: >
:try
: throw "oops"
:catch /.*/
: echo "caught" v:exception
:endtry
< Output: "caught oops".
*v:fcs_reason* *fcs_reason-variable*
v:fcs_reason The reason why the |FileChangedShell| event was triggered.
Can be used in an autocommand to decide what to do and/or what
to set v:fcs_choice to. Possible values:
deleted file no longer exists
conflict file contents, mode or timestamp was
changed and buffer is modified
changed file contents has changed
mode mode of file changed
time only file timestamp changed
*v:fcs_choice* *fcs_choice-variable*
v:fcs_choice What should happen after a |FileChangedShell| event was
triggered. Can be used in an autocommand to tell Vim what to
do with the affected buffer:
reload Reload the buffer (does not work if
the file was deleted).
ask Ask the user what to do, as if there
was no autocommand. Except that when
only the timestamp changed nothing
will happen.
<empty> Nothing, the autocommand should do
everything that needs to be done.
The default is empty. If another (invalid) value is used then
Vim behaves like it is empty, there is no warning message.
*v:fname_in* *fname_in-variable*
v:fname_in The name of the input file. Valid while evaluating:
option used for ~
'charconvert' file to be converted
'diffexpr' original file
'patchexpr' original file
'printexpr' file to be printed
And set to the swap file name for |SwapExists|.
*v:fname_out* *fname_out-variable*
v:fname_out The name of the output file. Only valid while
evaluating:
option used for ~
'charconvert' resulting converted file (*)
'diffexpr' output of diff
'patchexpr' resulting patched file
(*) When doing conversion for a write command (e.g., ":w
file") it will be equal to v:fname_in. When doing conversion
for a read command (e.g., ":e file") it will be a temporary
file and different from v:fname_in.
*v:fname_new* *fname_new-variable*
v:fname_new The name of the new version of the file. Only valid while
evaluating 'diffexpr'.
*v:fname_diff* *fname_diff-variable*
v:fname_diff The name of the diff (patch) file. Only valid while
evaluating 'patchexpr'.
*v:folddashes* *folddashes-variable*
v:folddashes Used for 'foldtext': dashes representing foldlevel of a closed
fold.
Read-only in the |sandbox|. |fold-foldtext|
*v:foldlevel* *foldlevel-variable*
v:foldlevel Used for 'foldtext': foldlevel of closed fold.
Read-only in the |sandbox|. |fold-foldtext|
*v:foldend* *foldend-variable*
v:foldend Used for 'foldtext': last line of closed fold.
Read-only in the |sandbox|. |fold-foldtext|
*v:foldstart* *foldstart-variable*
v:foldstart Used for 'foldtext': first line of closed fold.
Read-only in the |sandbox|. |fold-foldtext|
*v:insertmode* *insertmode-variable*
v:insertmode Used for the |InsertEnter| and |InsertChange| autocommand
events. Values:
i Insert mode
r Replace mode
v Virtual Replace mode
*v:key* *key-variable*
v:key Key of the current item of a |Dictionary|. Only valid while
evaluating the expression used with |map()| and |filter()|.
Read-only.
*v:lang* *lang-variable*
v:lang The current locale setting for messages of the runtime
environment. This allows Vim scripts to be aware of the
current language. Technical: it's the value of LC_MESSAGES.
The value is system dependent.
This variable can not be set directly, use the |:language|
command.
It can be different from |v:ctype| when messages are desired
in a different language than what is used for character
encoding. See |multi-lang|.
*v:lc_time* *lc_time-variable*
v:lc_time The current locale setting for time messages of the runtime
environment. This allows Vim scripts to be aware of the
current language. Technical: it's the value of LC_TIME.
This variable can not be set directly, use the |:language|
command. See |multi-lang|.
*v:lnum* *lnum-variable*
v:lnum Line number for the 'foldexpr' |fold-expr|, 'formatexpr' and
'indentexpr' expressions, tab page number for 'guitablabel'
and 'guitabtooltip'. Only valid while one of these
expressions is being evaluated. Read-only when in the
|sandbox|.
*v:mouse_win* *mouse_win-variable*
v:mouse_win Window number for a mouse click obtained with |getchar()|.
First window has number 1, like with |winnr()|. The value is
zero when there was no mouse button click.
*v:mouse_lnum* *mouse_lnum-variable*
v:mouse_lnum Line number for a mouse click obtained with |getchar()|.
This is the text line number, not the screen line number. The
value is zero when there was no mouse button click.
*v:mouse_col* *mouse_col-variable*
v:mouse_col Column number for a mouse click obtained with |getchar()|.
This is the screen column number, like with |virtcol()|. The
value is zero when there was no mouse button click.
*v:oldfiles* *oldfiles-variable*
v:oldfiles List of file names that is loaded from the |viminfo| file on
startup. These are the files that Vim remembers marks for.
The length of the List is limited by the ' argument of the
'viminfo' option (default is 100).
Also see |:oldfiles| and |c_#<|.
The List can be modified, but this has no effect on what is
stored in the |viminfo| file later. If you use values other
than String this will cause trouble.
{only when compiled with the |+viminfo| feature}
*v:operator* *operator-variable*
v:operator The last operator given in Normal mode. This is a single
character except for commands starting with <g> or <z>,
in which case it is two characters. Best used alongside
|v:prevcount| and |v:register|. Useful if you want to cancel
Operator-pending mode and then use the operator, e.g.: >
:omap O <Esc>:call MyMotion(v:operator)<CR>
< The value remains set until another operator is entered, thus
don't expect it to be empty.
v:operator is not set for |:delete|, |:yank| or other Ex
commands.
Read-only.
*v:prevcount* *prevcount-variable*
v:prevcount The count given for the last but one Normal mode command.
This is the v:count value of the previous command. Useful if
you want to cancel Visual or Operator-pending mode and then
use the count, e.g.: >
:vmap % <Esc>:call MyFilter(v:prevcount)<CR>
< Read-only.
*v:profiling* *profiling-variable*
v:profiling Normally zero. Set to one after using ":profile start".
See |profiling|.
*v:progname* *progname-variable*
v:progname Contains the name (with path removed) with which Vim was
invoked. Allows you to do special initialisations for |view|,
|evim| etc., or any other name you might symlink to Vim.
Read-only.
*v:register* *register-variable*
v:register The name of the register in effect for the current normal mode
command (regardless of whether that command actually used a
register). Or for the currently executing normal mode mapping
(use this in custom commands that take a register).
If none is supplied it is the default register '"', unless
'clipboard' contains "unnamed" or "unnamedplus", then it is
'*' or '+'.
Also see |getreg()| and |setreg()|
*v:scrollstart* *scrollstart-variable*
v:scrollstart String describing the script or function that caused the
screen to scroll up. It's only set when it is empty, thus the
first reason is remembered. It is set to "Unknown" for a
typed command.
This can be used to find out why your script causes the
hit-enter prompt.
*v:servername* *servername-variable*
v:servername The resulting registered |x11-clientserver| name if any.
Read-only.
v:searchforward *v:searchforward* *searchforward-variable*
Search direction: 1 after a forward search, 0 after a
backward search. It is reset to forward when directly setting
the last search pattern, see |quote/|.
Note that the value is restored when returning from a
function. |function-search-undo|.
Read-write.
*v:shell_error* *shell_error-variable*
v:shell_error Result of the last shell command. When non-zero, the last
shell command had an error. When zero, there was no problem.
This only works when the shell returns the error code to Vim.
The value -1 is often used when the command could not be
executed. Read-only.
Example: >
:!mv foo bar
:if v:shell_error
: echo 'could not rename "foo" to "bar"!'
:endif
< "shell_error" also works, for backwards compatibility.
*v:statusmsg* *statusmsg-variable*
v:statusmsg Last given status message. It's allowed to set this variable.
*v:swapname* *swapname-variable*
v:swapname Only valid when executing |SwapExists| autocommands: Name of
the swap file found. Read-only.
*v:swapchoice* *swapchoice-variable*
v:swapchoice |SwapExists| autocommands can set this to the selected choice
for handling an existing swap file:
'o' Open read-only
'e' Edit anyway
'r' Recover
'd' Delete swapfile
'q' Quit
'a' Abort
The value should be a single-character string. An empty value
results in the user being asked, as would happen when there is
no SwapExists autocommand. The default is empty.
*v:swapcommand* *swapcommand-variable*
v:swapcommand Normal mode command to be executed after a file has been
opened. Can be used for a |SwapExists| autocommand to have
another Vim open the file and jump to the right place. For
example, when jumping to a tag the value is ":tag tagname\r".
For ":edit +cmd file" the value is ":cmd\r".
*v:termresponse* *termresponse-variable*
v:termresponse The escape sequence returned by the terminal for the |t_RV|
termcap entry. It is set when Vim receives an escape sequence
that starts with ESC [ or CSI and ends in a 'c', with only
digits, ';' and '.' in between.
When this option is set, the TermResponse autocommand event is
fired, so that you can react to the response from the
terminal.
The response from a new xterm is: "<Esc>[ Pp ; Pv ; Pc c". Pp
is the terminal type: 0 for vt100 and 1 for vt220. Pv is the
patch level (since this was introduced in patch 95, it's
always 95 or bigger). Pc is always zero.
{only when compiled with |+termresponse| feature}
*v:this_session* *this_session-variable*
v:this_session Full filename of the last loaded or saved session file. See
|:mksession|. It is allowed to set this variable. When no
session file has been saved, this variable is empty.
"this_session" also works, for backwards compatibility.
*v:throwpoint* *throwpoint-variable*
v:throwpoint The point where the exception most recently caught and not
finished was thrown. Not set when commands are typed. See
also |v:exception| and |throw-variables|.
Example: >
:try
: throw "oops"
:catch /.*/
: echo "Exception from" v:throwpoint
:endtry
< Output: "Exception from test.vim, line 2"
*v:val* *val-variable*
v:val Value of the current item of a |List| or |Dictionary|. Only
valid while evaluating the expression used with |map()| and
|filter()|. Read-only.
*v:version* *version-variable*
v:version Version number of Vim: Major version number times 100 plus
minor version number. Version 5.0 is 500. Version 5.1 (5.01)
is 501. Read-only. "version" also works, for backwards
compatibility.
Use |has()| to check if a certain patch was included, e.g.: >
if has("patch123")
< Note that patch numbers are specific to the version, thus both
version 5.0 and 5.1 may have a patch 123, but these are
completely different.
*v:warningmsg* *warningmsg-variable*
v:warningmsg Last given warning message. It's allowed to set this variable.
*v:windowid* *windowid-variable*
v:windowid When any X11 based GUI is running or when running in a
terminal and Vim connects to the X server (|-X|) this will be
set to the window ID.
When an MS-Windows GUI is running this will be set to the
window handle.
Otherwise the value is zero.
Note: for windows inside Vim use |winnr()|.
==============================================================================
4. Builtin Functions *functions*
See |function-list| for a list grouped by what the function is used for.
(Use CTRL-] on the function name to jump to the full explanation.)
USAGE RESULT DESCRIPTION ~
abs( {expr}) Float or Number absolute value of {expr}
acos( {expr}) Float arc cosine of {expr}
add( {list}, {item}) List append {item} to |List| {list}
and( {expr}, {expr}) Number bitwise AND
append( {lnum}, {string}) Number append {string} below line {lnum}
append( {lnum}, {list}) Number append lines {list} below line {lnum}
argc() Number number of files in the argument list
argidx() Number current index in the argument list
argv( {nr}) String {nr} entry of the argument list
argv( ) List the argument list
asin( {expr}) Float arc sine of {expr}
atan( {expr}) Float arc tangent of {expr}
atan2( {expr}, {expr}) Float arc tangent of {expr1} / {expr2}
browse( {save}, {title}, {initdir}, {default})
String put up a file requester
browsedir( {title}, {initdir}) String put up a directory requester
bufexists( {expr}) Number TRUE if buffer {expr} exists
buflisted( {expr}) Number TRUE if buffer {expr} is listed
bufloaded( {expr}) Number TRUE if buffer {expr} is loaded
bufname( {expr}) String Name of the buffer {expr}
bufnr( {expr}) Number Number of the buffer {expr}
bufwinnr( {expr}) Number window number of buffer {expr}
byte2line( {byte}) Number line number at byte count {byte}
byteidx( {expr}, {nr}) Number byte index of {nr}'th char in {expr}
call( {func}, {arglist} [, {dict}])
any call {func} with arguments {arglist}
ceil( {expr}) Float round {expr} up
changenr() Number current change number
char2nr( {expr}) Number ASCII value of first char in {expr}
cindent( {lnum}) Number C indent for line {lnum}
clearmatches() none clear all matches
col( {expr}) Number column nr of cursor or mark
complete( {startcol}, {matches}) none set Insert mode completion
complete_add( {expr}) Number add completion match
complete_check() Number check for key typed during completion
confirm( {msg} [, {choices} [, {default} [, {type}]]])
Number number of choice picked by user
copy( {expr}) any make a shallow copy of {expr}
cos( {expr}) Float cosine of {expr}
cosh( {expr}) Float hyperbolic cosine of {expr}
count( {list}, {expr} [, {start} [, {ic}]])
Number count how many {expr} are in {list}
cscope_connection( [{num} , {dbpath} [, {prepend}]])
Number checks existence of cscope connection
cursor( {lnum}, {col} [, {coladd}])
Number move cursor to {lnum}, {col}, {coladd}
cursor( {list}) Number move cursor to position in {list}
deepcopy( {expr}) any make a full copy of {expr}
delete( {fname}) Number delete file {fname}
did_filetype() Number TRUE if FileType autocommand event used
diff_filler( {lnum}) Number diff filler lines about {lnum}
diff_hlID( {lnum}, {col}) Number diff highlighting at {lnum}/{col}
empty( {expr}) Number TRUE if {expr} is empty
escape( {string}, {chars}) String escape {chars} in {string} with '\'
eval( {string}) any evaluate {string} into its value
eventhandler( ) Number TRUE if inside an event handler
executable( {expr}) Number 1 if executable {expr} exists
exists( {expr}) Number TRUE if {expr} exists
extend( {expr1}, {expr2} [, {expr3}])
List/Dict insert items of {expr2} into {expr1}
exp( {expr}) Float exponential of {expr}
expand( {expr} [, {nosuf} [, {list}]])
any expand special keywords in {expr}
feedkeys( {string} [, {mode}]) Number add key sequence to typeahead buffer
filereadable( {file}) Number TRUE if {file} is a readable file
filewritable( {file}) Number TRUE if {file} is a writable file
filter( {expr}, {string}) List/Dict remove items from {expr} where
{string} is 0
finddir( {name}[, {path}[, {count}]])
String find directory {name} in {path}
findfile( {name}[, {path}[, {count}]])
String find file {name} in {path}
float2nr( {expr}) Number convert Float {expr} to a Number
floor( {expr}) Float round {expr} down
fmod( {expr1}, {expr2}) Float remainder of {expr1} / {expr2}
fnameescape( {fname}) String escape special characters in {fname}
fnamemodify( {fname}, {mods}) String modify file name
foldclosed( {lnum}) Number first line of fold at {lnum} if closed
foldclosedend( {lnum}) Number last line of fold at {lnum} if closed
foldlevel( {lnum}) Number fold level at {lnum}
foldtext( ) String line displayed for closed fold
foldtextresult( {lnum}) String text for closed fold at {lnum}
foreground( ) Number bring the Vim window to the foreground
function( {name}) Funcref reference to function {name}
garbagecollect( [{atexit}]) none free memory, breaking cyclic references
get( {list}, {idx} [, {def}]) any get item {idx} from {list} or {def}
get( {dict}, {key} [, {def}]) any get item {key} from {dict} or {def}
getbufline( {expr}, {lnum} [, {end}])
List lines {lnum} to {end} of buffer {expr}
getbufvar( {expr}, {varname}) any variable {varname} in buffer {expr}
getchar( [expr]) Number get one character from the user
getcharmod( ) Number modifiers for the last typed character
getcmdline() String return the current command-line
getcmdpos() Number return cursor position in command-line
getcmdtype() String return the current command-line type
getcwd() String the current working directory
getfperm( {fname}) String file permissions of file {fname}
getfsize( {fname}) Number size in bytes of file {fname}
getfontname( [{name}]) String name of font being used
getftime( {fname}) Number last modification time of file
getftype( {fname}) String description of type of file {fname}
getline( {lnum}) String line {lnum} of current buffer
getline( {lnum}, {end}) List lines {lnum} to {end} of current buffer
getloclist( {nr}) List list of location list items
getmatches() List list of current matches
getpid() Number process ID of Vim
getpos( {expr}) List position of cursor, mark, etc.
getqflist() List list of quickfix items
getreg( [{regname} [, 1]]) String contents of register
getregtype( [{regname}]) String type of register
gettabvar( {nr}, {varname}) any variable {varname} in tab {nr}
gettabwinvar( {tabnr}, {winnr}, {name})
any {name} in {winnr} in tab page {tabnr}
getwinposx() Number X coord in pixels of GUI Vim window
getwinposy() Number Y coord in pixels of GUI Vim window
getwinvar( {nr}, {varname}) any variable {varname} in window {nr}
glob( {expr} [, {nosuf} [, {list}]])
any expand file wildcards in {expr}
globpath( {path}, {expr} [, {flag}])
String do glob({expr}) for all dirs in {path}
has( {feature}) Number TRUE if feature {feature} supported
has_key( {dict}, {key}) Number TRUE if {dict} has entry {key}
haslocaldir() Number TRUE if current window executed |:lcd|
hasmapto( {what} [, {mode} [, {abbr}]])
Number TRUE if mapping to {what} exists
histadd( {history},{item}) String add an item to a history
histdel( {history} [, {item}]) String remove an item from a history
histget( {history} [, {index}]) String get the item {index} from a history
histnr( {history}) Number highest index of a history
hlexists( {name}) Number TRUE if highlight group {name} exists
hlID( {name}) Number syntax ID of highlight group {name}
hostname() String name of the machine Vim is running on
iconv( {expr}, {from}, {to}) String convert encoding of {expr}
indent( {lnum}) Number indent of line {lnum}
index( {list}, {expr} [, {start} [, {ic}]])
Number index in {list} where {expr} appears
input( {prompt} [, {text} [, {completion}]])
String get input from the user
inputdialog( {p} [, {t} [, {c}]]) String like input() but in a GUI dialog
inputlist( {textlist}) Number let the user pick from a choice list
inputrestore() Number restore typeahead
inputsave() Number save and clear typeahead
inputsecret( {prompt} [, {text}]) String like input() but hiding the text
insert( {list}, {item} [, {idx}]) List insert {item} in {list} [before {idx}]
invert( {expr}) Number bitwise invert
isdirectory( {directory}) Number TRUE if {directory} is a directory
islocked( {expr}) Number TRUE if {expr} is locked
items( {dict}) List key-value pairs in {dict}
join( {list} [, {sep}]) String join {list} items into one String
keys( {dict}) List keys in {dict}
len( {expr}) Number the length of {expr}
libcall( {lib}, {func}, {arg}) String call {func} in library {lib} with {arg}
libcallnr( {lib}, {func}, {arg}) Number idem, but return a Number
line( {expr}) Number line nr of cursor, last line or mark
line2byte( {lnum}) Number byte count of line {lnum}
lispindent( {lnum}) Number Lisp indent for line {lnum}
localtime() Number current time
log( {expr}) Float natural logarithm (base e) of {expr}
log10( {expr}) Float logarithm of Float {expr} to base 10
luaeval( {expr}[, {expr}]) any evaluate |Lua| expression
map( {expr}, {string}) List/Dict change each item in {expr} to {expr}
maparg( {name}[, {mode} [, {abbr} [, {dict}]]])
String or Dict
rhs of mapping {name} in mode {mode}
mapcheck( {name}[, {mode} [, {abbr}]])
String check for mappings matching {name}
match( {expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]])
Number position where {pat} matches in {expr}
matchadd( {group}, {pattern}[, {priority}[, {id}]])
Number highlight {pattern} with {group}
matcharg( {nr}) List arguments of |:match|
matchdelete( {id}) Number delete match identified by {id}
matchend( {expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]])
Number position where {pat} ends in {expr}
matchlist( {expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]])
List match and submatches of {pat} in {expr}
matchstr( {expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]])
String {count}'th match of {pat} in {expr}
max( {list}) Number maximum value of items in {list}
min( {list}) Number minimum value of items in {list}
mkdir( {name} [, {path} [, {prot}]])
Number create directory {name}
mode( [expr]) String current editing mode
mzeval( {expr}) any evaluate |MzScheme| expression
nextnonblank( {lnum}) Number line nr of non-blank line >= {lnum}
nr2char( {expr}) String single char with ASCII value {expr}
or( {expr}, {expr}) Number bitwise OR
pathshorten( {expr}) String shorten directory names in a path
pow( {x}, {y}) Float {x} to the power of {y}
prevnonblank( {lnum}) Number line nr of non-blank line <= {lnum}
printf( {fmt}, {expr1}...) String format text
pumvisible() Number whether popup menu is visible
pyeval( {expr}) any evaluate |Python| expression
py3eval( {expr}) any evaluate |python3| expression
range( {expr} [, {max} [, {stride}]])
List items from {expr} to {max}
readfile( {fname} [, {binary} [, {max}]])
List get list of lines from file {fname}
reltime( [{start} [, {end}]]) List get time value
reltimestr( {time}) String turn time value into a String
remote_expr( {server}, {string} [, {idvar}])
String send expression
remote_foreground( {server}) Number bring Vim server to the foreground
remote_peek( {serverid} [, {retvar}])
Number check for reply string
remote_read( {serverid}) String read reply string
remote_send( {server}, {string} [, {idvar}])
String send key sequence
remove( {list}, {idx} [, {end}]) any remove items {idx}-{end} from {list}
remove( {dict}, {key}) any remove entry {key} from {dict}
rename( {from}, {to}) Number rename (move) file from {from} to {to}
repeat( {expr}, {count}) String repeat {expr} {count} times
resolve( {filename}) String get filename a shortcut points to
reverse( {list}) List reverse {list} in-place
round( {expr}) Float round off {expr}
screencol() Number current cursor column
screenrow() Number current cursor row
search( {pattern} [, {flags} [, {stopline} [, {timeout}]]])
Number search for {pattern}
searchdecl( {name} [, {global} [, {thisblock}]])
Number search for variable declaration
searchpair( {start}, {middle}, {end} [, {flags} [, {skip} [...]]])
Number search for other end of start/end pair
searchpairpos( {start}, {middle}, {end} [, {flags} [, {skip} [...]]])
List search for other end of start/end pair
searchpos( {pattern} [, {flags} [, {stopline} [, {timeout}]]])
List search for {pattern}
server2client( {clientid}, {string})
Number send reply string
serverlist() String get a list of available servers
setbufvar( {expr}, {varname}, {val}) set {varname} in buffer {expr} to {val}
setcmdpos( {pos}) Number set cursor position in command-line
setline( {lnum}, {line}) Number set line {lnum} to {line}
setloclist( {nr}, {list}[, {action}])
Number modify location list using {list}
setmatches( {list}) Number restore a list of matches
setpos( {expr}, {list}) Number set the {expr} position to {list}
setqflist( {list}[, {action}]) Number modify quickfix list using {list}
setreg( {n}, {v}[, {opt}]) Number set register to value and type
settabvar( {nr}, {varname}, {val}) set {varname} in tab page {nr} to {val}
settabwinvar( {tabnr}, {winnr}, {varname}, {val}) set {varname} in window
{winnr} in tab page {tabnr} to {val}
setwinvar( {nr}, {varname}, {val}) set {varname} in window {nr} to {val}
shellescape( {string} [, {special}])
String escape {string} for use as shell
command argument
shiftwidth() Number effective value of 'shiftwidth'
simplify( {filename}) String simplify filename as much as possible
sin( {expr}) Float sine of {expr}
sinh( {expr}) Float hyperbolic sine of {expr}
sort( {list} [, {func} [, {dict}]])
List sort {list}, using {func} to compare
soundfold( {word}) String sound-fold {word}
spellbadword() String badly spelled word at cursor
spellsuggest( {word} [, {max} [, {capital}]])
List spelling suggestions
split( {expr} [, {pat} [, {keepempty}]])
List make |List| from {pat} separated {expr}
sqrt( {expr}) Float square root of {expr}
str2float( {expr}) Float convert String to Float
str2nr( {expr} [, {base}]) Number convert String to Number
strchars( {expr}) Number character length of the String {expr}
strdisplaywidth( {expr} [, {col}]) Number display length of the String {expr}
strftime( {format}[, {time}]) String time in specified format
stridx( {haystack}, {needle}[, {start}])
Number index of {needle} in {haystack}
string( {expr}) String String representation of {expr} value
strlen( {expr}) Number length of the String {expr}
strpart( {src}, {start}[, {len}])
String {len} characters of {src} at {start}
strridx( {haystack}, {needle} [, {start}])
Number last index of {needle} in {haystack}
strtrans( {expr}) String translate string to make it printable
strwidth( {expr}) Number display cell length of the String {expr}
submatch( {nr}) String specific match in ":s" or substitute()
substitute( {expr}, {pat}, {sub}, {flags})
String all {pat} in {expr} replaced with {sub}
synID( {lnum}, {col}, {trans}) Number syntax ID at {lnum} and {col}
synIDattr( {synID}, {what} [, {mode}])
String attribute {what} of syntax ID {synID}
synIDtrans( {synID}) Number translated syntax ID of {synID}
synconcealed( {lnum}, {col}) List info about concealing
synstack( {lnum}, {col}) List stack of syntax IDs at {lnum} and {col}
system( {expr} [, {input}]) String output of shell command/filter {expr}
tabpagebuflist( [{arg}]) List list of buffer numbers in tab page
tabpagenr( [{arg}]) Number number of current or last tab page
tabpagewinnr( {tabarg}[, {arg}])
Number number of current window in tab page
taglist( {expr}) List list of tags matching {expr}
tagfiles() List tags files used
tempname() String name for a temporary file
tan( {expr}) Float tangent of {expr}
tanh( {expr}) Float hyperbolic tangent of {expr}
tolower( {expr}) String the String {expr} switched to lowercase
toupper( {expr}) String the String {expr} switched to uppercase
tr( {src}, {fromstr}, {tostr}) String translate chars of {src} in {fromstr}
to chars in {tostr}
trunc( {expr}) Float truncate Float {expr}
type( {name}) Number type of variable {name}
undofile( {name}) String undo file name for {name}
undotree() List undo file tree
values( {dict}) List values in {dict}
virtcol( {expr}) Number screen column of cursor or mark
visualmode( [expr]) String last visual mode used
winbufnr( {nr}) Number buffer number of window {nr}
wincol() Number window column of the cursor
winheight( {nr}) Number height of window {nr}
winline() Number window line of the cursor
winnr( [{expr}]) Number number of current window
winrestcmd() String returns command to restore window sizes
winrestview( {dict}) none restore view of current window
winsaveview() Dict save view of current window
winwidth( {nr}) Number width of window {nr}
writefile( {list}, {fname} [, {binary}])
Number write list of lines to file {fname}
xor( {expr}, {expr}) Number bitwise XOR
abs({expr}) *abs()*
Return the absolute value of {expr}. When {expr} evaluates to
a |Float| abs() returns a |Float|. When {expr} can be
converted to a |Number| abs() returns a |Number|. Otherwise
abs() gives an error message and returns -1.
Examples: >
echo abs(1.456)
< 1.456 >
echo abs(-5.456)
< 5.456 >
echo abs(-4)
< 4
{only available when compiled with the |+float| feature}
acos({expr}) *acos()*
Return the arc cosine of {expr} measured in radians, as a
|Float| in the range of [0, pi].
{expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number| in the range
[-1, 1].
Examples: >
:echo acos(0)
< 1.570796 >
:echo acos(-0.5)
< 2.094395
{only available when compiled with the |+float| feature}
add({list}, {expr}) *add()*
Append the item {expr} to |List| {list}. Returns the
resulting |List|. Examples: >
:let alist = add([1, 2, 3], item)
:call add(mylist, "woodstock")
< Note that when {expr} is a |List| it is appended as a single
item. Use |extend()| to concatenate |Lists|.
Use |insert()| to add an item at another position.
and({expr}, {expr}) *and()*
Bitwise AND on the two arguments. The arguments are converted
to a number. A List, Dict or Float argument causes an error.
Example: >
:let flag = and(bits, 0x80)
append({lnum}, {expr}) *append()*
When {expr} is a |List|: Append each item of the |List| as a
text line below line {lnum} in the current buffer.
Otherwise append {expr} as one text line below line {lnum} in
the current buffer.
{lnum} can be zero to insert a line before the first one.
Returns 1 for failure ({lnum} out of range or out of memory),
0 for success. Example: >
:let failed = append(line('$'), "# THE END")
:let failed = append(0, ["Chapter 1", "the beginning"])
<
*argc()*
argc() The result is the number of files in the argument list of the
current window. See |arglist|.
*argidx()*
argidx() The result is the current index in the argument list. 0 is
the first file. argc() - 1 is the last one. See |arglist|.
*argv()*
argv([{nr}]) The result is the {nr}th file in the argument list of the
current window. See |arglist|. "argv(0)" is the first one.
Example: >
:let i = 0
:while i < argc()
: let f = escape(fnameescape(argv(i)), '.')
: exe 'amenu Arg.' . f . ' :e ' . f . '<CR>'
: let i = i + 1
:endwhile
< Without the {nr} argument a |List| with the whole |arglist| is
returned.
asin({expr}) *asin()*
Return the arc sine of {expr} measured in radians, as a |Float|
in the range of [-pi/2, pi/2].
{expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number| in the range
[-1, 1].
Examples: >
:echo asin(0.8)
< 0.927295 >
:echo asin(-0.5)
< -0.523599
{only available when compiled with the |+float| feature}
atan({expr}) *atan()*
Return the principal value of the arc tangent of {expr}, in
the range [-pi/2, +pi/2] radians, as a |Float|.
{expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|.
Examples: >
:echo atan(100)
< 1.560797 >
:echo atan(-4.01)
< -1.326405
{only available when compiled with the |+float| feature}
atan2({expr1}, {expr2}) *atan2()*
Return the arc tangent of {expr1} / {expr2}, measured in
radians, as a |Float| in the range [-pi, pi].
{expr1} and {expr2} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|.
Examples: >
:echo atan2(-1, 1)
< -0.785398 >
:echo atan2(1, -1)
< 2.356194
{only available when compiled with the |+float| feature}
*browse()*
browse({save}, {title}, {initdir}, {default})
Put up a file requester. This only works when "has("browse")"
returns non-zero (only in some GUI versions).
The input fields are:
{save} when non-zero, select file to write
{title} title for the requester
{initdir} directory to start browsing in
{default} default file name
When the "Cancel" button is hit, something went wrong, or
browsing is not possible, an empty string is returned.
*browsedir()*
browsedir({title}, {initdir})
Put up a directory requester. This only works when
"has("browse")" returns non-zero (only in some GUI versions).
On systems where a directory browser is not supported a file
browser is used. In that case: select a file in the directory
to be used.
The input fields are:
{title} title for the requester
{initdir} directory to start browsing in
When the "Cancel" button is hit, something went wrong, or
browsing is not possible, an empty string is returned.
bufexists({expr}) *bufexists()*
The result is a Number, which is non-zero if a buffer called
{expr} exists.
If the {expr} argument is a number, buffer numbers are used.
If the {expr} argument is a string it must match a buffer name
exactly. The name can be:
- Relative to the current directory.
- A full path.
- The name of a buffer with 'buftype' set to "nofile".
- A URL name.
Unlisted buffers will be found.
Note that help files are listed by their short name in the
output of |:buffers|, but bufexists() requires using their
long name to be able to find them.
bufexists() may report a buffer exists, but to use the name
with a |:buffer| command you may need to use |expand()|. Esp
for MS-Windows 8.3 names in the form "c:\DOCUME~1"
Use "bufexists(0)" to test for the existence of an alternate
file name.
*buffer_exists()*
Obsolete name: buffer_exists().
buflisted({expr}) *buflisted()*
The result is a Number, which is non-zero if a buffer called
{expr} exists and is listed (has the 'buflisted' option set).
The {expr} argument is used like with |bufexists()|.
bufloaded({expr}) *bufloaded()*
The result is a Number, which is non-zero if a buffer called
{expr} exists and is loaded (shown in a window or hidden).
The {expr} argument is used like with |bufexists()|.
bufname({expr}) *bufname()*
The result is the name of a buffer, as it is displayed by the
":ls" command.
If {expr} is a Number, that buffer number's name is given.
Number zero is the alternate buffer for the current window.
If {expr} is a String, it is used as a |file-pattern| to match
with the buffer names. This is always done like 'magic' is
set and 'cpoptions' is empty. When there is more than one
match an empty string is returned.
"" or "%" can be used for the current buffer, "#" for the
alternate buffer.
A full match is preferred, otherwise a match at the start, end
or middle of the buffer name is accepted. If you only want a
full match then put "^" at the start and "$" at the end of the
pattern.
Listed buffers are found first. If there is a single match
with a listed buffer, that one is returned. Next unlisted
buffers are searched for.
If the {expr} is a String, but you want to use it as a buffer
number, force it to be a Number by adding zero to it: >
:echo bufname("3" + 0)
< If the buffer doesn't exist, or doesn't have a name, an empty
string is returned. >
bufname("#") alternate buffer name
bufname(3) name of buffer 3
bufname("%") name of current buffer
bufname("file2") name of buffer where "file2" matches.
< *buffer_name()*
Obsolete name: buffer_name().
*bufnr()*
bufnr({expr} [, {create}])
The result is the number of a buffer, as it is displayed by
the ":ls" command. For the use of {expr}, see |bufname()|
above.
If the buffer doesn't exist, -1 is returned. Or, if the
{create} argument is present and not zero, a new, unlisted,
buffer is created and its number is returned.
bufnr("$") is the last buffer: >
:let last_buffer = bufnr("$")
< The result is a Number, which is the highest buffer number
of existing buffers. Note that not all buffers with a smaller
number necessarily exist, because ":bwipeout" may have removed
them. Use bufexists() to test for the existence of a buffer.
*buffer_number()*
Obsolete name: buffer_number().
*last_buffer_nr()*
Obsolete name for bufnr("$"): last_buffer_nr().
bufwinnr({expr}) *bufwinnr()*
The result is a Number, which is the number of the first
window associated with buffer {expr}. For the use of {expr},
see |bufname()| above. If buffer {expr} doesn't exist or
there is no such window, -1 is returned. Example: >
echo "A window containing buffer 1 is " . (bufwinnr(1))
< The number can be used with |CTRL-W_w| and ":wincmd w"
|:wincmd|.
Only deals with the current tab page.
byte2line({byte}) *byte2line()*
Return the line number that contains the character at byte
count {byte} in the current buffer. This includes the
end-of-line character, depending on the 'fileformat' option
for the current buffer. The first character has byte count
one.
Also see |line2byte()|, |go| and |:goto|.
{not available when compiled without the |+byte_offset|
feature}
byteidx({expr}, {nr}) *byteidx()*
Return byte index of the {nr}'th character in the string
{expr}. Use zero for the first character, it returns zero.
This function is only useful when there are multibyte
characters, otherwise the returned value is equal to {nr}.
Composing characters are counted as a separate character.
Example : >
echo matchstr(str, ".", byteidx(str, 3))
< will display the fourth character. Another way to do the
same: >
let s = strpart(str, byteidx(str, 3))
echo strpart(s, 0, byteidx(s, 1))
< If there are less than {nr} characters -1 is returned.
If there are exactly {nr} characters the length of the string
is returned.
call({func}, {arglist} [, {dict}]) *call()* *E699*
Call function {func} with the items in |List| {arglist} as
arguments.
{func} can either be a |Funcref| or the name of a function.
a:firstline and a:lastline are set to the cursor line.
Returns the return value of the called function.
{dict} is for functions with the "dict" attribute. It will be
used to set the local variable "self". |Dictionary-function|
ceil({expr}) *ceil()*
Return the smallest integral value greater than or equal to
{expr} as a |Float| (round up).
{expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|.
Examples: >
echo ceil(1.456)
< 2.0 >
echo ceil(-5.456)
< -5.0 >
echo ceil(4.0)
< 4.0
{only available when compiled with the |+float| feature}
changenr() *changenr()*
Return the number of the most recent change. This is the same
number as what is displayed with |:undolist| and can be used
with the |:undo| command.
When a change was made it is the number of that change. After
redo it is the number of the redone change. After undo it is
one less than the number of the undone change.
char2nr({expr}) *char2nr()*
Return number value of the first char in {expr}. Examples: >
char2nr(" ") returns 32
char2nr("ABC") returns 65
< The current 'encoding' is used. Example for "utf-8": >
char2nr("á") returns 225
char2nr("á"[0]) returns 195
< A combining character is a separate character.
|nr2char()| does the opposite.
cindent({lnum}) *cindent()*
Get the amount of indent for line {lnum} according the C
indenting rules, as with 'cindent'.
The indent is counted in spaces, the value of 'tabstop' is
relevant. {lnum} is used just like in |getline()|.
When {lnum} is invalid or Vim was not compiled the |+cindent|
feature, -1 is returned.
See |C-indenting|.
clearmatches() *clearmatches()*
Clears all matches previously defined by |matchadd()| and the
|:match| commands.
*col()*
col({expr}) The result is a Number, which is the byte index of the column
position given with {expr}. The accepted positions are:
. the cursor position
$ the end of the cursor line (the result is the
number of bytes in the cursor line plus one)
'x position of mark x (if the mark is not set, 0 is
returned)
Additionally {expr} can be [lnum, col]: a |List| with the line
and column number. Most useful when the column is "$", to get
the last column of a specific line. When "lnum" or "col" is
out of range then col() returns zero.
To get the line number use |line()|. To get both use
|getpos()|.
For the screen column position use |virtcol()|.
Note that only marks in the current file can be used.
Examples: >
col(".") column of cursor
col("$") length of cursor line plus one
col("'t") column of mark t
col("'" . markname) column of mark markname
< The first column is 1. 0 is returned for an error.
For an uppercase mark the column may actually be in another
buffer.
For the cursor position, when 'virtualedit' is active, the
column is one higher if the cursor is after the end of the
line. This can be used to obtain the column in Insert mode: >
:imap <F2> <C-O>:let save_ve = &ve<CR>
\<C-O>:set ve=all<CR>
\<C-O>:echo col(".") . "\n" <Bar>
\let &ve = save_ve<CR>
<
complete({startcol}, {matches}) *complete()* *E785*
Set the matches for Insert mode completion.
Can only be used in Insert mode. You need to use a mapping
with CTRL-R = |i_CTRL-R|. It does not work after CTRL-O or
with an expression mapping.
{startcol} is the byte offset in the line where the completed
text start. The text up to the cursor is the original text
that will be replaced by the matches. Use col('.') for an
empty string. "col('.') - 1" will replace one character by a
match.
{matches} must be a |List|. Each |List| item is one match.
See |complete-items| for the kind of items that are possible.
Note that the after calling this function you need to avoid
inserting anything that would cause completion to stop.
The match can be selected with CTRL-N and CTRL-P as usual with
Insert mode completion. The popup menu will appear if
specified, see |ins-completion-menu|.
Example: >
inoremap <F5> <C-R>=ListMonths()<CR>
func! ListMonths()
call complete(col('.'), ['January', 'February', 'March',
\ 'April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'August', 'September',
\ 'October', 'November', 'December'])
return ''
endfunc
< This isn't very useful, but it shows how it works. Note that
an empty string is returned to avoid a zero being inserted.
complete_add({expr}) *complete_add()*
Add {expr} to the list of matches. Only to be used by the
function specified with the 'completefunc' option.
Returns 0 for failure (empty string or out of memory),
1 when the match was added, 2 when the match was already in
the list.
See |complete-functions| for an explanation of {expr}. It is
the same as one item in the list that 'omnifunc' would return.
complete_check() *complete_check()*
Check for a key typed while looking for completion matches.
This is to be used when looking for matches takes some time.
Returns non-zero when searching for matches is to be aborted,
zero otherwise.
Only to be used by the function specified with the
'completefunc' option.
*confirm()*
confirm({msg} [, {choices} [, {default} [, {type}]]])
Confirm() offers the user a dialog, from which a choice can be
made. It returns the number of the choice. For the first
choice this is 1.
Note: confirm() is only supported when compiled with dialog
support, see |+dialog_con| and |+dialog_gui|.
{msg} is displayed in a |dialog| with {choices} as the
alternatives. When {choices} is missing or empty, "&OK" is
used (and translated).
{msg} is a String, use '\n' to include a newline. Only on
some systems the string is wrapped when it doesn't fit.
{choices} is a String, with the individual choices separated
by '\n', e.g. >
confirm("Save changes?", "&Yes\n&No\n&Cancel")
< The letter after the '&' is the shortcut key for that choice.
Thus you can type 'c' to select "Cancel". The shortcut does
not need to be the first letter: >
confirm("file has been modified", "&Save\nSave &All")
< For the console, the first letter of each choice is used as
the default shortcut key.
The optional {default} argument is the number of the choice
that is made if the user hits <CR>. Use 1 to make the first
choice the default one. Use 0 to not set a default. If
{default} is omitted, 1 is used.
The optional {type} argument gives the type of dialog. This
is only used for the icon of the GTK, Mac, Motif and Win32
GUI. It can be one of these values: "Error", "Question",
"Info", "Warning" or "Generic". Only the first character is
relevant. When {type} is omitted, "Generic" is used.
If the user aborts the dialog by pressing <Esc>, CTRL-C,
or another valid interrupt key, confirm() returns 0.
An example: >
:let choice = confirm("What do you want?", "&Apples\n&Oranges\n&Bananas", 2)
:if choice == 0
: echo "make up your mind!"
:elseif choice == 3
: echo "tasteful"
:else
: echo "I prefer bananas myself."
:endif
< In a GUI dialog, buttons are used. The layout of the buttons
depends on the 'v' flag in 'guioptions'. If it is included,
the buttons are always put vertically. Otherwise, confirm()
tries to put the buttons in one horizontal line. If they
don't fit, a vertical layout is used anyway. For some systems
the horizontal layout is always used.
*copy()*
copy({expr}) Make a copy of {expr}. For Numbers and Strings this isn't
different from using {expr} directly.
When {expr} is a |List| a shallow copy is created. This means
that the original |List| can be changed without changing the
copy, and vice versa. But the items are identical, thus
changing an item changes the contents of both |Lists|. Also
see |deepcopy()|.
cos({expr}) *cos()*
Return the cosine of {expr}, measured in radians, as a |Float|.
{expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|.
Examples: >
:echo cos(100)
< 0.862319 >
:echo cos(-4.01)
< -0.646043
{only available when compiled with the |+float| feature}
cosh({expr}) *cosh()*
Return the hyperbolic cosine of {expr} as a |Float| in the range
[1, inf].
{expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|.
Examples: >
:echo cosh(0.5)
< 1.127626 >
:echo cosh(-0.5)
< -1.127626
{only available when compiled with the |+float| feature}
count({comp}, {expr} [, {ic} [, {start}]]) *count()*
Return the number of times an item with value {expr} appears
in |List| or |Dictionary| {comp}.
If {start} is given then start with the item with this index.
{start} can only be used with a |List|.
When {ic} is given and it's non-zero then case is ignored.
*cscope_connection()*
cscope_connection([{num} , {dbpath} [, {prepend}]])
Checks for the existence of a |cscope| connection. If no
parameters are specified, then the function returns:
0, if cscope was not available (not compiled in), or
if there are no cscope connections;
1, if there is at least one cscope connection.
If parameters are specified, then the value of {num}
determines how existence of a cscope connection is checked:
{num} Description of existence check
----- ------------------------------
0 Same as no parameters (e.g., "cscope_connection()").
1 Ignore {prepend}, and use partial string matches for
{dbpath}.
2 Ignore {prepend}, and use exact string matches for
{dbpath}.
3 Use {prepend}, use partial string matches for both
{dbpath} and {prepend}.
4 Use {prepend}, use exact string matches for both
{dbpath} and {prepend}.
Note: All string comparisons are case sensitive!
Examples. Suppose we had the following (from ":cs show"): >
# pid database name prepend path
0 27664 cscope.out /usr/local
<
Invocation Return Val ~
---------- ---------- >
cscope_connection() 1
cscope_connection(1, "out") 1
cscope_connection(2, "out") 0
cscope_connection(3, "out") 0
cscope_connection(3, "out", "local") 1
cscope_connection(4, "out") 0
cscope_connection(4, "out", "local") 0
cscope_connection(4, "cscope.out", "/usr/local") 1
<
cursor({lnum}, {col} [, {off}]) *cursor()*
cursor({list})
Positions the cursor at the column (byte count) {col} in the
line {lnum}. The first column is one.
When there is one argument {list} this is used as a |List|
with two or three items {lnum}, {col} and {off}. This is like
the return value of |getpos()|, but without the first item.
Does not change the jumplist.
If {lnum} is greater than the number of lines in the buffer,
the cursor will be positioned at the last line in the buffer.
If {lnum} is zero, the cursor will stay in the current line.
If {col} is greater than the number of bytes in the line,
the cursor will be positioned at the last character in the
line.
If {col} is zero, the cursor will stay in the current column.
When 'virtualedit' is used {off} specifies the offset in
screen columns from the start of the character. E.g., a
position within a <Tab> or after the last character.
Returns 0 when the position could be set, -1 otherwise.
deepcopy({expr}[, {noref}]) *deepcopy()* *E698*
Make a copy of {expr}. For Numbers and Strings this isn't
different from using {expr} directly.
When {expr} is a |List| a full copy is created. This means
that the original |List| can be changed without changing the
copy, and vice versa. When an item is a |List|, a copy for it
is made, recursively. Thus changing an item in the copy does
not change the contents of the original |List|.
When {noref} is omitted or zero a contained |List| or
|Dictionary| is only copied once. All references point to
this single copy. With {noref} set to 1 every occurrence of a
|List| or |Dictionary| results in a new copy. This also means
that a cyclic reference causes deepcopy() to fail.
*E724*
Nesting is possible up to 100 levels. When there is an item
that refers back to a higher level making a deep copy with
{noref} set to 1 will fail.
Also see |copy()|.
delete({fname}) *delete()*
Deletes the file by the name {fname}. The result is a Number,
which is 0 if the file was deleted successfully, and non-zero
when the deletion failed.
Use |remove()| to delete an item from a |List|.
*did_filetype()*
did_filetype() Returns non-zero when autocommands are being executed and the
FileType event has been triggered at least once. Can be used
to avoid triggering the FileType event again in the scripts
that detect the file type. |FileType|
When editing another file, the counter is reset, thus this
really checks if the FileType event has been triggered for the
current buffer. This allows an autocommand that starts
editing another buffer to set 'filetype' and load a syntax
file.
diff_filler({lnum}) *diff_filler()*
Returns the number of filler lines above line {lnum}.
These are the lines that were inserted at this point in
another diff'ed window. These filler lines are shown in the
display but don't exist in the buffer.
{lnum} is used like with |getline()|. Thus "." is the current
line, "'m" mark m, etc.
Returns 0 if the current window is not in diff mode.
diff_hlID({lnum}, {col}) *diff_hlID()*
Returns the highlight ID for diff mode at line {lnum} column
{col} (byte index). When the current line does not have a
diff change zero is returned.
{lnum} is used like with |getline()|. Thus "." is the current
line, "'m" mark m, etc.
{col} is 1 for the leftmost column, {lnum} is 1 for the first
line.
The highlight ID can be used with |synIDattr()| to obtain
syntax information about the highlighting.
empty({expr}) *empty()*
Return the Number 1 if {expr} is empty, zero otherwise.
A |List| or |Dictionary| is empty when it does not have any
items. A Number is empty when its value is zero.
For a long |List| this is much faster than comparing the
length with zero.
escape({string}, {chars}) *escape()*
Escape the characters in {chars} that occur in {string} with a
backslash. Example: >
:echo escape('c:\program files\vim', ' \')
< results in: >
c:\\program\ files\\vim
< Also see |shellescape()|.
*eval()*
eval({string}) Evaluate {string} and return the result. Especially useful to
turn the result of |string()| back into the original value.
This works for Numbers, Floats, Strings and composites of
them. Also works for |Funcref|s that refer to existing
functions.
eventhandler() *eventhandler()*
Returns 1 when inside an event handler. That is that Vim got
interrupted while waiting for the user to type a character,
e.g., when dropping a file on Vim. This means interactive
commands cannot be used. Otherwise zero is returned.
executable({expr}) *executable()*
This function checks if an executable with the name {expr}
exists. {expr} must be the name of the program without any
arguments.
executable() uses the value of $PATH and/or the normal
searchpath for programs. *PATHEXT*
On MS-DOS and MS-Windows the ".exe", ".bat", etc. can
optionally be included. Then the extensions in $PATHEXT are
tried. Thus if "foo.exe" does not exist, "foo.exe.bat" can be
found. If $PATHEXT is not set then ".exe;.com;.bat;.cmd" is
used. A dot by itself can be used in $PATHEXT to try using
the name without an extension. When 'shell' looks like a
Unix shell, then the name is also tried without adding an
extension.
On MS-DOS and MS-Windows it only checks if the file exists and
is not a directory, not if it's really executable.
On MS-Windows an executable in the same directory as Vim is
always found. Since this directory is added to $PATH it
should also work to execute it |win32-PATH|.
The result is a Number:
1 exists
0 does not exist
-1 not implemented on this system
*exists()*
exists({expr}) The result is a Number, which is non-zero if {expr} is
defined, zero otherwise. The {expr} argument is a string,
which contains one of these:
&option-name Vim option (only checks if it exists,
not if it really works)
+option-name Vim option that works.
$ENVNAME environment variable (could also be
done by comparing with an empty
string)
*funcname built-in function (see |functions|)
or user defined function (see
|user-functions|).
varname internal variable (see
|internal-variables|). Also works
for |curly-braces-names|, |Dictionary|
entries, |List| items, etc. Beware
that evaluating an index may cause an
error message for an invalid
expression. E.g.: >
:let l = [1, 2, 3]
:echo exists("l[5]")
< 0 >
:echo exists("l[xx]")
< E121: Undefined variable: xx
0
:cmdname Ex command: built-in command, user
command or command modifier |:command|.
Returns:
1 for match with start of a command
2 full match with a command
3 matches several user commands
To check for a supported command
always check the return value to be 2.
:2match The |:2match| command.
:3match The |:3match| command.
#event autocommand defined for this event
#event#pattern autocommand defined for this event and
pattern (the pattern is taken
literally and compared to the
autocommand patterns character by
character)
#group autocommand group exists
#group#event autocommand defined for this group and
event.
#group#event#pattern
autocommand defined for this group,
event and pattern.
##event autocommand for this event is
supported.
For checking for a supported feature use |has()|.
Examples: >
exists("&shortname")
exists("$HOSTNAME")
exists("*strftime")
exists("*s:MyFunc")
exists("bufcount")
exists(":Make")
exists("#CursorHold")
exists("#BufReadPre#*.gz")
exists("#filetypeindent")
exists("#filetypeindent#FileType")
exists("#filetypeindent#FileType#*")
exists("##ColorScheme")
< There must be no space between the symbol (&/$/*/#) and the
name.
There must be no extra characters after the name, although in
a few cases this is ignored. That may become more strict in
the future, thus don't count on it!
Working example: >
exists(":make")
< NOT working example: >
exists(":make install")
< Note that the argument must be a string, not the name of the
variable itself. For example: >
exists(bufcount)
< This doesn't check for existence of the "bufcount" variable,
but gets the value of "bufcount", and checks if that exists.
exp({expr}) *exp()*
Return the exponential of {expr} as a |Float| in the range
[0, inf].
{expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|.
Examples: >
:echo exp(2)
< 7.389056 >
:echo exp(-1)
< 0.367879
{only available when compiled with the |+float| feature}
expand({expr} [, {nosuf} [, {list}]]) *expand()*
Expand wildcards and the following special keywords in {expr}.
'wildignorecase' applies.
If {list} is given and it is non-zero, a List will be returned.
Otherwise the result is a String and when there are several
matches, they are separated by <NL> characters. [Note: in
version 5.0 a space was used, which caused problems when a
file name contains a space]
If the expansion fails, the result is an empty string. A name
for a non-existing file is not included.
When {expr} starts with '%', '#' or '<', the expansion is done
like for the |cmdline-special| variables with their associated
modifiers. Here is a short overview:
% current file name
# alternate file name
#n alternate file name n
<cfile> file name under the cursor
<afile> autocmd file name
<abuf> autocmd buffer number (as a String!)
<amatch> autocmd matched name
<sfile> sourced script file name
<slnum> sourced script file line number
<cword> word under the cursor
<cWORD> WORD under the cursor
<client> the {clientid} of the last received
message |server2client()|
Modifiers:
:p expand to full path
:h head (last path component removed)
:t tail (last path component only)
:r root (one extension removed)
:e extension only
Example: >
:let &tags = expand("%:p:h") . "/tags"
< Note that when expanding a string that starts with '%', '#' or
'<', any following text is ignored. This does NOT work: >
:let doesntwork = expand("%:h.bak")
< Use this: >
:let doeswork = expand("%:h") . ".bak"
< Also note that expanding "<cfile>" and others only returns the
referenced file name without further expansion. If "<cfile>"
is "~/.cshrc", you need to do another expand() to have the
"~/" expanded into the path of the home directory: >
:echo expand(expand("<cfile>"))
<
There cannot be white space between the variables and the
following modifier. The |fnamemodify()| function can be used
to modify normal file names.
When using '%' or '#', and the current or alternate file name
is not defined, an empty string is used. Using "%:p" in a
buffer with no name, results in the current directory, with a
'/' added.
When {expr} does not start with '%', '#' or '<', it is
expanded like a file name is expanded on the command line.
'suffixes' and 'wildignore' are used, unless the optional
{nosuf} argument is given and it is non-zero.
Names for non-existing files are included. The "**" item can
be used to search in a directory tree. For example, to find
all "README" files in the current directory and below: >
:echo expand("**/README")
<
Expand() can also be used to expand variables and environment
variables that are only known in a shell. But this can be
slow, because a shell must be started. See |expr-env-expand|.
The expanded variable is still handled like a list of file
names. When an environment variable cannot be expanded, it is
left unchanged. Thus ":echo expand('$FOOBAR')" results in
"$FOOBAR".
See |glob()| for finding existing files. See |system()| for
getting the raw output of an external command.
extend({expr1}, {expr2} [, {expr3}]) *extend()*
{expr1} and {expr2} must be both |Lists| or both
|Dictionaries|.
If they are |Lists|: Append {expr2} to {expr1}.
If {expr3} is given insert the items of {expr2} before item
{expr3} in {expr1}. When {expr3} is zero insert before the
first item. When {expr3} is equal to len({expr1}) then
{expr2} is appended.
Examples: >
:echo sort(extend(mylist, [7, 5]))
:call extend(mylist, [2, 3], 1)
< When {expr1} is the same List as {expr2} then the number of
items copied is equal to the original length of the List.
E.g., when {expr3} is 1 you get N new copies of the first item
(where N is the original length of the List).
Use |add()| to concatenate one item to a list. To concatenate
two lists into a new list use the + operator: >
:let newlist = [1, 2, 3] + [4, 5]
<
If they are |Dictionaries|:
Add all entries from {expr2} to {expr1}.
If a key exists in both {expr1} and {expr2} then {expr3} is
used to decide what to do:
{expr3} = "keep": keep the value of {expr1}
{expr3} = "force": use the value of {expr2}
{expr3} = "error": give an error message *E737*
When {expr3} is omitted then "force" is assumed.
{expr1} is changed when {expr2} is not empty. If necessary
make a copy of {expr1} first.
{expr2} remains unchanged.
Returns {expr1}.
feedkeys({string} [, {mode}]) *feedkeys()*
Characters in {string} are queued for processing as if they
come from a mapping or were typed by the user. They are added
to the end of the typeahead buffer, thus if a mapping is still
being executed these characters come after them.
The function does not wait for processing of keys contained in
{string}.
To include special keys into {string}, use double-quotes
and "\..." notation |expr-quote|. For example,
feedkeys("\<CR>") simulates pressing of the <Enter> key. But
feedkeys('\<CR>') pushes 5 characters.
If {mode} is absent, keys are remapped.
{mode} is a String, which can contain these character flags:
'm' Remap keys. This is default.
'n' Do not remap keys.
't' Handle keys as if typed; otherwise they are handled as
if coming from a mapping. This matters for undo,
opening folds, etc.
Return value is always 0.
filereadable({file}) *filereadable()*
The result is a Number, which is TRUE when a file with the
name {file} exists, and can be read. If {file} doesn't exist,
or is a directory, the result is FALSE. {file} is any
expression, which is used as a String.
If you don't care about the file being readable you can use
|glob()|.
*file_readable()*
Obsolete name: file_readable().
filewritable({file}) *filewritable()*
The result is a Number, which is 1 when a file with the
name {file} exists, and can be written. If {file} doesn't
exist, or is not writable, the result is 0. If {file} is a
directory, and we can write to it, the result is 2.
filter({expr}, {string}) *filter()*
{expr} must be a |List| or a |Dictionary|.
For each item in {expr} evaluate {string} and when the result
is zero remove the item from the |List| or |Dictionary|.
Inside {string} |v:val| has the value of the current item.
For a |Dictionary| |v:key| has the key of the current item.
Examples: >
:call filter(mylist, 'v:val !~ "OLD"')
< Removes the items where "OLD" appears. >
:call filter(mydict, 'v:key >= 8')
< Removes the items with a key below 8. >
:call filter(var, 0)
< Removes all the items, thus clears the |List| or |Dictionary|.
Note that {string} is the result of expression and is then
used as an expression again. Often it is good to use a
|literal-string| to avoid having to double backslashes.
The operation is done in-place. If you want a |List| or
|Dictionary| to remain unmodified make a copy first: >
:let l = filter(copy(mylist), 'v:val =~ "KEEP"')
< Returns {expr}, the |List| or |Dictionary| that was filtered.
When an error is encountered while evaluating {string} no
further items in {expr} are processed.
finddir({name}[, {path}[, {count}]]) *finddir()*
Find directory {name} in {path}. Supports both downwards and
upwards recursive directory searches. See |file-searching|
for the syntax of {path}.
Returns the path of the first found match. When the found
directory is below the current directory a relative path is
returned. Otherwise a full path is returned.
If {path} is omitted or empty then 'path' is used.
If the optional {count} is given, find {count}'s occurrence of
{name} in {path} instead of the first one.
When {count} is negative return all the matches in a |List|.
This is quite similar to the ex-command |:find|.
{only available when compiled with the |+file_in_path|
feature}
findfile({name}[, {path}[, {count}]]) *findfile()*
Just like |finddir()|, but find a file instead of a directory.
Uses 'suffixesadd'.
Example: >
:echo findfile("tags.vim", ".;")
< Searches from the directory of the current file upwards until
it finds the file "tags.vim".
float2nr({expr}) *float2nr()*
Convert {expr} to a Number by omitting the part after the
decimal point.
{expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a Number.
When the value of {expr} is out of range for a |Number| the
result is truncated to 0x7fffffff or -0x7fffffff. NaN results
in -0x80000000.
Examples: >
echo float2nr(3.95)
< 3 >
echo float2nr(-23.45)
< -23 >
echo float2nr(1.0e100)
< 2147483647 >
echo float2nr(-1.0e150)
< -2147483647 >
echo float2nr(1.0e-100)
< 0
{only available when compiled with the |+float| feature}
floor({expr}) *floor()*
Return the largest integral value less than or equal to
{expr} as a |Float| (round down).
{expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|.
Examples: >
echo floor(1.856)
< 1.0 >
echo floor(-5.456)
< -6.0 >
echo floor(4.0)
< 4.0
{only available when compiled with the |+float| feature}
fmod({expr1}, {expr2}) *fmod()*
Return the remainder of {expr1} / {expr2}, even if the
division is not representable. Returns {expr1} - i * {expr2}
for some integer i such that if {expr2} is non-zero, the
result has the same sign as {expr1} and magnitude less than
the magnitude of {expr2}. If {expr2} is zero, the value
returned is zero. The value returned is a |Float|.
{expr1} and {expr2} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|.
Examples: >
:echo fmod(12.33, 1.22)
< 0.13 >
:echo fmod(-12.33, 1.22)
< -0.13
{only available when compiled with |+float| feature}
fnameescape({string}) *fnameescape()*
Escape {string} for use as file name command argument. All
characters that have a special meaning, such as '%' and '|'
are escaped with a backslash.
For most systems the characters escaped are
" \t\n*?[{`$\\%#'\"|!<". For systems where a backslash
appears in a filename, it depends on the value of 'isfname'.
A leading '+' and '>' is also escaped (special after |:edit|
and |:write|). And a "-" by itself (special after |:cd|).
Example: >
:let fname = '+some str%nge|name'
:exe "edit " . fnameescape(fname)
< results in executing: >
edit \+some\ str\%nge\|name
fnamemodify({fname}, {mods}) *fnamemodify()*
Modify file name {fname} according to {mods}. {mods} is a
string of characters like it is used for file names on the
command line. See |filename-modifiers|.
Example: >
:echo fnamemodify("main.c", ":p:h")
< results in: >
/home/mool/vim/vim/src
< Note: Environment variables don't work in {fname}, use
|expand()| first then.
foldclosed({lnum}) *foldclosed()*
The result is a Number. If the line {lnum} is in a closed
fold, the result is the number of the first line in that fold.
If the line {lnum} is not in a closed fold, -1 is returned.
foldclosedend({lnum}) *foldclosedend()*
The result is a Number. If the line {lnum} is in a closed
fold, the result is the number of the last line in that fold.
If the line {lnum} is not in a closed fold, -1 is returned.
foldlevel({lnum}) *foldlevel()*
The result is a Number, which is the foldlevel of line {lnum}
in the current buffer. For nested folds the deepest level is
returned. If there is no fold at line {lnum}, zero is
returned. It doesn't matter if the folds are open or closed.
When used while updating folds (from 'foldexpr') -1 is
returned for lines where folds are still to be updated and the
foldlevel is unknown. As a special case the level of the
previous line is usually available.
*foldtext()*
foldtext() Returns a String, to be displayed for a closed fold. This is
the default function used for the 'foldtext' option and should
only be called from evaluating 'foldtext'. It uses the
|v:foldstart|, |v:foldend| and |v:folddashes| variables.
The returned string looks like this: >
+-- 45 lines: abcdef
< The number of dashes depends on the foldlevel. The "45" is
the number of lines in the fold. "abcdef" is the text in the
first non-blank line of the fold. Leading white space, "//"
or "/*" and the text from the 'foldmarker' and 'commentstring'
options is removed.
{not available when compiled without the |+folding| feature}
foldtextresult({lnum}) *foldtextresult()*
Returns the text that is displayed for the closed fold at line
{lnum}. Evaluates 'foldtext' in the appropriate context.
When there is no closed fold at {lnum} an empty string is
returned.
{lnum} is used like with |getline()|. Thus "." is the current
line, "'m" mark m, etc.
Useful when exporting folded text, e.g., to HTML.
{not available when compiled without the |+folding| feature}
*foreground()*
foreground() Move the Vim window to the foreground. Useful when sent from
a client to a Vim server. |remote_send()|
On Win32 systems this might not work, the OS does not always
allow a window to bring itself to the foreground. Use
|remote_foreground()| instead.
{only in the Win32, Athena, Motif and GTK GUI versions and the
Win32 console version}
function({name}) *function()* *E700*
Return a |Funcref| variable that refers to function {name}.
{name} can be a user defined function or an internal function.
garbagecollect([{atexit}]) *garbagecollect()*
Cleanup unused |Lists| and |Dictionaries| that have circular
references. There is hardly ever a need to invoke this
function, as it is automatically done when Vim runs out of
memory or is waiting for the user to press a key after
'updatetime'. Items without circular references are always
freed when they become unused.
This is useful if you have deleted a very big |List| and/or
|Dictionary| with circular references in a script that runs
for a long time.
When the optional {atexit} argument is one, garbage
collection will also be done when exiting Vim, if it wasn't
done before. This is useful when checking for memory leaks.
get({list}, {idx} [, {default}]) *get()*
Get item {idx} from |List| {list}. When this item is not
available return {default}. Return zero when {default} is
omitted.
get({dict}, {key} [, {default}])
Get item with key {key} from |Dictionary| {dict}. When this
item is not available return {default}. Return zero when
{default} is omitted.
*getbufline()*
getbufline({expr}, {lnum} [, {end}])
Return a |List| with the lines starting from {lnum} to {end}
(inclusive) in the buffer {expr}. If {end} is omitted, a
|List| with only the line {lnum} is returned.
For the use of {expr}, see |bufname()| above.
For {lnum} and {end} "$" can be used for the last line of the
buffer. Otherwise a number must be used.
When {lnum} is smaller than 1 or bigger than the number of
lines in the buffer, an empty |List| is returned.
When {end} is greater than the number of lines in the buffer,
it is treated as {end} is set to the number of lines in the
buffer. When {end} is before {lnum} an empty |List| is
returned.
This function works only for loaded buffers. For unloaded and
non-existing buffers, an empty |List| is returned.
Example: >
:let lines = getbufline(bufnr("myfile"), 1, "$")
getbufvar({expr}, {varname}) *getbufvar()*
The result is the value of option or local buffer variable
{varname} in buffer {expr}. Note that the name without "b:"
must be used.
When {varname} is empty returns a dictionary with all the
buffer-local variables.
This also works for a global or buffer-local option, but it
doesn't work for a global variable, window-local variable or
window-local option.
For the use of {expr}, see |bufname()| above.
When the buffer or variable doesn't exist an empty string is
returned, there is no error message.
Examples: >
:let bufmodified = getbufvar(1, "&mod")
:echo "todo myvar = " . getbufvar("todo", "myvar")
<
getchar([expr]) *getchar()*
Get a single character from the user or input stream.
If [expr] is omitted, wait until a character is available.
If [expr] is 0, only get a character when one is available.
Return zero otherwise.
If [expr] is 1, only check if a character is available, it is
not consumed. Return zero if no character available.
Without {expr} and when {expr} is 0 a whole character or
special key is returned. If it is an 8-bit character, the
result is a number. Use nr2char() to convert it to a String.
Otherwise a String is returned with the encoded character.
For a special key it's a sequence of bytes starting with 0x80
(decimal: 128). This is the same value as the string
"\<Key>", e.g., "\<Left>". The returned value is also a
String when a modifier (shift, control, alt) was used that is
not included in the character.
When {expr} is 1 only the first byte is returned. For a
one-byte character it is the character itself as a number.
Use nr2char() to convert it to a String.
Use getcharmod() to obtain any additional modifiers.
When the user clicks a mouse button, the mouse event will be
returned. The position can then be found in |v:mouse_col|,
|v:mouse_lnum| and |v:mouse_win|. This example positions the
mouse as it would normally happen: >
let c = getchar()
if c == "\<LeftMouse>" && v:mouse_win > 0
exe v:mouse_win . "wincmd w"
exe v:mouse_lnum
exe "normal " . v:mouse_col . "|"
endif
<
There is no prompt, you will somehow have to make clear to the
user that a character has to be typed.
There is no mapping for the character.
Key codes are replaced, thus when the user presses the <Del>
key you get the code for the <Del> key, not the raw character
sequence. Examples: >
getchar() == "\<Del>"
getchar() == "\<S-Left>"
< This example redefines "f" to ignore case: >
:nmap f :call FindChar()<CR>
:function FindChar()
: let c = nr2char(getchar())
: while col('.') < col('$') - 1
: normal l
: if getline('.')[col('.') - 1] ==? c
: break
: endif
: endwhile
:endfunction
getcharmod() *getcharmod()*
The result is a Number which is the state of the modifiers for
the last obtained character with getchar() or in another way.
These values are added together:
2 shift
4 control
8 alt (meta)
16 meta (when it's different from ALT)
32 mouse double click
64 mouse triple click
96 mouse quadruple click (== 32 + 64)
128 command (Macintosh only)
Only the modifiers that have not been included in the
character itself are obtained. Thus Shift-a results in "A"
without a modifier.
getcmdline() *getcmdline()*
Return the current command-line. Only works when the command
line is being edited, thus requires use of |c_CTRL-\_e| or
|c_CTRL-R_=|.
Example: >
:cmap <F7> <C-\>eescape(getcmdline(), ' \')<CR>
< Also see |getcmdtype()|, |getcmdpos()| and |setcmdpos()|.
getcmdpos() *getcmdpos()*
Return the position of the cursor in the command line as a
byte count. The first column is 1.
Only works when editing the command line, thus requires use of
|c_CTRL-\_e| or |c_CTRL-R_=| or an expression mapping.
Returns 0 otherwise.
Also see |getcmdtype()|, |setcmdpos()| and |getcmdline()|.
getcmdtype() *getcmdtype()*
Return the current command-line type. Possible return values
are:
: normal Ex command
> debug mode command |debug-mode|
/ forward search command
? backward search command
@ |input()| command
- |:insert| or |:append| command
Only works when editing the command line, thus requires use of
|c_CTRL-\_e| or |c_CTRL-R_=| or an expression mapping.
Returns an empty string otherwise.
Also see |getcmdpos()|, |setcmdpos()| and |getcmdline()|.
*getcwd()*
getcwd() The result is a String, which is the name of the current
working directory.
getfsize({fname}) *getfsize()*
The result is a Number, which is the size in bytes of the
given file {fname}.
If {fname} is a directory, 0 is returned.
If the file {fname} can't be found, -1 is returned.
If the size of {fname} is too big to fit in a Number then -2
is returned.
getfontname([{name}]) *getfontname()*
Without an argument returns the name of the normal font being
used. Like what is used for the Normal highlight group
|hl-Normal|.
With an argument a check is done whether {name} is a valid
font name. If not then an empty string is returned.
Otherwise the actual font name is returned, or {name} if the
GUI does not support obtaining the real name.
Only works when the GUI is running, thus not in your vimrc or
gvimrc file. Use the |GUIEnter| autocommand to use this
function just after the GUI has started.
Note that the GTK 2 GUI accepts any font name, thus checking
for a valid name does not work.
getfperm({fname}) *getfperm()*
The result is a String, which is the read, write, and execute
permissions of the given file {fname}.
If {fname} does not exist or its directory cannot be read, an
empty string is returned.
The result is of the form "rwxrwxrwx", where each group of
"rwx" flags represent, in turn, the permissions of the owner
of the file, the group the file belongs to, and other users.
If a user does not have a given permission the flag for this
is replaced with the string "-". Examples: >
:echo getfperm("/etc/passwd")
:echo getfperm(expand("~/.vimrc"))
< This will hopefully (from a security point of view) display
the string "rw-r--r--" or even "rw-------".
getftime({fname}) *getftime()*
The result is a Number, which is the last modification time of
the given file {fname}. The value is measured as seconds
since 1st Jan 1970, and may be passed to strftime(). See also
|localtime()| and |strftime()|.
If the file {fname} can't be found -1 is returned.
getftype({fname}) *getftype()*
The result is a String, which is a description of the kind of
file of the given file {fname}.
If {fname} does not exist an empty string is returned.
Here is a table over different kinds of files and their
results:
Normal file "file"
Directory "dir"
Symbolic link "link"
Block device "bdev"
Character device "cdev"
Socket "socket"
FIFO "fifo"
All other "other"
Example: >
getftype("/home")
< Note that a type such as "link" will only be returned on
systems that support it. On some systems only "dir" and
"file" are returned.
*getline()*
getline({lnum} [, {end}])
Without {end} the result is a String, which is line {lnum}
from the current buffer. Example: >
getline(1)
< When {lnum} is a String that doesn't start with a
digit, line() is called to translate the String into a Number.
To get the line under the cursor: >
getline(".")
< When {lnum} is smaller than 1 or bigger than the number of
lines in the buffer, an empty string is returned.
When {end} is given the result is a |List| where each item is
a line from the current buffer in the range {lnum} to {end},
including line {end}.
{end} is used in the same way as {lnum}.
Non-existing lines are silently omitted.
When {end} is before {lnum} an empty |List| is returned.
Example: >
:let start = line('.')
:let end = search("^$") - 1
:let lines = getline(start, end)
< To get lines from another buffer see |getbufline()|
getloclist({nr}) *getloclist()*
Returns a list with all the entries in the location list for
window {nr}. When {nr} is zero the current window is used.
For a location list window, the displayed location list is
returned. For an invalid window number {nr}, an empty list is
returned. Otherwise, same as |getqflist()|.
getmatches() *getmatches()*
Returns a |List| with all matches previously defined by
|matchadd()| and the |:match| commands. |getmatches()| is
useful in combination with |setmatches()|, as |setmatches()|
can restore a list of matches saved by |getmatches()|.
Example: >
:echo getmatches()
< [{'group': 'MyGroup1', 'pattern': 'TODO',
'priority': 10, 'id': 1}, {'group': 'MyGroup2',
'pattern': 'FIXME', 'priority': 10, 'id': 2}] >
:let m = getmatches()
:call clearmatches()
:echo getmatches()
< [] >
:call setmatches(m)
:echo getmatches()
< [{'group': 'MyGroup1', 'pattern': 'TODO',
'priority': 10, 'id': 1}, {'group': 'MyGroup2',
'pattern': 'FIXME', 'priority': 10, 'id': 2}] >
:unlet m
<
getqflist() *getqflist()*
Returns a list with all the current quickfix errors. Each
list item is a dictionary with these entries:
bufnr number of buffer that has the file name, use
bufname() to get the name
lnum line number in the buffer (first line is 1)
col column number (first column is 1)
vcol non-zero: "col" is visual column
zero: "col" is byte index
nr error number
pattern search pattern used to locate the error
text description of the error
type type of the error, 'E', '1', etc.
valid non-zero: recognized error message
When there is no error list or it's empty an empty list is
returned. Quickfix list entries with non-existing buffer
number are returned with "bufnr" set to zero.
Useful application: Find pattern matches in multiple files and
do something with them: >
:vimgrep /theword/jg *.c
:for d in getqflist()
: echo bufname(d.bufnr) ':' d.lnum '=' d.text
:endfor
getreg([{regname} [, 1]]) *getreg()*
The result is a String, which is the contents of register
{regname}. Example: >
:let cliptext = getreg('*')
< getreg('=') returns the last evaluated value of the expression
register. (For use in maps.)
getreg('=', 1) returns the expression itself, so that it can
be restored with |setreg()|. For other registers the extra
argument is ignored, thus you can always give it.
If {regname} is not specified, |v:register| is used.
getregtype([{regname}]) *getregtype()*
The result is a String, which is type of register {regname}.
The value will be one of:
"v" for |characterwise| text
"V" for |linewise| text
"<CTRL-V>{width}" for |blockwise-visual| text
0 for an empty or unknown register
<CTRL-V> is one character with value 0x16.
If {regname} is not specified, |v:register| is used.
gettabvar({tabnr}, {varname}) *gettabvar()*
Get the value of a tab-local variable {varname} in tab page
{tabnr}. |t:var|
Tabs are numbered starting with one.
Note that the name without "t:" must be used.
gettabwinvar({tabnr}, {winnr}, {varname}) *gettabwinvar()*
Get the value of window-local variable {varname} in window
{winnr} in tab page {tabnr}.
When {varname} starts with "&" get the value of a window-local
option.
Tabs are numbered starting with one. For the current tabpage
use |getwinvar()|.
When {winnr} is zero the current window is used.
This also works for a global option, buffer-local option and
window-local option, but it doesn't work for a global variable
or buffer-local variable.
When {varname} is empty a dictionary with all window-local
variables is returned.
Note that {varname} must be the name without "w:".
Examples: >
:let list_is_on = gettabwinvar(1, 2, '&list')
:echo "myvar = " . gettabwinvar(3, 1, 'myvar')
<
*getwinposx()*
getwinposx() The result is a Number, which is the X coordinate in pixels of
the left hand side of the GUI Vim window. The result will be
-1 if the information is not available.
*getwinposy()*
getwinposy() The result is a Number, which is the Y coordinate in pixels of
the top of the GUI Vim window. The result will be -1 if the
information is not available.
getwinvar({winnr}, {varname}) *getwinvar()*
Like |gettabwinvar()| for the current tabpage.
Examples: >
:let list_is_on = getwinvar(2, '&list')
:echo "myvar = " . getwinvar(1, 'myvar')
<
glob({expr} [, {nosuf} [, {list}]]) *glob()*
Expand the file wildcards in {expr}. See |wildcards| for the
use of special characters.
Unless the optional {nosuf} argument is given and is non-zero,
the 'suffixes' and 'wildignore' options apply: Names matching
one of the patterns in 'wildignore' will be skipped and
'suffixes' affect the ordering of matches.
'wildignorecase' always applies.
When {list} is present and it is non-zero the result is a List
with all matching files. The advantage of using a List is,
you also get filenames containing newlines correctly.
Otherwise the result is a String and when there are several
matches, they are separated by <NL> characters.
If the expansion fails, the result is an empty String or List.
A name for a non-existing file is not included. A symbolic
link is only included if it points to an existing file.
For most systems backticks can be used to get files names from
any external command. Example: >
:let tagfiles = glob("`find . -name tags -print`")
:let &tags = substitute(tagfiles, "\n", ",", "g")
< The result of the program inside the backticks should be one
item per line. Spaces inside an item are allowed.
See |expand()| for expanding special Vim variables. See
|system()| for getting the raw output of an external command.
globpath({path}, {expr} [, {flag}]) *globpath()*
Perform glob() on all directories in {path} and concatenate
the results. Example: >
:echo globpath(&rtp, "syntax/c.vim")
< {path} is a comma-separated list of directory names. Each
directory name is prepended to {expr} and expanded like with
|glob()|. A path separator is inserted when needed.
To add a comma inside a directory name escape it with a
backslash. Note that on MS-Windows a directory may have a
trailing backslash, remove it if you put a comma after it.
If the expansion fails for one of the directories, there is no
error message.
Unless the optional {flag} argument is given and is non-zero,
the 'suffixes' and 'wildignore' options apply: Names matching
one of the patterns in 'wildignore' will be skipped and
'suffixes' affect the ordering of matches.
The "**" item can be used to search in a directory tree.
For example, to find all "README.txt" files in the directories
in 'runtimepath' and below: >
:echo globpath(&rtp, "**/README.txt")
< Upwards search and limiting the depth of "**" is not
supported, thus using 'path' will not always work properly.
*has()*
has({feature}) The result is a Number, which is 1 if the feature {feature} is
supported, zero otherwise. The {feature} argument is a
string. See |feature-list| below.
Also see |exists()|.
has_key({dict}, {key}) *has_key()*
The result is a Number, which is 1 if |Dictionary| {dict} has
an entry with key {key}. Zero otherwise.
haslocaldir() *haslocaldir()*
The result is a Number, which is 1 when the current
window has set a local path via |:lcd|, and 0 otherwise.
hasmapto({what} [, {mode} [, {abbr}]]) *hasmapto()*
The result is a Number, which is 1 if there is a mapping that
contains {what} in somewhere in the rhs (what it is mapped to)
and this mapping exists in one of the modes indicated by
{mode}.
When {abbr} is there and it is non-zero use abbreviations
instead of mappings. Don't forget to specify Insert and/or
Command-line mode.
Both the global mappings and the mappings local to the current
buffer are checked for a match.
If no matching mapping is found 0 is returned.
The following characters are recognized in {mode}:
n Normal mode
v Visual mode
o Operator-pending mode
i Insert mode
l Language-Argument ("r", "f", "t", etc.)
c Command-line mode
When {mode} is omitted, "nvo" is used.
This function is useful to check if a mapping already exists
to a function in a Vim script. Example: >
:if !hasmapto('\ABCdoit')
: map <Leader>d \ABCdoit
:endif
< This installs the mapping to "\ABCdoit" only if there isn't
already a mapping to "\ABCdoit".
histadd({history}, {item}) *histadd()*
Add the String {item} to the history {history} which can be
one of: *hist-names*
"cmd" or ":" command line history
"search" or "/" search pattern history
"expr" or "=" typed expression history
"input" or "@" input line history
"debug" or ">" debug command history
The {history} string does not need to be the whole name, one
character is sufficient.
If {item} does already exist in the history, it will be
shifted to become the newest entry.
The result is a Number: 1 if the operation was successful,
otherwise 0 is returned.
Example: >
:call histadd("input", strftime("%Y %b %d"))
:let date=input("Enter date: ")
< This function is not available in the |sandbox|.
histdel({history} [, {item}]) *histdel()*
Clear {history}, i.e. delete all its entries. See |hist-names|
for the possible values of {history}.
If the parameter {item} evaluates to a String, it is used as a
regular expression. All entries matching that expression will
be removed from the history (if there are any).
Upper/lowercase must match, unless "\c" is used |/\c|.
If {item} evaluates to a Number, it will be interpreted as
an index, see |:history-indexing|. The respective entry will
be removed if it exists.
The result is a Number: 1 for a successful operation,
otherwise 0 is returned.
Examples:
Clear expression register history: >
:call histdel("expr")
<
Remove all entries starting with "*" from the search history: >
:call histdel("/", '^\*')
<
The following three are equivalent: >
:call histdel("search", histnr("search"))
:call histdel("search", -1)
:call histdel("search", '^'.histget("search", -1).'$')
<
To delete the last search pattern and use the last-but-one for
the "n" command and 'hlsearch': >
:call histdel("search", -1)
:let @/ = histget("search", -1)
histget({history} [, {index}]) *histget()*
The result is a String, the entry with Number {index} from
{history}. See |hist-names| for the possible values of
{history}, and |:history-indexing| for {index}. If there is
no such entry, an empty String is returned. When {index} is
omitted, the most recent item from the history is used.
Examples:
Redo the second last search from history. >
:execute '/' . histget("search", -2)
< Define an Ex command ":H {num}" that supports re-execution of
the {num}th entry from the output of |:history|. >
:command -nargs=1 H execute histget("cmd", 0+<args>)
<
histnr({history}) *histnr()*
The result is the Number of the current entry in {history}.
See |hist-names| for the possible values of {history}.
If an error occurred, -1 is returned.
Example: >
:let inp_index = histnr("expr")
<
hlexists({name}) *hlexists()*
The result is a Number, which is non-zero if a highlight group
called {name} exists. This is when the group has been
defined in some way. Not necessarily when highlighting has
been defined for it, it may also have been used for a syntax
item.
*highlight_exists()*
Obsolete name: highlight_exists().
*hlID()*
hlID({name}) The result is a Number, which is the ID of the highlight group
with name {name}. When the highlight group doesn't exist,
zero is returned.
This can be used to retrieve information about the highlight
group. For example, to get the background color of the
"Comment" group: >
:echo synIDattr(synIDtrans(hlID("Comment")), "bg")
< *highlightID()*
Obsolete name: highlightID().
hostname() *hostname()*
The result is a String, which is the name of the machine on
which Vim is currently running. Machine names greater than
256 characters long are truncated.
iconv({expr}, {from}, {to}) *iconv()*
The result is a String, which is the text {expr} converted
from encoding {from} to encoding {to}.
When the conversion completely fails an empty string is
returned. When some characters could not be converted they
are replaced with "?".
The encoding names are whatever the iconv() library function
can accept, see ":!man 3 iconv".
Most conversions require Vim to be compiled with the |+iconv|
feature. Otherwise only UTF-8 to latin1 conversion and back
can be done.
This can be used to display messages with special characters,
no matter what 'encoding' is set to. Write the message in
UTF-8 and use: >
echo iconv(utf8_str, "utf-8", &enc)
< Note that Vim uses UTF-8 for all Unicode encodings, conversion
from/to UCS-2 is automatically changed to use UTF-8. You
cannot use UCS-2 in a string anyway, because of the NUL bytes.
{only available when compiled with the |+multi_byte| feature}
*indent()*
indent({lnum}) The result is a Number, which is indent of line {lnum} in the
current buffer. The indent is counted in spaces, the value
of 'tabstop' is relevant. {lnum} is used just like in
|getline()|.
When {lnum} is invalid -1 is returned.
index({list}, {expr} [, {start} [, {ic}]]) *index()*
Return the lowest index in |List| {list} where the item has a
value equal to {expr}. There is no automatic conversion, so
the String "4" is different from the Number 4. And the number
4 is different from the Float 4.0. The value of 'ignorecase'
is not used here, case always matters.
If {start} is given then start looking at the item with index
{start} (may be negative for an item relative to the end).
When {ic} is given and it is non-zero, ignore case. Otherwise
case must match.
-1 is returned when {expr} is not found in {list}.
Example: >
:let idx = index(words, "the")
:if index(numbers, 123) >= 0
input({prompt} [, {text} [, {completion}]]) *input()*
The result is a String, which is whatever the user typed on
the command-line. The {prompt} argument is either a prompt
string, or a blank string (for no prompt). A '\n' can be used
in the prompt to start a new line.
The highlighting set with |:echohl| is used for the prompt.
The input is entered just like a command-line, with the same
editing commands and mappings. There is a separate history
for lines typed for input().
Example: >
:if input("Coffee or beer? ") == "beer"
: echo "Cheers!"
:endif
<
If the optional {text} argument is present and not empty, this
is used for the default reply, as if the user typed this.
Example: >
:let color = input("Color? ", "white")
< The optional {completion} argument specifies the type of
completion supported for the input. Without it completion is
not performed. The supported completion types are the same as
that can be supplied to a user-defined command using the
"-complete=" argument. Refer to |:command-completion| for
more information. Example: >
let fname = input("File: ", "", "file")
<
NOTE: This function must not be used in a startup file, for
the versions that only run in GUI mode (e.g., the Win32 GUI).
Note: When input() is called from within a mapping it will
consume remaining characters from that mapping, because a
mapping is handled like the characters were typed.
Use |inputsave()| before input() and |inputrestore()|
after input() to avoid that. Another solution is to avoid
that further characters follow in the mapping, e.g., by using
|:execute| or |:normal|.
Example with a mapping: >
:nmap \x :call GetFoo()<CR>:exe "/" . Foo<CR>
:function GetFoo()
: call inputsave()
: let g:Foo = input("enter search pattern: ")
: call inputrestore()
:endfunction
inputdialog({prompt} [, {text} [, {cancelreturn}]]) *inputdialog()*
Like |input()|, but when the GUI is running and text dialogs
are supported, a dialog window pops up to input the text.
Example: >
:let n = inputdialog("value for shiftwidth", shiftwidth())
:if n != ""
: let &sw = n
:endif
< When the dialog is cancelled {cancelreturn} is returned. When
omitted an empty string is returned.
Hitting <Enter> works like pressing the OK button. Hitting
<Esc> works like pressing the Cancel button.
NOTE: Command-line completion is not supported.
inputlist({textlist}) *inputlist()*
{textlist} must be a |List| of strings. This |List| is
displayed, one string per line. The user will be prompted to
enter a number, which is returned.
The user can also select an item by clicking on it with the
mouse. For the first string 0 is returned. When clicking
above the first item a negative number is returned. When
clicking on the prompt one more than the length of {textlist}
is returned.
Make sure {textlist} has less than 'lines' entries, otherwise
it won't work. It's a good idea to put the entry number at
the start of the string. And put a prompt in the first item.
Example: >
let color = inputlist(['Select color:', '1. red',
\ '2. green', '3. blue'])
inputrestore() *inputrestore()*
Restore typeahead that was saved with a previous |inputsave()|.
Should be called the same number of times inputsave() is
called. Calling it more often is harmless though.
Returns 1 when there is nothing to restore, 0 otherwise.
inputsave() *inputsave()*
Preserve typeahead (also from mappings) and clear it, so that
a following prompt gets input from the user. Should be
followed by a matching inputrestore() after the prompt. Can
be used several times, in which case there must be just as
many inputrestore() calls.
Returns 1 when out of memory, 0 otherwise.
inputsecret({prompt} [, {text}]) *inputsecret()*
This function acts much like the |input()| function with but
two exceptions:
a) the user's response will be displayed as a sequence of
asterisks ("*") thereby keeping the entry secret, and
b) the user's response will not be recorded on the input
|history| stack.
The result is a String, which is whatever the user actually
typed on the command-line in response to the issued prompt.
NOTE: Command-line completion is not supported.
insert({list}, {item} [, {idx}]) *insert()*
Insert {item} at the start of |List| {list}.
If {idx} is specified insert {item} before the item with index
{idx}. If {idx} is zero it goes before the first item, just
like omitting {idx}. A negative {idx} is also possible, see
|list-index|. -1 inserts just before the last item.
Returns the resulting |List|. Examples: >
:let mylist = insert([2, 3, 5], 1)
:call insert(mylist, 4, -1)
:call insert(mylist, 6, len(mylist))
< The last example can be done simpler with |add()|.
Note that when {item} is a |List| it is inserted as a single
item. Use |extend()| to concatenate |Lists|.
invert({expr}) *invert()*
Bitwise invert. The argument is converted to a number. A
List, Dict or Float argument causes an error. Example: >
:let bits = invert(bits)
isdirectory({directory}) *isdirectory()*
The result is a Number, which is non-zero when a directory
with the name {directory} exists. If {directory} doesn't
exist, or isn't a directory, the result is FALSE. {directory}
is any expression, which is used as a String.
islocked({expr}) *islocked()* *E786*
The result is a Number, which is non-zero when {expr} is the
name of a locked variable.
{expr} must be the name of a variable, |List| item or
|Dictionary| entry, not the variable itself! Example: >
:let alist = [0, ['a', 'b'], 2, 3]
:lockvar 1 alist
:echo islocked('alist') " 1
:echo islocked('alist[1]') " 0
< When {expr} is a variable that does not exist you get an error
message. Use |exists()| to check for existence.
items({dict}) *items()*
Return a |List| with all the key-value pairs of {dict}. Each
|List| item is a list with two items: the key of a {dict}
entry and the value of this entry. The |List| is in arbitrary
order.
join({list} [, {sep}]) *join()*
Join the items in {list} together into one String.
When {sep} is specified it is put in between the items. If
{sep} is omitted a single space is used.
Note that {sep} is not added at the end. You might want to
add it there too: >
let lines = join(mylist, "\n") . "\n"
< String items are used as-is. |Lists| and |Dictionaries| are
converted into a string like with |string()|.
The opposite function is |split()|.
keys({dict}) *keys()*
Return a |List| with all the keys of {dict}. The |List| is in
arbitrary order.
*len()* *E701*
len({expr}) The result is a Number, which is the length of the argument.
When {expr} is a String or a Number the length in bytes is
used, as with |strlen()|.
When {expr} is a |List| the number of items in the |List| is
returned.
When {expr} is a |Dictionary| the number of entries in the
|Dictionary| is returned.
Otherwise an error is given.
*libcall()* *E364* *E368*
libcall({libname}, {funcname}, {argument})
Call function {funcname} in the run-time library {libname}
with single argument {argument}.
This is useful to call functions in a library that you
especially made to be used with Vim. Since only one argument
is possible, calling standard library functions is rather
limited.
The result is the String returned by the function. If the
function returns NULL, this will appear as an empty string ""
to Vim.
If the function returns a number, use libcallnr()!
If {argument} is a number, it is passed to the function as an
int; if {argument} is a string, it is passed as a
null-terminated string.
This function will fail in |restricted-mode|.
libcall() allows you to write your own 'plug-in' extensions to
Vim without having to recompile the program. It is NOT a
means to call system functions! If you try to do so Vim will
very probably crash.
For Win32, the functions you write must be placed in a DLL
and use the normal C calling convention (NOT Pascal which is
used in Windows System DLLs). The function must take exactly
one parameter, either a character pointer or a long integer,
and must return a character pointer or NULL. The character
pointer returned must point to memory that will remain valid
after the function has returned (e.g. in static data in the
DLL). If it points to allocated memory, that memory will
leak away. Using a static buffer in the function should work,
it's then freed when the DLL is unloaded.
WARNING: If the function returns a non-valid pointer, Vim may
crash! This also happens if the function returns a number,
because Vim thinks it's a pointer.
For Win32 systems, {libname} should be the filename of the DLL
without the ".DLL" suffix. A full path is only required if
the DLL is not in the usual places.
For Unix: When compiling your own plugins, remember that the
object code must be compiled as position-independent ('PIC').
{only in Win32 and some Unix versions, when the |+libcall|
feature is present}
Examples: >
:echo libcall("libc.so", "getenv", "HOME")
<
*libcallnr()*
libcallnr({libname}, {funcname}, {argument})
Just like |libcall()|, but used for a function that returns an
int instead of a string.
{only in Win32 on some Unix versions, when the |+libcall|
feature is present}
Examples: >
:echo libcallnr("/usr/lib/libc.so", "getpid", "")
:call libcallnr("libc.so", "printf", "Hello World!\n")
:call libcallnr("libc.so", "sleep", 10)
<
*line()*
line({expr}) The result is a Number, which is the line number of the file
position given with {expr}. The accepted positions are:
. the cursor position
$ the last line in the current buffer
'x position of mark x (if the mark is not set, 0 is
returned)
w0 first line visible in current window
w$ last line visible in current window
v In Visual mode: the start of the Visual area (the
cursor is the end). When not in Visual mode
returns the cursor position. Differs from |'<| in
that it's updated right away.
Note that a mark in another file can be used. The line number
then applies to another buffer.
To get the column number use |col()|. To get both use
|getpos()|.
Examples: >
line(".") line number of the cursor
line("'t") line number of mark t
line("'" . marker) line number of mark marker
< *last-position-jump*
This autocommand jumps to the last known position in a file
just after opening it, if the '" mark is set: >
:au BufReadPost * if line("'\"") > 1 && line("'\"") <= line("$") | exe "normal! g`\"" | endif
line2byte({lnum}) *line2byte()*
Return the byte count from the start of the buffer for line
{lnum}. This includes the end-of-line character, depending on
the 'fileformat' option for the current buffer. The first
line returns 1. 'encoding' matters, 'fileencoding' is ignored.
This can also be used to get the byte count for the line just
below the last line: >
line2byte(line("$") + 1)
< This is the buffer size plus one. If 'fileencoding' is empty
it is the file size plus one.
When {lnum} is invalid, or the |+byte_offset| feature has been
disabled at compile time, -1 is returned.
Also see |byte2line()|, |go| and |:goto|.
lispindent({lnum}) *lispindent()*
Get the amount of indent for line {lnum} according the lisp
indenting rules, as with 'lisp'.
The indent is counted in spaces, the value of 'tabstop' is
relevant. {lnum} is used just like in |getline()|.
When {lnum} is invalid or Vim was not compiled the
|+lispindent| feature, -1 is returned.
localtime() *localtime()*
Return the current time, measured as seconds since 1st Jan
1970. See also |strftime()| and |getftime()|.
log({expr}) *log()*
Return the natural logarithm (base e) of {expr} as a |Float|.
{expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number| in the range
(0, inf].
Examples: >
:echo log(10)
< 2.302585 >
:echo log(exp(5))
< 5.0
{only available when compiled with the |+float| feature}
log10({expr}) *log10()*
Return the logarithm of Float {expr} to base 10 as a |Float|.
{expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|.
Examples: >
:echo log10(1000)
< 3.0 >
:echo log10(0.01)
< -2.0
{only available when compiled with the |+float| feature}
luaeval({expr}[, {expr}]) *luaeval()*
Evaluate Lua expression {expr} and return its result converted
to Vim data structures. Second {expr} may hold additional
argument accessible as _A inside first {expr}.
Strings are returned as they are.
Boolean objects are converted to numbers.
Numbers are converted to |Float| values if vim was compiled
with |+float| and to numbers otherwise.
Dictionaries and lists obtained by vim.eval() are returned
as-is.
Other objects are returned as zero without any errors.
See |lua-luaeval| for more details.
{only available when compiled with the |+lua| feature}
map({expr}, {string}) *map()*
{expr} must be a |List| or a |Dictionary|.
Replace each item in {expr} with the result of evaluating
{string}.
Inside {string} |v:val| has the value of the current item.
For a |Dictionary| |v:key| has the key of the current item
and for a |List| |v:key| has the index of the current item.
Example: >
:call map(mylist, '"> " . v:val . " <"')
< This puts "> " before and " <" after each item in "mylist".
Note that {string} is the result of an expression and is then
used as an expression again. Often it is good to use a
|literal-string| to avoid having to double backslashes. You
still have to double ' quotes
The operation is done in-place. If you want a |List| or
|Dictionary| to remain unmodified make a copy first: >
:let tlist = map(copy(mylist), ' v:val . "\t"')
< Returns {expr}, the |List| or |Dictionary| that was filtered.
When an error is encountered while evaluating {string} no
further items in {expr} are processed.
maparg({name}[, {mode} [, {abbr} [, {dict}]]]) *maparg()*
When {dict} is omitted or zero: Return the rhs of mapping
{name} in mode {mode}. The returned String has special
characters translated like in the output of the ":map" command
listing.
When there is no mapping for {name}, an empty String is
returned.
The {name} can have special key names, like in the ":map"
command.
{mode} can be one of these strings:
"n" Normal
"v" Visual (including Select)
"o" Operator-pending
"i" Insert
"c" Cmd-line
"s" Select
"x" Visual
"l" langmap |language-mapping|
"" Normal, Visual and Operator-pending
When {mode} is omitted, the modes for "" are used.
When {abbr} is there and it is non-zero use abbreviations
instead of mappings.
When {dict} is there and it is non-zero return a dictionary
containing all the information of the mapping with the
following items:
"lhs" The {lhs} of the mapping.
"rhs" The {rhs} of the mapping as typed.
"silent" 1 for a |:map-silent| mapping, else 0.
"noremap" 1 if the {rhs} of the mapping is not remappable.
"expr" 1 for an expression mapping (|:map-<expr>|).
"buffer" 1 for a buffer local mapping (|:map-local|).
"mode" Modes for which the mapping is defined. In
addition to the modes mentioned above, these
characters will be used:
" " Normal, Visual and Operator-pending
"!" Insert and Commandline mode
(|mapmode-ic|)
"sid" The script local ID, used for <sid> mappings
(|<SID>|).
The mappings local to the current buffer are checked first,
then the global mappings.
This function can be used to map a key even when it's already
mapped, and have it do the original mapping too. Sketch: >
exe 'nnoremap <Tab> ==' . maparg('<Tab>', 'n')
mapcheck({name}[, {mode} [, {abbr}]]) *mapcheck()*
Check if there is a mapping that matches with {name} in mode
{mode}. See |maparg()| for {mode} and special names in
{name}.
When {abbr} is there and it is non-zero use abbreviations
instead of mappings.
A match happens with a mapping that starts with {name} and
with a mapping which is equal to the start of {name}.
matches mapping "a" "ab" "abc" ~
mapcheck("a") yes yes yes
mapcheck("abc") yes yes yes
mapcheck("ax") yes no no
mapcheck("b") no no no
The difference with maparg() is that mapcheck() finds a
mapping that matches with {name}, while maparg() only finds a
mapping for {name} exactly.
When there is no mapping that starts with {name}, an empty
String is returned. If there is one, the rhs of that mapping
is returned. If there are several mappings that start with
{name}, the rhs of one of them is returned.
The mappings local to the current buffer are checked first,
then the global mappings.
This function can be used to check if a mapping can be added
without being ambiguous. Example: >
:if mapcheck("_vv") == ""
: map _vv :set guifont=7x13<CR>
:endif
< This avoids adding the "_vv" mapping when there already is a
mapping for "_v" or for "_vvv".
match({expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]]) *match()*
When {expr} is a |List| then this returns the index of the
first item where {pat} matches. Each item is used as a
String, |Lists| and |Dictionaries| are used as echoed.
Otherwise, {expr} is used as a String. The result is a
Number, which gives the index (byte offset) in {expr} where
{pat} matches.
A match at the first character or |List| item returns zero.
If there is no match -1 is returned.
For getting submatches see |matchlist()|.
Example: >
:echo match("testing", "ing") " results in 4
:echo match([1, 'x'], '\a') " results in 1
< See |string-match| for how {pat} is used.
*strpbrk()*
Vim doesn't have a strpbrk() function. But you can do: >
:let sepidx = match(line, '[.,;: \t]')
< *strcasestr()*
Vim doesn't have a strcasestr() function. But you can add
"\c" to the pattern to ignore case: >
:let idx = match(haystack, '\cneedle')
<
If {start} is given, the search starts from byte index
{start} in a String or item {start} in a |List|.
The result, however, is still the index counted from the
first character/item. Example: >
:echo match("testing", "ing", 2)
< result is again "4". >
:echo match("testing", "ing", 4)
< result is again "4". >
:echo match("testing", "t", 2)
< result is "3".
For a String, if {start} > 0 then it is like the string starts
{start} bytes later, thus "^" will match at {start}. Except
when {count} is given, then it's like matches before the
{start} byte are ignored (this is a bit complicated to keep it
backwards compatible).
For a String, if {start} < 0, it will be set to 0. For a list
the index is counted from the end.
If {start} is out of range ({start} > strlen({expr}) for a
String or {start} > len({expr}) for a |List|) -1 is returned.
When {count} is given use the {count}'th match. When a match
is found in a String the search for the next one starts one
character further. Thus this example results in 1: >
echo match("testing", "..", 0, 2)
< In a |List| the search continues in the next item.
Note that when {count} is added the way {start} works changes,
see above.
See |pattern| for the patterns that are accepted.
The 'ignorecase' option is used to set the ignore-caseness of
the pattern. 'smartcase' is NOT used. The matching is always
done like 'magic' is set and 'cpoptions' is empty.
*matchadd()* *E798* *E799* *E801*
matchadd({group}, {pattern}[, {priority}[, {id}]])
Defines a pattern to be highlighted in the current window (a
"match"). It will be highlighted with {group}. Returns an
identification number (ID), which can be used to delete the
match using |matchdelete()|.
The optional {priority} argument assigns a priority to the
match. A match with a high priority will have its
highlighting overrule that of a match with a lower priority.
A priority is specified as an integer (negative numbers are no
exception). If the {priority} argument is not specified, the
default priority is 10. The priority of 'hlsearch' is zero,
hence all matches with a priority greater than zero will
overrule it. Syntax highlighting (see 'syntax') is a separate
mechanism, and regardless of the chosen priority a match will
always overrule syntax highlighting.
The optional {id} argument allows the request for a specific
match ID. If a specified ID is already taken, an error
message will appear and the match will not be added. An ID
is specified as a positive integer (zero excluded). IDs 1, 2
and 3 are reserved for |:match|, |:2match| and |:3match|,
respectively. If the {id} argument is not specified,
|matchadd()| automatically chooses a free ID.
The number of matches is not limited, as it is the case with
the |:match| commands.
Example: >
:highlight MyGroup ctermbg=green guibg=green
:let m = matchadd("MyGroup", "TODO")
< Deletion of the pattern: >
:call matchdelete(m)
< A list of matches defined by |matchadd()| and |:match| are
available from |getmatches()|. All matches can be deleted in
one operation by |clearmatches()|.
matcharg({nr}) *matcharg()*
Selects the {nr} match item, as set with a |:match|,
|:2match| or |:3match| command.
Return a |List| with two elements:
The name of the highlight group used
The pattern used.
When {nr} is not 1, 2 or 3 returns an empty |List|.
When there is no match item set returns ['', ''].
This is useful to save and restore a |:match|.
Highlighting matches using the |:match| commands are limited
to three matches. |matchadd()| does not have this limitation.
matchdelete({id}) *matchdelete()* *E802* *E803*
Deletes a match with ID {id} previously defined by |matchadd()|
or one of the |:match| commands. Returns 0 if successful,
otherwise -1. See example for |matchadd()|. All matches can
be deleted in one operation by |clearmatches()|.
matchend({expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]]) *matchend()*
Same as |match()|, but return the index of first character
after the match. Example: >
:echo matchend("testing", "ing")
< results in "7".
*strspn()* *strcspn()*
Vim doesn't have a strspn() or strcspn() function, but you can
do it with matchend(): >
:let span = matchend(line, '[a-zA-Z]')
:let span = matchend(line, '[^a-zA-Z]')
< Except that -1 is returned when there are no matches.
The {start}, if given, has the same meaning as for |match()|. >
:echo matchend("testing", "ing", 2)
< results in "7". >
:echo matchend("testing", "ing", 5)
< result is "-1".
When {expr} is a |List| the result is equal to |match()|.
matchlist({expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]]) *matchlist()*
Same as |match()|, but return a |List|. The first item in the
list is the matched string, same as what matchstr() would
return. Following items are submatches, like "\1", "\2", etc.
in |:substitute|. When an optional submatch didn't match an
empty string is used. Example: >
echo matchlist('acd', '\(a\)\?\(b\)\?\(c\)\?\(.*\)')
< Results in: ['acd', 'a', '', 'c', 'd', '', '', '', '', '']
When there is no match an empty list is returned.
matchstr({expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]]) *matchstr()*
Same as |match()|, but return the matched string. Example: >
:echo matchstr("testing", "ing")
< results in "ing".
When there is no match "" is returned.
The {start}, if given, has the same meaning as for |match()|. >
:echo matchstr("testing", "ing", 2)
< results in "ing". >
:echo matchstr("testing", "ing", 5)
< result is "".
When {expr} is a |List| then the matching item is returned.
The type isn't changed, it's not necessarily a String.
*max()*
max({list}) Return the maximum value of all items in {list}.
If {list} is not a list or one of the items in {list} cannot
be used as a Number this results in an error.
An empty |List| results in zero.
*min()*
min({list}) Return the minimum value of all items in {list}.
If {list} is not a list or one of the items in {list} cannot
be used as a Number this results in an error.
An empty |List| results in zero.
*mkdir()* *E739*
mkdir({name} [, {path} [, {prot}]])
Create directory {name}.
If {path} is "p" then intermediate directories are created as
necessary. Otherwise it must be "".
If {prot} is given it is used to set the protection bits of
the new directory. The default is 0755 (rwxr-xr-x: r/w for
the user readable for others). Use 0700 to make it unreadable
for others. This is only used for the last part of {name}.
Thus if you create /tmp/foo/bar then /tmp/foo will be created
with 0755.
Example: >
:call mkdir($HOME . "/tmp/foo/bar", "p", 0700)
< This function is not available in the |sandbox|.
Not available on all systems. To check use: >
:if exists("*mkdir")
<
*mode()*
mode([expr]) Return a string that indicates the current mode.
If [expr] is supplied and it evaluates to a non-zero Number or
a non-empty String (|non-zero-arg|), then the full mode is
returned, otherwise only the first letter is returned. Note
that " " and "0" are also non-empty strings.
n Normal
no Operator-pending
v Visual by character
V Visual by line
CTRL-V Visual blockwise
s Select by character
S Select by line
CTRL-S Select blockwise
i Insert
R Replace |R|
Rv Virtual Replace |gR|
c Command-line
cv Vim Ex mode |gQ|
ce Normal Ex mode |Q|
r Hit-enter prompt
rm The -- more -- prompt
r? A |:confirm| query of some sort
! Shell or external command is executing
This is useful in the 'statusline' option or when used
with |remote_expr()| In most other places it always returns
"c" or "n".
Also see |visualmode()|.
mzeval({expr}) *mzeval()*
Evaluate MzScheme expression {expr} and return its result
converted to Vim data structures.
Numbers and strings are returned as they are.
Pairs (including lists and improper lists) and vectors are
returned as Vim |Lists|.
Hash tables are represented as Vim |Dictionary| type with keys
converted to strings.
All other types are converted to string with display function.
Examples: >
:mz (define l (list 1 2 3))
:mz (define h (make-hash)) (hash-set! h "list" l)
:echo mzeval("l")
:echo mzeval("h")
<
{only available when compiled with the |+mzscheme| feature}
nextnonblank({lnum}) *nextnonblank()*
Return the line number of the first line at or below {lnum}
that is not blank. Example: >
if getline(nextnonblank(1)) =~ "Java"
< When {lnum} is invalid or there is no non-blank line at or
below it, zero is returned.
See also |prevnonblank()|.
nr2char({expr}) *nr2char()*
Return a string with a single character, which has the number
value {expr}. Examples: >
nr2char(64) returns "@"
nr2char(32) returns " "
< The current 'encoding' is used. Example for "utf-8": >
nr2char(300) returns I with bow character
< Note that a NUL character in the file is specified with
nr2char(10), because NULs are represented with newline
characters. nr2char(0) is a real NUL and terminates the
string, thus results in an empty string.
*getpid()*
getpid() Return a Number which is the process ID of the Vim process.
On Unix and MS-Windows this is a unique number, until Vim
exits. On MS-DOS it's always zero.
*getpos()*
getpos({expr}) Get the position for {expr}. For possible values of {expr}
see |line()|.
The result is a |List| with four numbers:
[bufnum, lnum, col, off]
"bufnum" is zero, unless a mark like '0 or 'A is used, then it
is the buffer number of the mark.
"lnum" and "col" are the position in the buffer. The first
column is 1.
The "off" number is zero, unless 'virtualedit' is used. Then
it is the offset in screen columns from the start of the
character. E.g., a position within a <Tab> or after the last
character.
This can be used to save and restore the cursor position: >
let save_cursor = getpos(".")
MoveTheCursorAround
call setpos('.', save_cursor)
< Also see |setpos()|.
or({expr}, {expr}) *or()*
Bitwise OR on the two arguments. The arguments are converted
to a number. A List, Dict or Float argument causes an error.
Example: >
:let bits = or(bits, 0x80)
pathshorten({expr}) *pathshorten()*
Shorten directory names in the path {expr} and return the
result. The tail, the file name, is kept as-is. The other
components in the path are reduced to single letters. Leading
'~' and '.' characters are kept. Example: >
:echo pathshorten('~/.vim/autoload/myfile.vim')
< ~/.v/a/myfile.vim ~
It doesn't matter if the path exists or not.
pow({x}, {y}) *pow()*
Return the power of {x} to the exponent {y} as a |Float|.
{x} and {y} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|.
Examples: >
:echo pow(3, 3)
< 27.0 >
:echo pow(2, 16)
< 65536.0 >
:echo pow(32, 0.20)