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Changelog for the c-ares project
Version 1.7.1 (Mar 23, 2010)
* March 23, 2010 (Daniel Stenberg)
- We switched from CVS to git. See
* March 5, 2010 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Daniel Johnson provided fixes for building with the clang compiler.
* March 5, 2010 (Yang Tse)
- Added IPv6 name servers support. Implementation has been based on code,
comments and feedback provided November and December of 2008 by Daniel
Stenberg, Gregor Jasny, Phil Blundell and myself, December 2009 by Cedric
Bail, and February 2010 by Jakub Hrozek on the c-ares mailing list. On
March I reviewed all that, selected the best of each, and adjusted or
extended parts of it to make the best fit.
The external and visible result of all this is that two new functions are
added to the external API, ares_get_servers() and ares_set_servers(), which
becomes now the preferred way of getting and setting name servers for any
ares channel as these support both IPv4 and IPv6 name servers.
In order to not break ABI compatibility, ares_init_options() with option
mask ARES_OPT_SERVERS and ares_save_options() may still be used in code
which is intended to run on IPv4-only stacks. But remember that these
functions do not support IPv6 name servers. This implies that if the user
is capable of defining or providing an IPv6 name server, and the app is
using ares_init_options() or ares_save_options() at some point to handle
the name servers, the app will likely loose IPv6 name servers.
* January 28, 2010 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Tommie Gannert pointed out a silly bug in ares_process_fd() since it didn't
check for broken connections like ares_process() did. Based on that, I
merged the two functions into a single generic one with two front-ends.
* December 29, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Laszlo Tamas Szabo adjusted Makefile.msvc compiler options so that where
run-time error checks enabling compiler option /GZ was used it is replaced
with equivalent /RTCsu for Visual Studio 2003 and newer versions. Option
/GX is replaced with equivalent /EHsc for all versions. Also fixed socket
data type for internal configure_socket function.
* December 21, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Ingmar Runge noticed that Windows config-win32.h configuration file
did not include a definition for HAVE_CLOSESOCKET which resulted in
function close() being inappropriately used to close sockets.
Version 1.7.0 (Nov 30, 2009)
* November 26, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Larry Lansing fixed ares_parse_srv_reply to properly parse replies
which might contain non-SRV answers, skipping over potential non-SRV
ones such as CNAMEs.
* November 23, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Changed naming convention for c-ares libraries built with MSVC, details
and build instructions provided in README.msvc file.
* November 22, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Jakub Hrozek fixed more function prototypes in man pages to sync them
with the ones declared in ares.h
- Jakub Hrozek renamed addrttl and addr6ttl structs to ares_addrttl and
ares_addr6ttl in order to prevent name space pollution, along with
necessary changes to code base and man pages.This change does not break
ABI, there is no need to recompile existing applications. But existing
applications using these structs with the old name will need source code
adjustments when recompiled using c-ares 1.7.0.
* November 21, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Added manifest stuff to Makefile.msvc.
* November 20, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Fixed several function prototypes in man pages that were out of sync
with the ones declared in ares.h. Added ares_free_data() along with
man page. Updated ares_parse_srv_reply() and ares_parse_txt_reply()
with changes from Jakub Hrozek making these now return linked lists
instead of arrays, and merging the ares_free_data() adjustments.
* November 10, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Updated MSVC 6.0 project files to match settings from Makefile.msvc.
* November 9, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Makefile.msvc is now the reference method to build c-ares and sample
programs with any MSVC compiler or MS Visual Studio version. If no
option or target are specified it builds dynamic and static c-ares
libraries in debug and release flavours and also builds all sample
programs using each of the different c-ares libraries.
* November 2, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Renamed c-ares setup.h to ares_setup.h
* October 31, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Symbol hiding configure options are named now --enable-symbol-hiding
and --disable-symbol-hiding in an attempt to make them less ambiguous.
* October 30, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Many fixes for ares_parse_txt_reply()
* October 29, 2009 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Jakub Hrozek added ares_parse_txt_reply() for TXT parsing
* October 29, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Updated MSVC 6.0 workspace and project files that allows building
dynamic and static c-ares libraries in debug and release flavours.
Additionally each of the three sample programs is built against
each of the four possible c-ares libraries, generating all this
a total number of 12 executables and 4 libraries.
* October 28, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Initial step towards the ability to reduce c-ares exported symbols
when built as a shared library based on the 'visibility' attribute
for GNUC and Intel compilers and based on __global for Sun compilers,
taking also in account __declspec function decoration for Win32 and
Symbian DLL's.
* October 27, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Fixed Pelles C Win32 target compilation issues.
* October 23, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- John Engelhart noticed an unreleased problem relative to a duplicate
ARES_ECANCELLED error code value and missing error code description.
* October 7, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Overhauled ares__get_hostent() Fixing out of bounds memory overwrite
triggered with malformed /etc/hosts file. Improving parsing of /etc/hosts
file. Validating requested address family. Ensuring that failures always
return a NULL pointer. Adjusting header inclusions.
* October 6, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Fix ssize_t redefinition errors on WIN64 reported by Alexey Simak.
* September 29, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Make configure script also check if _REENTRANT definition is required to
make errno available as a preprocessor macro.
* September 7, 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Add T_SRV portability check to ares_parse_srv_reply.c
* 4 Sep 2009 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Jakub Hrozek added ares_parse_srv_reply() for SRV parsing
* 3 Aug 2009 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Joshua Kwan fixed the init routine to fill in the defaults for stuff that
fails to get inited by other means. This fixes a case of when the c-ares
init fails when internet access is fone.
- Timo Teras changed the reason code used in the resolve callback done when
ares_cancel() is used, to be ARES_ECANCELLED instead of ARES_ETIMEOUT to
better allow the callback to know what's happening.
* 14 Jul 2009 (Guenter Knauf)
- renamed generated config.h to ares_config.h to avoid any future clashes
with config.h from other projects.
* June 20 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Refactor how libraries are checked for connect() function in configure
script and check for connect() as it is done for other functions.
* June 19 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Make sclose() function-like macro definition used to close a socket,
config file preprocessor definitions
* June 18 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Add CloseSocket camel case function check for configure script.
* June 17 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Check for socket() and closesocket() as it is done for other functions
in configure script.
* June 11 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Modified buildconf so that when automake runs it copies missing files
instead of symlinking them.
* June 8 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Removed buildconf.bat from release and daily snapshot archives. This
file is only for CVS tree checkout builds.
* May 26 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Added --enable-curldebug configure option to enable and disable building
with the low-level curl debug memory tracking 'feature' to allow decoupled
setting from --enable-debug, allowing again to build c-ares independently
out of the CVS tree.
For the c-ares library option --enable-debug enables debug build features
which are _not_ related with memory tracking. For the c-ares library when
--enable-debug is given it does not enable the memory tracking feature. If
you wish to enable the curl debug memory tracking you must use configure
option --enable-curldebug explicitily to do so.
Internally, definition of preprocessor symbol DEBUGBUILD restricts code
which is only compiled for debug enabled builds. And symbol CURLDEBUG is
used to differentiate code which is _only_ used for memory tracking.
Make ares_init(), ares_dup() and ares_init_options() fail returning
ARES_ENOTINITIALIZED if library initialization has not been performed
calling ares_library_init().
* May 20 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Added ares_library_init() and ares_library_cleanup() man pages.
* May 19 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Introduced ares_library_init() and ares_library_cleanup() functions.
This is an API and ABI break for Win32/64 systems. Non-Win32/64 build targets
using c-ares 1.7.0 can still survive without calling these functions. Read all
the details on ares_library_init(3) and ares_library_cleanup(3) man pages that
are included.
curl/libcurl 7.19.5 is fully compatible with c-ares 1.7.0 on all systems.
In order to use c-ares 1.7.0 with curl/libcurl on Win32/64 systems it is
required that curl/libcurl is 7.19.5 or newer. In other words, it is not
possible on Win32/64 to use c-ares 1.7.0 with a curl/libcurl version less
than 7.19.5
* May 11 2009 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Gregor Jasny made c-ares link with libtool 's -export-symbols-regex option to
only expose functions starting with ares_.
* May 7 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Fix an m4 overquoting triggering a spurious 'AS_TR_CPP' symbol definition
attempt in generated config.h
* May 2 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Use a build-time configured ares_socklen_t data type instead of socklen_t.
* April 21 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Moved potential inclusion of system's malloc.h and memory.h header files to
setup_once.h. Inclusion of each header file is based on the definition of
NEED_MALLOC_H and NEED_MEMORY_H respectively.
* March 11 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Japheth Cleaver fixed acountry.c replacing u_long with unsigned long.
* February 20 2009 (Yang Tse)
- Do not halt compilation when using VS2008 to build a Windows 2000 target.
* February 3 2009 (Phil Blundell)
- If the server returns garbage or nothing at all in response to an AAAA query,
go on and ask for A records anyway.
* January 31 2009 (Daniel Stenberg)
- ares_gethostbyname() now accepts 'AF_UNSPEC' as a family for resolving
either AF_INET6 or AF_INET. It works by accepting any of the looksups in the
hosts file, and it resolves the AAAA field with a fallback to A.
* January 14 2009 (Daniel Stenberg)
- ares.h no longer uses the HAVE_STRUCT_IN6_ADDR define check, but instead it
now declares the private struct ares_in6_addr for all systems instead of
relying on one possibly not present in the system.
* January 13 2009 (Phil Blundell)
- ares__send_query() now varies the retry timeout pseudo-randomly to avoid
packet storms when several queries were started at the same time.
* January 11 2009 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Phil Blundell added the internal function ares__expand_name_for_response()
that is now used by the ares_parse_*_reply() functions instead of the
ares_expand_name() simply to easier return ARES_EBADRESP for the cases where
the name expansion fails as in responses that really isn't expected.
Version 1.6.0 (Dec 9, 2008)
* December 9 2008 (Gisle Vanem)
Fixes for Win32 targets using the Watt-32 tcp/ip stack.
* Dec 4 2008 (Daniel Stenberg)
Gregor Jasny provided the patch that introduces ares_set_socket_callback(),
and I edited it to also get duped by ares_dup().
* Dec 3 2008 (Daniel Stenberg)
API changes:
I made sure the public ares_config struct looks like before and yet it
supports the ROTATE option thanks to c-ares now storing the "optmask"
internally. Thus we should be ABI compatible with the past release(s)
now. My efforts mentioned below should not break backwards ABI compliance.
Here's how I suggest we proceed with the API:
ares_init() will be primary "channel creator" function.
ares_init_options() will continue to work exactly like now and before. For
starters, it will be the (only) way to set the existing options.
ares_save_options() will continue to work like today, but will ONLY save
options that you can set today (including ARES_OPT_ROTATE actually) but new
options that we add may not be saved with this.
Instead we introduce:
ares_dup() that instead can make a new channel and clone the config used
from an existing channel. It will then clone all config options, including
future new things we add.
ares_set_*() style functions that set (new) config options. As a start we
simply add these for new functionality, but over time we can also introduce
them for existing "struct ares_options" so that we can eventually deprecate
the two ares_*_options() functions.
ares_get_*() style functions for extracting info from a channel handle that
should be used instead of ares_save_options().
* Nov 26 2008 (Yang Tse)
- Brad Spencer provided changes to allow buildconf to work on OS X.
- Gerald Combs fixed a bug in ares_parse_ptr_reply() which would cause a
buffer to shrink instead of expand if a reply contained 8 or more records.
* Nov 25 2008 (Yang Tse)
- In preparation for the upcomming IPv6 nameservers patch, the internal
ares_addr union is now changed into an internal struct which also holds
the address family.
* Nov 19 2008 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Brad Spencer brought the new function ares_gethostbyname_file() which simply
resolves a host name from the given file, using the regular hosts syntax.
* Nov 1 2008 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Carlo Contavalli added support for the glibc "rotate" option, as documented
in man resolv.conf:
causes round robin selection of nameservers from among those listed. This
has the effect of spreading the query load among all listed servers, rather
than having all clients try the first listed server first every time.
You can enable it with ARES_OPT_ROTATE
* Oct 21 2008 (Yang Tse)
Charles Hardin added handling of EINPROGRESS for UDP connects.
* Oct 18 2008 (Daniel Stenberg)
Charles Hardin made adig support a regular numerical dotted IP address for the
-s option as well.
* Oct 7 2008 (Yang Tse)
- Added --enable-optimize configure option to enable and disable compiler
optimizations to allow decoupled setting from --enable-debug.
* Oct 2 2008 (Yang Tse)
- Added --enable-warnings configure option to enable and disable strict
compiler warnings to allow decoupled setting from --enable-debug.
* Sep 17 2008 (Yang Tse)
- Code reorganization to allow internal/private use of "nameser.h" to any
system that lacks arpa/nameser.h or arpa/nameser_compat.h header files.
* Sep 16 2008 (Yang Tse)
- Code reorganization to allow internal/private use of ares_writev to any
system that lacks the writev function.
* Sep 15 2008 (Yang Tse)
- Code reorganization to allow internal/private use of ares_strcasecmp to any
system that lacks the strcasecmp function.
- Improve configure detection of some string functions.
* Sep 11 2008 (Yang Tse)
- Code reorganization to allow internal/private use of ares_strdup to any
system that lacks the strdup function.
Version 1.5.3 (Aug 29, 2008)
* Aug 25 2008 (Yang Tse)
- Improvement by Brad House:
This patch addresses an issue in which a response could be sent back to the
source port of a client from a different address than the request was made to.
This is one form of a DNS cache poisoning attack.
The patch simply uses recvfrom() rather than recv() and validates that the
address returned from recvfrom() matches the address of the server we have
connected to. Only necessary on UDP sockets as they are connection-less, TCP
is unaffected.
- Fix by George Neill:
Fixed compilation of acountry sample application failure on some systems.
* Aug 4 2008 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Fix by Tofu Linden:
The symptom:
* Users (usually, but not always) on 2-Wire routers and the Comcast service
and a wired connection to their router would find that the second and
subsequent DNS lookups from fresh processes using c-ares to resolve the same
address would cause the process to never see a reply (it keeps polling for
around 1m15s before giving up).
The repro:
* On such a machine (and yeah, it took us a lot of QA to find the systems
that reproduce such a specific problem!), do 'ahost',
then do it again. The first process's lookup will work, subsequent lookups
will time-out and fail.
The cause:
* init_id_key() was calling randomize_key() *before* it initialized
key->state, meaning that the randomness generated by randomize_key() is
immediately overwritten with deterministic values. (/dev/urandom was also
being read incorrectly in the c-ares version we were using, but this was
fixed in a later version.)
* This makes the stream of generated query-IDs from any new c-ares process
be an identical and predictable sequence of IDs.
* This makes the 2-Wire's default built-in DNS server detect these queries
as probable-duplicates and (erroneously) not respond at all.
* Aug 4 2008 (Yang Tse)
- Autoconf 2.62 has changed the behaviour of the AC_AIX macro which we use.
Prior versions of autoconf defined _ALL_SOURCE if _AIX was defined. 2.62
version of AC_AIX defines _ALL_SOURCE and other four preprocessor symbols
no matter if the system is AIX or not. To keep the traditional behaviour,
and an uniform one across autoconf versions AC_AIX is replaced with our
own internal macro CARES_CHECK_AIX_ALL_SOURCE.
* Aug 1 2008 (Yang Tse)
- Configure process now checks if the preprocessor _REENTRANT symbol is already
defined. If it isn't currently defined a set of checks are performed to test
if its definition is required to make visible to the compiler a set of *_r
functions. Finally, if _REENTRANT is already defined or needed it takes care
of making adjustments necessary to ensure that it is defined equally for the
configure process tests and generated config file.
* Jul 20 2008 (Yang Tse)
- When recvfrom prototype uses a void pointer for arguments 2, 5 or 6 this will
now cause the definition, as appropriate, of RECVFROM_TYPE_ARG2_IS_VOID,
* Jul 17 2008 (Yang Tse)
to the data type pointed by its respective argument and not the pointer type.
* Jul 16 2008 (Yang Tse)
- Improved configure detection of number of arguments for getservbyport_r.
Detection is now based on compilation checks instead of linker ones.
- Configure process now checks availability of recvfrom() socket function and
finds out its return type and the types of its arguments. Added definitions
for non-configure systems config files, and introduced macro sreadfrom which
will be used on udp sockets as a recvfrom() wrapper in the future.
* Jul 15 2008 (Yang Tse)
- Introduce definition of _REENTRANT symbol in setup.h to improve library
usability. Previously the configure process only used the AC_SYS_LARGEFILE
macro for debug builds, now it is also used for non-debug ones enabling the
use of configure options --enable-largefile and --disable-largefile which
might be needed for library compatibility. Remove checking the size of
curl_off_t, it is no longer needed.
* Jul 3 2008 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Phil Blundell: If you ask ares_gethostbyname() to do an AF_INET6 lookup and
the target host has only A records, it automatically falls back to an
AF_INET lookup and gives you the A results. However, if the target host has
a CNAME record, this behaviour is defeated since the original query does
return some data even though ares_parse_aaa_reply() doesn't consider it
relevant. Here's a small patch to make it behave the same with and without
the CNAME.
* Jul 2 2008 (Yang Tse)
- Fallback to gettimeofday when monotonic clock is unavailable at run-time.
* Jun 30 2008 (Daniel Stenberg)
- As was pointed out to me by Andreas Schuldei, the MAXHOSTNAMELEN define is
not posix or anything and thus c-ares failed to build on hurd (and possibly
elsewhere). The define was also somewhat artificially used in the windows
port. Now, I instead rewrote the use of gethostbyname to enlarge the host
name buffer in case of need and totally avoid the use of the MAXHOSTNAMELEN
define. I thus also removed the defien from the namser.h file where it was
once added for the windows build.
I also fixed init_by_defaults() function to not leak memory in case if
* Jun 9 2008 (Yang Tse)
- Make libcares.pc generated file for pkg-config include information relative
to the libraries needed for the static linking of c-ares.
* May 30 2008 (Yang Tse)
- Brad House fixed a missing header file inclusion in adig sample program.
Version 1.5.2 (May 29, 2008)
* May 13 2008 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Introducing millisecond resolution support for the timeout option. See
ares_init_options()'s ARES_OPT_TIMEOUTMS.
* May 9 2008 (Yang Tse)
- Use monotonic time source if available, for private function ares__tvnow()
* May 7 2008 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Sebastian made c-ares able to return all PTR-records when doing reverse
lookups. It is not common practice to have multiple PTR-Records for a single
IP, but its perfectly legal and some sites have those.
- Doug Goldstein provided a configure patch: updates autoconf 2.13 usage to
autoconf 2.57 usage (which is the version you have specified as the minimum
version). It's a minor change but it does clean up some warnings with newer
autoconf (specifically 2.62).
* May 5 2008 (Yang Tse)
- Improved parsing of resolver configuration files.
* April 4 2008 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Eino Tuominen improved the code when a file is used to seed the randomizer.
- Alexey Simak made adig support NAPTR records
- Alexey Simak fixed the VC dsp file by adding the missing source file
* December 11 2007 (Gisle Vanem)
- Added another sample application; acountry.c which converts an
IPv4-address(es) and/or host-name(s) to country-name and country-code.
This uses the service of the DNSBL at
* December 3 2007 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Brad Spencer fixed the configure script to assume that there's no
/dev/urandom when built cross-compiled as then the script cannot check for
- Erik Kline cleaned up ares_gethostbyaddr.c:next_lookup() somewhat
Version 1.5.1 (Nov 21, 2007)
* November 21 2007 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Robin Cornelius pointed out that ares_llist.h was missing in the release
archive for 1.5.0
Version 1.5.0 (Nov 21, 2007)
* October 2 2007 (Daniel Stenberg)
- ares_strerror() segfaulted if the input error number was out of the currently
supported range.
- Yang Tse: Avoid a segfault when generating a DNS "Transaction ID" in
internal function init_id_key() under low memory conditions.
* September 28 2007 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Bumped version to 1.5.0 for next release and soname bumped to 2 due to ABI
and API changes in the progress callback (and possibly more coming up from
* September 28 2007 (Steinar H. Gunderson)
- Don't skip a server if it's the only one. (Bugfix from the Google tree.)
- Made the query callbacks receive the number of timeouts that happened during
the execution of a query, and updated documentation accordingly. (Patch from
the Google tree.)
- Support a few more socket options: ARES_OPT_SOCK_SNDBUF and
- Always register for TCP events even if there are no outstanding queries, as
the other side could always close the connection, which is a valid event
which should be responded to.
* September 22 2007 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Steinar H. Gunderson fixed: Correctly clear sockets from the fd_set on in
several functions (write_tcp_data, read_tcp_data, read_udp_packets) so that
if it fails and the socket is closed the following code doesn't try to use
the file descriptor.
- Steinar H. Gunderson modified c-ares to now also do to DNS retries even when
TCP is used since there are several edge cases where it still makes sense.
- Brad House provided a fix for ares_save_options():
Apparently I overlooked something with the ares_save_options() where it
would try to do a malloc(0) when no options of that type needed to be saved.
On most platforms, this was fine because malloc(0) doesn't actually return
NULL, but on AIX it does, so ares_save_options would return ARES_ENOMEM.
* July 14 2007 (Daniel Stenberg)
- Vlad Dinulescu fixed two outstanding valgrind reports:
1. In ares_query.c , in find_query_by_id we compare q->qid (which is a short
int variable) with qid, which is declared as an int variable. Moreover,
DNS_HEADER_SET_QID is used to set the value of qid, but DNS_HEADER_SET_QID
sets only the first two bytes of qid. I think that qid should be declared as
"unsigned short" in this function.
2. The same problem occurs in ares_process.c, process_answer() . query->qid
(an unsigned short integer variable) is compared with id, which is an
integer variable. Moreover, id is initialized from DNS_HEADER_QID which sets
only the first two bytes of id. I think that the id variable should be
declared as "unsigned short" in this function.
Even after declaring these variables as "unsigned short", the valgrind
errors are still there. Which brings us to the third problem.
3. The third problem is that Valgrind assumes that query->qid is not
initialised correctly. And it does that because query->qid is set from
DNS_HEADER_QID(qbuf); Valgrind says that qbuf has unitialised bytes. And
qbuf has uninitialised bytes because of channel->next_id . And next_id is
set by ares_init.c:ares__generate_new_id() . I found that putting short r=0
in this function (instead of short r) makes all Valgrind warnings go away.
I have studied ares__rc4() too, and this is the offending line:
buffer_ptr[counter] ^= state[xorIndex]; (ares_query.c:62)
This is what triggers Valgrind.. buffer_ptr is unitialised in this function,
and by applying ^= on it, it remains unitialised.
Version 1.4.0 (June 8, 2007)
* June 4 2007 (Daniel Stenberg)
- James Bursa reported a major memory problem when resolving multi-IP names
and I found and fixed the problem. It was added by Ashish Sharma's patch
two days ago.
When I then tried to verify multiple entries in /etc/hosts after my fix, I
got another segfault and decided this code was not ripe for inclusion and I
reverted the patch.
* June 2 2007
- Brad Spencer found and fixed three flaws in the code, found with the new
gcc 4.2.0 warning: -Waddress
- Brad House fixed VS2005 compiler warnings due to time_t being 64bit.
He also made recent Microsoft compilers use _strdup() instead of strdup().
- Brad House's man pages for ares_save_options() and ares_destroy_options()
were added.
- Ashish Sharma provided a patch for supporting multiple entries in the
/etc/hosts file. Patch edited for coding style and functionality by me
* May 30 2007
- Shmulik Regev brought cryptographically secure transaction IDs:
The c-ares library implementation uses a DNS "Transaction ID" field that is
seeded with a pseudo random number (based on gettimeofday) which is
incremented (++) between consecutive calls and is therefore rather
predictable. In general, predictability of DNS Transaction ID is a well
known security problem (e.g. and makes a c-ares based
implementation vulnerable to DNS poisoning. Credit goes to Amit Klein
(Trusteer) for identifying this problem.
The patch I wrote changes the implementation to use a more secure way of
generating unique IDs. It starts by obtaining a key with reasonable entropy
which is used with an RC4 stream to generate the cryptographically secure
transaction IDs.
Note that the key generation code (in ares_init:randomize_key) has two
versions, the Windows specific one uses a cryptographically safe function
provided (but undocumented :) by the operating system (described at The
default implementation is a bit naive and uses the standard 'rand'
function. Surely a better way to generate random keys exists for other
The patch can be tested by using the adig utility and using the '-s' option.
- Brad House added ares_save_options() and ares_destroy_options() that can be
used to keep options for later re-usal when ares_init_options() is used.
Problem: Calling ares_init() for each lookup can be unnecessarily resource
intensive. On windows, it must LoadLibrary() or search the registry
on each call to ares_init(). On unix, it must read and parse
multiple files to obtain the necessary configuration information. In
a single-threaded environment, it would make sense to only
ares_init() once, but in a heavily multi-threaded environment, it is
undesirable to ares_init() and ares_destroy() for each thread created
and track that.
Solution: Create ares_save_options() and ares_destroy_options() functions to
retrieve and free options obtained from an initialized channel. The
options populated can be used to pass back into ares_init_options(),
it should populate all needed fields and not retrieve any information
from the system. Probably wise to destroy the cache every minute or
so to prevent the data from becoming stale.
- Daniel S added ares_process_fd() to allow applications to ask for processing
on specific sockets and thus avoiding select() and associated
functions/macros. This function will be used by upcoming libcurl releases
for this very reason. It also made me export the ares_socket_t type in the
public ares.h header file, since ares_process_fd() uses that type for two of
the arguments.
* May 25 2007
- Ravi Pratap fixed a flaw in the init_by_resolv_conf() function for windows
that could cause it to return a bad return code.
* April 16 2007
- Yang Tse: Provide ares_getopt() command-line parser function as a source
code helper function, not belonging to the actual c-ares library.
* February 19 2007
- Vlad Dinulescu added ares_parse_ns_reply().
* February 13 2007
- Yang Tse: Fix failure to get the search sequence of /etc/hosts and
DNS from /etc/nsswitch.conf, /etc/host.conf or /etc/svc.conf when
/etc/resolv.conf did not exist or was unable to read it.
* November 22 2006
- Install ares_dns.h too
- Michael Wallner fixed this problem: When I set domains in the options
struct, and there are domain/search entries in /etc/resolv.conf, the domains
of the options struct will be overridden.
* November 6 2006
- Yang Tse removed a couple of potential zero size memory allocations.
- Andreas Rieke fixed the line endings in the areslib.dsp file that I (Daniel)
broke in the 1.3.2 release. We should switch to a system where that file is
auto-generated. We could rip some code for that from curl...
Version 1.3.2 (November 3, 2006)
* October 12 2006
- Prevent ares_getsock() to overflow if more than 16 sockets are used.
* September 11 2006
- Guilherme Balena Versiani: I noted a strange BUG in Win32 port
(ares_init.c/get_iphlpapi_dns_info() function): when I disable the network
by hand or disconnect the network cable in Windows 2000 or Windows XP, my
application gets as the only name server. The problem comes from
'GetNetworkParams' function, that returns the empty string "" as the only
name server in that case. Moreover, the Windows implementation of
inet_addr() returns INADDR_LOOPBACK instead of INADDR_NONE.
* August 29 2006
- Brad Spencer did
o made ares_version.h use extern "C" for c++ compilers
o fixed compiler warnings in ares_getnameinfo.c
o fixed a buffer position init for TCP reads
* August 3 2006
- Ravi Pratap fixed ares_getsock() to actually return the proper bitmap and
not always zero!
Version 1.3.1 (June 24, 2006)
* July 23, 2006
- Gisle Vanem added getopt() to the ahost program. Currently accepts
only [-t {a|aaaa}] to specify address family in ares_gethostbyname().
* June 19, 2006
- (wahern) Removed "big endian" DNS section and RR data integer parser
macros from ares_dns.h, which break c-ares on my Sparc64. Bit-wise
operations in C operate on logical values. And in any event the octets are
already in big-endian (aka network) byte order so they're being reversed
(thus the source of the breakage).
* June 18, 2006
- William Ahern handles EAGAIN/EWOULDBLOCK errors in most of the I/O calls
from area_process.c.
TODO: Handle one last EAGAIN for a UDP socket send(2) in
* May 10, 2006
- Bram Matthys brought my attention to a libtool peculiarity where detecting
things such as C++ compiler actually is a bad thing and since we don't need
that detection I added a work-around, much inspired by a previous patch by
Paolo Bonzini. This also shortens the configure script quite a lot.
* May 3, 2006
- Nick Mathewson added the ARES_OPT_SOCK_STATE_CB option that when set makes
c-ares call a callback on socket state changes. A better way than the
ares_getsock() to get full control over the socket state.
* January 9, 2006
- Alexander Lazic improved the getservbyport_r() configure check.
* January 6, 2006
- Alexander Lazic pointed out that the buildconf should use the ACLOCAL_FLAGS
variable for easier controlling what it does and how it runs.
* January 5, 2006
- James Bursa fixed c-ares to find the hosts file on RISC OS, and made it
build with newer gcc versions that no longer defines "riscos".
* December 22
- Daniel Stenberg added ares_getsock() that extracts the set of sockets to
wait for action on. Similar to ares_fds() but not restricted to using
select() for the waiting.
* November 25
- Yang Tse fixed some send() / recv() compiler warnings
* September 18
- Added constants that will be used by ares_getaddrinfo
- Made ares_getnameinfo use the reentrant getservbyport (getservbyport_r) if it
is available to ensure it works properly in a threaded environment.
* September 10
- configure fix for detecting a member in the sockaddr_in6 struct which failed
on ipv6-enabled HP-UX 11.00
Version 1.3.0 (August 29, 2005)
* August 21
- Alfredo Tupone provided a fix for the Windows code in get_iphlpapi_dns_info()
when getting the DNS server etc.
* June 19
- Added some checks for the addrinfo structure.
* June 2
- William Ahern:
Make UDP sockets non-blocking. I've confirmed that at least on Linux 2.4 a
read event can come back from poll() on a valid SOCK_DGRAM socket but
recv(2) will still block. This patch doesn't ignore EAGAIN in
read_udp_packets(), though maybe it should. (This patch was edited by Daniel
Stenberg and a new configure test was added (imported from curl's configure)
to properly detect what non-blocking socket approach to use.)
I'm not quite sure how this was happening, but I've been seeing PTR queries
which seem to return empty responses. At least, they were empty when calling
ares_expand_name() on the record. Here's a patch which guarantees to
NUL-terminate the expanded name. The old behavior failed to NUL-terminate if
len was 0, and this was causing strlen() to run past the end of the buffer
after calling ares_expand_name() and getting ARES_SUCCESS as the return
value. If q is not greater than *s then it's equal and *s is always
allocated with at least one byte.
* May 16
- Added ares_getnameinfo which mimics the getnameinfo API (another feature
that could use testing).
* May 14
- Added an inet_ntop function from BIND for systems that do not have it.
* April 9
- Made sortlist support IPv6 (this can probably use some testing).
- Made sortlist support CIDR matching for IPv4.
* April 8
- Added preliminary IPv6 support to ares_gethostbyname. Currently, sortlist
does not work with IPv6. Also provided an implementation of bitncmp from
BIND for systems that do not supply this function. This will be used to add
IPv6 support to sortlist.
- Made ares_gethostbyaddr support IPv6 by specifying AF_INET6 as the family.
The function can lookup IPv6 addresses both from files (/etc/hosts) and
DNS lookups.
* April 7
- Tupone Alfredo fixed includes of arpa/nameser_compat.h to build fine on Mac
* April 5
- Dominick Meglio: Provided implementations of inet_net_pton and inet_pton
from BIND for systems that do not include these functions.
* March 11, 2005
- Dominick Meglio added ares_parse_aaaa_reply.c and did various
adjustments. The first little steps towards IPv6 support!
* November 7
- Fixed the VC project and makefile to use ares_cancel and ares_version
* October 24
- The released ares_version.h from 1.2.1 says 1.2.0 due to a maketgz flaw.
This is now fixed.
Version 1.2.1 (October 20, 2004)
* September 29
- Henrik Stoerner fix: got a report that Tru64 Unix (the unix from Digital
when they made Alpha's) uses /etc/svc.conf for the purpose fixed below for
other OSes. He made c-ares check for and understand it if present.
- Now c-ares will use local host name lookup _before_ DNS resolving by default
if nothing else is told.
* September 26
- Henrik Stoerner: found out that c-ares does not look at the /etc/host.conf
file to determine the sequence in which to search /etc/hosts and DNS. So on
systems where this order is defined by /etc/host.conf instead of a "lookup"
entry in /etc/resolv.conf, c-ares will always default to looking in DNS
first, and /etc/hosts second.
c-ares now looks at
1) resolv.conf (for the "lookup" line);
2) nsswitch.fon (for the "hosts:" line);
3) host.conf (for the "order" line).
First match wins.
- Dominick Meglio patched: C-ares on Windows assumed that the HOSTS file is
located in a static location. It assumed
C:\Windows\System32\Drivers\Etc. This is a poor assumption to make. In fact,
the location of the HOSTS file can be changed via a registry setting.
There is a key called DatabasePath which specifies the path to the HOSTS
The patch will make c-ares correctly consult the registry for the location
of this file.
* August 29
- Gisle Vanem fixed the MSVC build files.
* August 20
- Gisle Vanem made c-ares build and work with his Watt-32 TCP/IP stack.
* August 13
- Harshal Pradhan made a minor syntax change in ares_init.c to make it build
fine with MSVC 7.1
* July 24
- Made the lib get built static only if --enable-debug is used.
- Gisle Vanem fixed:
Basically in loops like handle_errors(), 'query->next' was assigned a local
variable and then query was referenced after the memory was freed by
next_server(). I've changed that so next_server() and end_query() returns
the next query. So callers should use this ret-value.
The next problem was that 'server->tcp_buffer_pos' had a random value at
entry to 1st recv() (luckily causing Winsock to return ENOBUFS).
I've also added a ares_writev() for Windows to streamline the code a bit
* July 20
- Fixed a few variable return types for some system calls. Made configure
check for ssize_t to make it possible to use that when receiving the send()
error code. This is necessary to prevent compiler warnings on some systems.
- Made configure create config.h, and all source files now include setup.h that
might include the proper config.h (or a handicrafted alternative).
- Switched to 'ares_socket_t' type for sockets in ares, since Windows don't
use 'int' for that.
- automake-ified and libool-ified c-ares. Now it builds libcares as a shared
lib on most platforms if wanted. (This bloated the size of the release
archive with another 200K!)
- now uses for the c sources, h headers and man
pages, to make it easier for other makefiles to use the exact same set of
- Adjusted 'maketgz' to use the new automake magic when building distribution
- Anyone desires HTML and/or PDF versions of the man pages in the release
* July 3
- Günter Knauf made c-ares build and run on Novell Netware.
* July 1
- Gisle Vanem provided to build with djgpp, added a few more djgpp
fixes and made ares not use 'errno' to provide further info on Windows.
* June 30
- Gisle Vanem made it build with djgpp and run fine with the Watt-32 stack.
* June 10
- Gisle Vanem's init patch for Windows:
The init_by_resolv_conf() function fetches the DNS-server(s)
from a series of registry branches.
This can be wrong in the case where DHCP has assigned nameservers, but the
user has overridden these servers with other prefered settings. Then it's
wrong to use the DHCPNAMESERVER setting in registry.
In the case of no global DHCP-assigned or fixed servers, but DNS server(s)
per adapter, one has to query the adapter branches. But how can c-ares know
which adapter is valid for use? AFAICS it can't. There could be one adapter
that is down (e.g. a VPN adapter).
So it's better to leave this to the IP Helper API (iphlapi) available in
Win-98/2000 and later. My patch falls-back to the old way if not available.
* June 8
- James Bursa fixed an init issue for RISC OS.
* May 11
- Nico Stappenbelt reported that when processing domain and search lines in
the resolv.conf file, the first entry encountered is processed and used as
the search list. According to the manual pages for both Linux, Solaris and
Tru64, the last entry of either a domain or a search field is used.
This is now adjusted in the code
Version 1.2.0 (April 13, 2004)
* April 2, 2004
- Updated various man pages to look nicer when converted to HTML on the web
* April 1, 2004
- Dirk Manske provided a new function that is now named ares_cancel(). It is
used to cancel/cleanup a resolve/request made using ares functions on the
given ares channel. It does not destroy/kill the ares channel itself.
- Dominick Meglio cleaned up the formatting in several man pages.
* March 30, 2004
- Dominick Meglio's new ares_expand_string. A helper function when decoding
incoming DNS packages.
- Daniel Stenberg modified the to use a for loop for the man page
installation to improve overview and make it easier to add man pages.
Version 1.1.0 (March 11, 2004)
* March 9, 2004
- Gisle Vanem improved build on Windows.
* February 25, 2004
- Dan Fandrich found a flaw in the Feb 22 fix.
- Added better configure --enable-debug logic (taken from the curl configure
script). Added acinclude.m4 to the tarball.
* February 23, 2004
- Removed ares_free_errmem(), the function, the file and the man page. It was
not used and it did nothing.
- Fixed a lot of code that wasn't "64bit clean" and thus caused a lot of
compiler warnings on picky compilers.
* February 22, 2004
- Dominick Meglio made ares init support multiple name servers in the
NameServer key on Windows.
* February 16, 2004
- Modified ares_private.h to include libcurl's memory debug header if
CURLDEBUG is set. This makes all the ares-functions supervised properly by
the curl test suite. This also forced me to add inclusion of the
ares_private.h header in a few more files that are using some kind of
memory-related resources.
- Made the makefile only build ahost and adig if 'make demos' is used.
* February 10, 2004
- Dirk Manske made ares_version.h installed with 'make install'
* February 4, 2004
- ares_free_errmem() is subject for removal, it is simply present for future
purposes, and since we removed the extra parameter in strerror() it won't
be used by c-ares!
- configure --enable-debug now enables picky compiler options if gcc is used
- fixed several compiler warnings --enable-debug showed and Joerg Mueller-Tolk
Version 1.0.0 (February 3, 2004)
* February 3, 2004
- now we produce the libcares.a library instead of the previous libares.a
since we are no longer compatible
* February 2, 2004
- ares_strerror() has one argument less. This is the first official
modification of the existing provided ares API.
* January 29, 2004
- Dirk Manske fixed how the socket is set non-blocking.
* January 4, 2004
- Dominick Meglio made the private gettimeofday() become ares_gettimeofday()
instead in order to not pollute the name space and risk colliding with
other libraries' versions of this function.
* October 24, 2003. Daniel Stenberg
Added ares_version().
Version 1.0-pre1 (8 October 2003)
- James Bursa made it run on RISC OS
- Dominick Meglio made it run fine on NT4
- Duncan Wilcox made it work fine on Mac OS X
- Daniel Stenberg adjusted the windows port
- liren at made the initial windows port
* Imported the sources from ares 1.1.1
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