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/***************************************************************************
* _ _ ____ _
* Project ___| | | | _ \| |
* / __| | | | |_) | |
* | (__| |_| | _ <| |___
* \___|\___/|_| \_\_____|
*
* Copyright (C) 1998 - 2011, Daniel Stenberg, <daniel@haxx.se>, et al.
*
* This software is licensed as described in the file COPYING, which
* you should have received as part of this distribution. The terms
* are also available at http://curl.haxx.se/docs/copyright.html.
*
* You may opt to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute and/or sell
* copies of the Software, and permit persons to whom the Software is
* furnished to do so, under the terms of the COPYING file.
*
* This software is distributed on an "AS IS" basis, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY
* KIND, either express or implied.
*
***************************************************************************/

#include "setup.h"

#ifdef HAVE_SYS_SOCKET_H
#include <sys/socket.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_NETINET_IN_H
#include <netinet/in.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_NETDB_H
#include <netdb.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_ARPA_INET_H
#include <arpa/inet.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_UNISTD_H
#include <unistd.h> /* for the close() proto */
#endif
#ifdef __VMS
#include <in.h>
#include <inet.h>
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_SETJMP_H
#include <setjmp.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_SIGNAL_H
#include <signal.h>
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_PROCESS_H
#include <process.h>
#endif

#include "urldata.h"
#include "sendf.h"
#include "hostip.h"
#include "hash.h"
#include "share.h"
#include "strerror.h"
#include "url.h"
#include "inet_ntop.h"
#include "warnless.h"

#define _MPRINTF_REPLACE /* use our functions only */
#include <curl/mprintf.h>

#include "curl_memory.h"
/* The last #include file should be: */
#include "memdebug.h"

#if defined(CURLRES_SYNCH) && \
defined(HAVE_ALARM) && defined(SIGALRM) && defined(HAVE_SIGSETJMP)
/* alarm-based timeouts can only be used with all the dependencies satisfied */
#define USE_ALARM_TIMEOUT
#endif

/*
* hostip.c explained
* ==================
*
* The main COMPILE-TIME DEFINES to keep in mind when reading the host*.c
* source file are these:
*
* CURLRES_IPV6 - this host has getaddrinfo() and family, and thus we use
* that. The host may not be able to resolve IPv6, but we don't really have to
* take that into account. Hosts that aren't IPv6-enabled have CURLRES_IPV4
* defined.
*
* CURLRES_ARES - is defined if libcurl is built to use c-ares for
* asynchronous name resolves. This can be Windows or *nix.
*
* CURLRES_THREADED - is defined if libcurl is built to run under (native)
* Windows, and then the name resolve will be done in a new thread, and the
* supported API will be the same as for ares-builds.
*
* If any of the two previous are defined, CURLRES_ASYNCH is defined too. If
* libcurl is not built to use an asynchronous resolver, CURLRES_SYNCH is
* defined.
*
* The host*.c sources files are split up like this:
*
* hostip.c - method-independent resolver functions and utility functions
* hostasyn.c - functions for asynchronous name resolves
* hostsyn.c - functions for synchronous name resolves
* hostip4.c - ipv4-specific functions
* hostip6.c - ipv6-specific functions
*
* The two asynchronous name resolver backends are implemented in:
* asyn-ares.c - functions for ares-using name resolves
* asyn-thread.c - functions for threaded name resolves

* The hostip.h is the united header file for all this. It defines the
* CURLRES_* defines based on the config*.h and setup.h defines.
*/

/* These two symbols are for the global DNS cache */
static struct curl_hash hostname_cache;
static int host_cache_initialized;

static void freednsentry(void *freethis);

/*
* Curl_global_host_cache_init() initializes and sets up a global DNS cache.
* Global DNS cache is general badness. Do not use. This will be removed in
* a future version. Use the share interface instead!
*
* Returns a struct curl_hash pointer on success, NULL on failure.
*/
struct curl_hash *Curl_global_host_cache_init(void)
{
  int rc = 0;
  if(!host_cache_initialized) {
    rc = Curl_hash_init(&hostname_cache, 7, Curl_hash_str,
                        Curl_str_key_compare, freednsentry);
    if(!rc)
      host_cache_initialized = 1;
  }
  return rc?NULL:&hostname_cache;
}

/*
* Destroy and cleanup the global DNS cache
*/
void Curl_global_host_cache_dtor(void)
{
  if(host_cache_initialized) {
    Curl_hash_clean(&hostname_cache);
    host_cache_initialized = 0;
  }
}

/*
* Return # of adresses in a Curl_addrinfo struct
*/
int Curl_num_addresses(const Curl_addrinfo *addr)
{
  int i = 0;
  while(addr) {
    addr = addr->ai_next;
    i++;
  }
  return i;
}

/*
* Curl_printable_address() returns a printable version of the 1st address
* given in the 'ai' argument. The result will be stored in the buf that is
* bufsize bytes big.
*
* If the conversion fails, it returns NULL.
*/
const char *
Curl_printable_address(const Curl_addrinfo *ai, char *buf, size_t bufsize)
{
  const struct sockaddr_in *sa4;
  const struct in_addr *ipaddr4;
#ifdef ENABLE_IPV6
  const struct sockaddr_in6 *sa6;
  const struct in6_addr *ipaddr6;
#endif

  switch (ai->ai_family) {
    case AF_INET:
      sa4 = (const void *)ai->ai_addr;
      ipaddr4 = &sa4->sin_addr;
      return Curl_inet_ntop(ai->ai_family, (const void *)ipaddr4, buf,
                            bufsize);
#ifdef ENABLE_IPV6
    case AF_INET6:
      sa6 = (const void *)ai->ai_addr;
      ipaddr6 = &sa6->sin6_addr;
      return Curl_inet_ntop(ai->ai_family, (const void *)ipaddr6, buf,
                            bufsize);
#endif
    default:
      break;
  }
  return NULL;
}

/*
* Return a hostcache id string for the providing host + port, to be used by
* the DNS caching.
*/
static char *
create_hostcache_id(const char *server, int port)
{
  /* create and return the new allocated entry */
  return aprintf("%s:%d", server, port);
}

struct hostcache_prune_data {
  long cache_timeout;
  time_t now;
};

/*
* This function is set as a callback to be called for every entry in the DNS
* cache when we want to prune old unused entries.
*
* Returning non-zero means remove the entry, return 0 to keep it in the
* cache.
*/
static int
hostcache_timestamp_remove(void *datap, void *hc)
{
  struct hostcache_prune_data *data =
    (struct hostcache_prune_data *) datap;
  struct Curl_dns_entry *c = (struct Curl_dns_entry *) hc;

  return (data->now - c->timestamp >= data->cache_timeout);
}

/*
* Prune the DNS cache. This assumes that a lock has already been taken.
*/
static void
hostcache_prune(struct curl_hash *hostcache, long cache_timeout, time_t now)
{
  struct hostcache_prune_data user;

  user.cache_timeout = cache_timeout;
  user.now = now;

  Curl_hash_clean_with_criterium(hostcache,
                                 (void *) &user,
                                 hostcache_timestamp_remove);
}

/*
* Library-wide function for pruning the DNS cache. This function takes and
* returns the appropriate locks.
*/
void Curl_hostcache_prune(struct SessionHandle *data)
{
  time_t now;

  if((data->set.dns_cache_timeout == -1) || !data->dns.hostcache)
    /* cache forever means never prune, and NULL hostcache means
we can't do it */
    return;

  if(data->share)
    Curl_share_lock(data, CURL_LOCK_DATA_DNS, CURL_LOCK_ACCESS_SINGLE);

  time(&now);

  /* Remove outdated and unused entries from the hostcache */
  hostcache_prune(data->dns.hostcache,
                  data->set.dns_cache_timeout,
                  now);

  if(data->share)
    Curl_share_unlock(data, CURL_LOCK_DATA_DNS);
}

/*
* Check if the entry should be pruned. Assumes a locked cache.
*/
static int
remove_entry_if_stale(struct SessionHandle *data, struct Curl_dns_entry *dns)
{
  struct hostcache_prune_data user;

  if(!dns || (data->set.dns_cache_timeout == -1) || !data->dns.hostcache)
    /* cache forever means never prune, and NULL hostcache means
we can't do it */
    return 0;

  time(&user.now);
  user.cache_timeout = data->set.dns_cache_timeout;

  if(!hostcache_timestamp_remove(&user,dns) )
    return 0;

  Curl_hash_clean_with_criterium(data->dns.hostcache,
                                 (void *) &user,
                                 hostcache_timestamp_remove);

  return 1;
}


#ifdef HAVE_SIGSETJMP
/* Beware this is a global and unique instance. This is used to store the
return address that we can jump back to from inside a signal handler. This
is not thread-safe stuff. */
sigjmp_buf curl_jmpenv;
#endif


/*
* Curl_cache_addr() stores a 'Curl_addrinfo' struct in the DNS cache.
*
* When calling Curl_resolv() has resulted in a response with a returned
* address, we call this function to store the information in the dns
* cache etc
*
* Returns the Curl_dns_entry entry pointer or NULL if the storage failed.
*/
struct Curl_dns_entry *
Curl_cache_addr(struct SessionHandle *data,
                Curl_addrinfo *addr,
                const char *hostname,
                int port)
{
  char *entry_id;
  size_t entry_len;
  struct Curl_dns_entry *dns;
  struct Curl_dns_entry *dns2;

  /* Create an entry id, based upon the hostname and port */
  entry_id = create_hostcache_id(hostname, port);
  /* If we can't create the entry id, fail */
  if(!entry_id)
    return NULL;
  entry_len = strlen(entry_id);

  /* Create a new cache entry */
  dns = calloc(1, sizeof(struct Curl_dns_entry));
  if(!dns) {
    free(entry_id);
    return NULL;
  }

  dns->inuse = 0; /* init to not used */
  dns->addr = addr; /* this is the address(es) */
  time(&dns->timestamp);
  if(dns->timestamp == 0)
    dns->timestamp = 1; /* zero indicates that entry isn't in hash table */

  /* Store the resolved data in our DNS cache. */
  dns2 = Curl_hash_add(data->dns.hostcache, entry_id, entry_len+1,
                       (void *)dns);
  if(!dns2) {
    free(dns);
    free(entry_id);
    return NULL;
  }

  dns = dns2;
  dns->inuse++; /* mark entry as in-use */

  /* free the allocated entry_id */
  free(entry_id);

  return dns;
}

/*
* Curl_resolv() is the main name resolve function within libcurl. It resolves
* a name and returns a pointer to the entry in the 'entry' argument (if one
* is provided). This function might return immediately if we're using asynch
* resolves. See the return codes.
*
* The cache entry we return will get its 'inuse' counter increased when this
* function is used. You MUST call Curl_resolv_unlock() later (when you're
* done using this struct) to decrease the counter again.
*
* In debug mode, we specifically test for an interface name "LocalHost"
* and resolve "localhost" instead as a means to permit test cases
* to connect to a local test server with any host name.
*
* Return codes:
*
* CURLRESOLV_ERROR (-1) = error, no pointer
* CURLRESOLV_RESOLVED (0) = OK, pointer provided
* CURLRESOLV_PENDING (1) = waiting for response, no pointer
*/

int Curl_resolv(struct connectdata *conn,
                const char *hostname,
                int port,
                struct Curl_dns_entry **entry)
{
  char *entry_id = NULL;
  struct Curl_dns_entry *dns = NULL;
  size_t entry_len;
  struct SessionHandle *data = conn->data;
  CURLcode result;
  int rc = CURLRESOLV_ERROR; /* default to failure */

  *entry = NULL;

  /* Create an entry id, based upon the hostname and port */
  entry_id = create_hostcache_id(hostname, port);
  /* If we can't create the entry id, fail */
  if(!entry_id)
    return rc;

  entry_len = strlen(entry_id);

  if(data->share)
    Curl_share_lock(data, CURL_LOCK_DATA_DNS, CURL_LOCK_ACCESS_SINGLE);

  /* See if its already in our dns cache */
  dns = Curl_hash_pick(data->dns.hostcache, entry_id, entry_len+1);

  /* free the allocated entry_id again */
  free(entry_id);

  /* See whether the returned entry is stale. Done before we release lock */
  if(remove_entry_if_stale(data, dns))
    dns = NULL; /* the memory deallocation is being handled by the hash */

  if(dns) {
    dns->inuse++; /* we use it! */
    rc = CURLRESOLV_RESOLVED;
  }

  if(data->share)
    Curl_share_unlock(data, CURL_LOCK_DATA_DNS);

  if(!dns) {
    /* The entry was not in the cache. Resolve it to IP address */

    Curl_addrinfo *addr;
    int respwait;

    /* Check what IP specifics the app has requested and if we can provide it.
* If not, bail out. */
    if(!Curl_ipvalid(conn))
      return CURLRESOLV_ERROR;

    /* If Curl_getaddrinfo() returns NULL, 'respwait' might be set to a
non-zero value indicating that we need to wait for the response to the
resolve call */
    addr = Curl_getaddrinfo(conn,
#ifdef DEBUGBUILD
                            (data->set.str[STRING_DEVICE]
                             && !strcmp(data->set.str[STRING_DEVICE],
                                        "LocalHost"))?"localhost":
#endif
                            hostname, port, &respwait);

    if(!addr) {
      if(respwait) {
        /* the response to our resolve call will come asynchronously at
a later time, good or bad */
        /* First, check that we haven't received the info by now */
        result = Curl_resolver_is_resolved(conn, &dns);
        if(result) /* error detected */
          return CURLRESOLV_ERROR;
        if(dns)
          rc = CURLRESOLV_RESOLVED; /* pointer provided */
        else
          rc = CURLRESOLV_PENDING; /* no info yet */
      }
    }
    else {
      if(data->share)
        Curl_share_lock(data, CURL_LOCK_DATA_DNS, CURL_LOCK_ACCESS_SINGLE);

      /* we got a response, store it in the cache */
      dns = Curl_cache_addr(data, addr, hostname, port);

      if(data->share)
        Curl_share_unlock(data, CURL_LOCK_DATA_DNS);

      if(!dns)
        /* returned failure, bail out nicely */
        Curl_freeaddrinfo(addr);
      else
        rc = CURLRESOLV_RESOLVED;
    }
  }

  *entry = dns;

  return rc;
}

#ifdef USE_ALARM_TIMEOUT
/*
* This signal handler jumps back into the main libcurl code and continues
* execution. This effectively causes the remainder of the application to run
* within a signal handler which is nonportable and could lead to problems.
*/
static
RETSIGTYPE alarmfunc(int sig)
{
  /* this is for "-ansi -Wall -pedantic" to stop complaining! (rabe) */
  (void)sig;
  siglongjmp(curl_jmpenv, 1);
  return;
}
#endif /* USE_ALARM_TIMEOUT */

/*
* Curl_resolv_timeout() is the same as Curl_resolv() but specifies a
* timeout. This function might return immediately if we're using asynch
* resolves. See the return codes.
*
* The cache entry we return will get its 'inuse' counter increased when this
* function is used. You MUST call Curl_resolv_unlock() later (when you're
* done using this struct) to decrease the counter again.
*
* If built with a synchronous resolver and use of signals is not
* disabled by the application, then a nonzero timeout will cause a
* timeout after the specified number of milliseconds. Otherwise, timeout
* is ignored.
*
* Return codes:
*
* CURLRESOLV_TIMEDOUT(-2) = warning, time too short or previous alarm expired
* CURLRESOLV_ERROR (-1) = error, no pointer
* CURLRESOLV_RESOLVED (0) = OK, pointer provided
* CURLRESOLV_PENDING (1) = waiting for response, no pointer
*/

int Curl_resolv_timeout(struct connectdata *conn,
                        const char *hostname,
                        int port,
                        struct Curl_dns_entry **entry,
                        long timeoutms)
{
#ifdef USE_ALARM_TIMEOUT
#ifdef HAVE_SIGACTION
  struct sigaction keep_sigact; /* store the old struct here */
  volatile bool keep_copysig = FALSE; /* wether old sigact has been saved */
  struct sigaction sigact;
#else
#ifdef HAVE_SIGNAL
  void (*keep_sigact)(int); /* store the old handler here */
#endif /* HAVE_SIGNAL */
#endif /* HAVE_SIGACTION */
  volatile long timeout;
  volatile unsigned int prev_alarm = 0;
  struct SessionHandle *data = conn->data;
#endif /* USE_ALARM_TIMEOUT */
  int rc;

  *entry = NULL;

  if(timeoutms < 0)
    /* got an already expired timeout */
    return CURLRESOLV_TIMEDOUT;

#ifdef USE_ALARM_TIMEOUT
  if(data->set.no_signal)
    /* Ignore the timeout when signals are disabled */
    timeout = 0;
  else
    timeout = timeoutms;

  if(!timeout)
    /* USE_ALARM_TIMEOUT defined, but no timeout actually requested */
    return Curl_resolv(conn, hostname, port, entry);

  if(timeout < 1000)
    /* The alarm() function only provides integer second resolution, so if
we want to wait less than one second we must bail out already now. */
    return CURLRESOLV_TIMEDOUT;

  /*************************************************************
* Set signal handler to catch SIGALRM
* Store the old value to be able to set it back later!
*************************************************************/
#ifdef HAVE_SIGACTION
  sigaction(SIGALRM, NULL, &sigact);
  keep_sigact = sigact;
  keep_copysig = TRUE; /* yes, we have a copy */
  sigact.sa_handler = alarmfunc;
#ifdef SA_RESTART
  /* HPUX doesn't have SA_RESTART but defaults to that behaviour! */
  sigact.sa_flags &= ~SA_RESTART;
#endif
  /* now set the new struct */
  sigaction(SIGALRM, &sigact, NULL);
#else /* HAVE_SIGACTION */
  /* no sigaction(), revert to the much lamer signal() */
#ifdef HAVE_SIGNAL
  keep_sigact = signal(SIGALRM, alarmfunc);
#endif
#endif /* HAVE_SIGACTION */

  /* alarm() makes a signal get sent when the timeout fires off, and that
will abort system calls */
  prev_alarm = alarm(curlx_sltoui(timeout/1000L));

  /* This allows us to time-out from the name resolver, as the timeout
will generate a signal and we will siglongjmp() from that here.
This technique has problems (see alarmfunc).
This should be the last thing we do before calling Curl_resolv(),
as otherwise we'd have to worry about variables that get modified
before we invoke Curl_resolv() (and thus use "volatile"). */
  if(sigsetjmp(curl_jmpenv, 1)) {
    /* this is coming from a siglongjmp() after an alarm signal */
    failf(data, "name lookup timed out");
    rc = CURLRESOLV_ERROR;
    goto clean_up;
  }

#else
#ifndef CURLRES_ASYNCH
  if(timeoutms)
    infof(conn->data, "timeout on name lookup is not supported\n");
#else
  (void)timeoutms; /* timeoutms not used with an async resolver */
#endif
#endif /* USE_ALARM_TIMEOUT */

  /* Perform the actual name resolution. This might be interrupted by an
* alarm if it takes too long.
*/
  rc = Curl_resolv(conn, hostname, port, entry);

#ifdef USE_ALARM_TIMEOUT
clean_up:

  if(!prev_alarm)
    /* deactivate a possibly active alarm before uninstalling the handler */
    alarm(0);

#ifdef HAVE_SIGACTION
  if(keep_copysig) {
    /* we got a struct as it looked before, now put that one back nice
and clean */
    sigaction(SIGALRM, &keep_sigact, NULL); /* put it back */
  }
#else
#ifdef HAVE_SIGNAL
  /* restore the previous SIGALRM handler */
  signal(SIGALRM, keep_sigact);
#endif
#endif /* HAVE_SIGACTION */

  /* switch back the alarm() to either zero or to what it was before minus
the time we spent until now! */
  if(prev_alarm) {
    /* there was an alarm() set before us, now put it back */
    unsigned long elapsed_ms = Curl_tvdiff(Curl_tvnow(), conn->created);

    /* the alarm period is counted in even number of seconds */
    unsigned long alarm_set = prev_alarm - elapsed_ms/1000;

    if(!alarm_set ||
       ((alarm_set >= 0x80000000) && (prev_alarm < 0x80000000)) ) {
      /* if the alarm time-left reached zero or turned "negative" (counted
with unsigned values), we should fire off a SIGALRM here, but we
won't, and zero would be to switch it off so we never set it to
less than 1! */
      alarm(1);
      rc = CURLRESOLV_TIMEDOUT;
      failf(data, "Previous alarm fired off!");
    }
    else
      alarm((unsigned int)alarm_set);
  }
#endif /* USE_ALARM_TIMEOUT */

  return rc;
}

/*
* Curl_resolv_unlock() unlocks the given cached DNS entry. When this has been
* made, the struct may be destroyed due to pruning. It is important that only
* one unlock is made for each Curl_resolv() call.
*/
void Curl_resolv_unlock(struct SessionHandle *data, struct Curl_dns_entry *dns)
{
  DEBUGASSERT(dns && (dns->inuse>0));

  if(data->share)
    Curl_share_lock(data, CURL_LOCK_DATA_DNS, CURL_LOCK_ACCESS_SINGLE);

  dns->inuse--;
  /* only free if nobody is using AND it is not in hostcache (timestamp ==
0) */
  if(dns->inuse == 0 && dns->timestamp == 0) {
    Curl_freeaddrinfo(dns->addr);
    free(dns);
  }

  if(data->share)
    Curl_share_unlock(data, CURL_LOCK_DATA_DNS);
}

/*
* File-internal: free a cache dns entry.
*/
static void freednsentry(void *freethis)
{
  struct Curl_dns_entry *p = (struct Curl_dns_entry *) freethis;

  /* mark the entry as not in hostcache */
  p->timestamp = 0;
  if(p->inuse == 0) {
    Curl_freeaddrinfo(p->addr);
    free(p);
  }
}

/*
* Curl_mk_dnscache() creates a new DNS cache and returns the handle for it.
*/
struct curl_hash *Curl_mk_dnscache(void)
{
  return Curl_hash_alloc(7, Curl_hash_str, Curl_str_key_compare, freednsentry);
}


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