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We aim toward a consistent style so we don't waste time arguing over unimportant things with one another, or with ourselves.

We try not to waste space in this guide repeating widely accepted idioms (e.g. 2 space indent in Ruby), but only things we've had trouble with or been undecided on.

How and when to follow this styleguide

We may have old code that conflicts with these rules, but we try to follow them for new code, and to update old code as we encounter it (preferably in a separate commit).

We prefer to commit style changes before changes in functionality so that reviewers only have to comment on things we miss, not things we've fixed in a later commit.

If a styleguide violation is pointed out in review, follow it and don't debate it there – make a pull request with your proposed styleguide change.

How to change this styleguide

If anyone in the team wants to add, change or remove something, they make a pull request against this repo and make their case. Feel free to make a rough initial PR to start the discussion; it can be fleshed out and polished before we merge.

We discuss in the comments and decide by consensus.

Add checkboxes to the pull request with all our names like this:

  • Joe
  • Jane

If everyone checks their box, we have consensus.

If you veto or need more discussion, say so in a comment.

If you haven't weighed in after two weeks, it counts as a non vote. If no one else is opposed, the pull request may be merged without your vote, though you should be notified in a comment.

If you missed the vote and want to veto it after the fact, we will revert it. But if months have passed we encourage you to instead make a new pull request.

Whenever possible, try to make it automatically enforced by something like Rubocop.


Follow idioms.

As a general rule, we should follow the idioms of a language, even if they're different from another language we're more used to.

The idioms can often be derived from documentation (e.g. CoffeeScript, Slim) or some dominant library (e.g. jQuery for JS).

If we have good reason to deviate from the idioms, we should put that down in the styleguide.

Avoid trailing whitespace.

It's good practice as a developer to show invisible characters, since they can be significant. But when you do, trailing whitespace left by others can be annoying.

So show it, and strip it.

Avoid significant trailing whitespace. Use <br> over Markdown's double-space, use quoted strings for the "-- " e-mail signature convention and so on.

Use "NOTE:" in crucial comments only

Our developers' editors may be set up to visually highlight "NOTE" in comments like # NOTE: If you update this list, you must also update the list in foo_bar.rb. This makes these comments stand out.

We want "NOTE" to be reserved for especially important comments, so we don't see it all the time and start ignoring it.

The rule of thumb is: If the comment points out something you must be aware of when you edit the associated code, use "NOTE". If the comment only provides background, context or pointers that may be helpful but can safely be ignored, don't use "NOTE".

Explicitly show both branches of a conditional used as a return value.

If a method will sometimes return nil, we want that to be explicit, not implicit.

So prefer this:

def my_method
  if something
end { |x|
  if x == something

And avoid this:

def my_method
  if something
end { |x|
  if x == something

Shell scripts

Spell out command-line flags

Prefer e.g. grep --invert-match foo to grep -v foo because it's easier to understand and to look up.

If a flag is still unclear, consider documenting it:

# --insecure      Allow connections to SSL sites without certs (H)
`curl --insecure`


Use hyphens in multiple-word variable names (CSS classes, ids, data attributes).

<div class="foo-bar" id="baz-boink" data-foo-bar="wat">

Rails dom_id uses _. Twitter Bootstrap uses -. We can't be consistent with both.

Dashes also mean that it's easier to grep for CSS first-name vs Ruby first_name.

Document when IDs are for anchor links.

/ This ID is an anchor.
  p Hello!

So it's not cleaned up by someone thinking it's used for styling.

CSS and Sass

Please see the CSS and Sass styleguide.


Please see the React styleguide.


Prefer CoffeeScript.

Use === and !==, not == and !=, unless you have good reason.

Write if (foo), not if(foo).

A stylistic choice, for consistency.

It seems to be the most common format in the JS world. (It's 5 times more common in Auctionet's JS, including third-party libs, as of 2015-03-05.)


Do follow idioms. The style of their documentation examples is canon.

Use lowerCamelCase for names of variables and functions.

It's idiomatic.

Prefer if foo.length to if foo.length > 0 when checking for non-emptiness.

It's idiomatic.

Use a _ prefix or non-property functions at end of class for "private methods".

If the greeting method below is meant to be internal, either use methods with a _ prefix:

class Greeter
  constructor: (@name) ->

  greet: ->
    "#{@_greeting()}, #{@name}!"

  _greeting: ->

or non-property functions like:

class Greeter
  constructor: (@name) ->

  greet: ->
    "#{greeting()}, #{@name}!"

  # private

  greeting = ->

_ methods functions suggest private intent but they can be called from outside, and @_ looks a bit messy.

Non-property methods look a little cleaner and are "actually" private (cannot be called from outside), but they don't inherit and this isn't bound to the instance. The # private comment makes it more visually clear where the public API ends.

Use your own judgment to choose between the options.


Use a consistent class layout.

Loosely based on bbatsov's Ruby Style Guide.

class Person
  # extend and include go first
  extend SomeModule
  include AnotherModule

  # inner classes
  CustomErrorKlass =

  # constants are next

  # afterwards we have attribute macros
  attr_reader :name

  # followed by other macros (if any)
  validates :name

  # public class methods are next in line
  def self.some_method

  # followed by public instance methods
  def some_method

  # protected and private methods are grouped near the end

  def some_protected_method

  # private class methods are grouped after the private declaration
  private_class_method \
  def self.some_private_class_method

  def some_private_method

Prefer 1.9-style hashes.

Do { json: :style } and not { :hash => :rockets } when possible.

Lambdas should stab their arguments.

Do ->(x) { x * 2 } and not -> x { x * 2 }.

Mostly a stylistic choice. It's consistent with how we define regular methods. Also, stabby lambdas want something to stab!

Prefer select to find_all.

A stylistic choice.

Prefer alias_method to alias.

It's more consistent with normal Ruby syntax (alias_method :a, :b instead of alias :a :b).

It's also got a mnemonic for the argument order in its name: alias_method :the_alias, :the_method

Use square brackets for %w[] and friends.

Do %w[], not %w(). It results in an array and the square brackets make that more obvious at a glance.

This rule applies to % syntax that results in an array, e.g. %w, %W, %i and %I.

This rule does not apply to %r, %x or any other such syntax that doesn't result in an array.

No empty lines when indentation level changes.

But always put empty lines around multiline blocks when the indent level doesn't change. Avoid more than one empty line.

class Foo
  def bar

  def baz

Don't do any of this:

class Foo

  def bar

  def baz
  def waz


Don't skip indent levels for alignment.

When a statement is split over several lines, we think it's generally more readable if each new line changes by at most one level of indentation.

Do any of these:

my_method(foo, one: 1, two: 2)

  one: 1,
  two: 2

    one: 1,
    two: 2

  one: 1,
  two: 2)

But not any of these:

my_method(foo, one: 1,
          two: 2)

my_method(foo, one: 1,
               two: 2)

If you do skip levels of indentation to align arguments, and you later rename something, the indentation is also liable to become confusing.

It should be noted that Vim's Ruby indentation rules disagree with us here; they do align on arguments.

Use "Weirich style" for blocks.

Use curly braces ({/}) when we use the block for its return value (and for one-liners).

Use do/end when we use the block for its side effects.

# Used for value.
names = { |person|

# Used for side effect.
people.each do |person|

# One-liner.
people.each { |person| puts }

How do you know if we use the block for its return value? Picture adding nil as the last line inside the block. If that breaks your code, you're relying on the return value.

If we chain another method call onto the block ( { … }.sort) or assign the result (bars = { … }) we most likely use the block's return value.

Rationale: It adds more information than the "always do/end for multiple lines" convention. It also looks better with chained calls.

We still use braces for one-liners, because we think people.each do |person| puts end looks bad, and you also want to keep one-liners short.

Don't assign in a method argument if you use that variable later.

Don't do:

Foo.should_receive(:bar).with(:baz).and_return(waz = double)


waz = double

Otherwise it's hard to see where the variable is defined.

It is acceptable to define unused local variables as a refactoring step towards replacing positional arguments with keyword arguments:

method_with_too_many_arguments(name = "Foo", company = "Bar", age = 42, do_the_thing = false)

Prefer unless x to if !x for simple expressions.


unless auction.catalog_number?
  puts "No number!"

Don't do:

if !auction.catalog_number?
  puts "No number!"

Rationale: it's the Ruby idiom.

However, never use unless together with an elsif or else, since that's hard to read.

Avoid using unless with complex conditions (e.g. unless x.blank? || x.old?) or negation (unless !x.old?), since those are usually hard to understand.

Don't define bang methods without good reason.

When in doubt between #foo and #foo!, go with #foo.

Only use the bang when there is a pair of methods, with and without bang, where one is more destructive (e.g. raises, modifies in place). Cf. String#gsub!, ActiveRecord::Base#save!.

Further reading: "Bang methods; or, Danger, Will Rubyist!" by David Black

Double-quote strings unless the string contains double quotes.

Prefer "this" to 'this'.

Single-quoted strings aren't faster. Double quotes means you don't need to change them if you add interpolation or escape sequences.

But don't escape quotes inside a string if you don't need to. Change the quote style instead: 'like "this"' or %{'like' "this"}.

Use strings for complex i18n keys.

Do t("") and not t(:"").

Where a simple unquoted symbol will do, they're fine: t(:this)

Use _html and _markdown i18n key suffixes.

If a translation string contains HTML, use a _html suffix, e.g. t("foo.bar_html")

If a translation string contains Markdown, use a _markdown suffix, e.g. t("foo.bar_markdown")

Rails will automatically consider _html i18n values to be HTML safe, and this also communicates to the translator what they're allowed to do.

The _markdown suffix gets no automatic special treatment, but it also communicates to the translator what they can do.

Use %r{} for regular expressions with slashes.

%r{https?://} reads better than /https?:\/\//.

Prefer class X; class Y for nested classes/modules.


class X
  class Y


class X::Y

but use the latter if you must.

The first version avoids constant lookup issues. Namely: if you type Z inside X::Y, you may find X::Y::Z or ::Z but not X::Z.

Also, it may mean not having to fake out the wrapping module in unit tests.

But the latter version may sometimes be necessary to avoid superclass mismatch issues in some unit tests.

Put a marker in placeholder translations.

The below applies when we manually manage translations. It does not apply when we use a translation tool like WebTranslateIt that requires us to leave untranslated strings empty in the target language.

If you must store unfinished translations, add an "[untranslated]" so it's obvious, and easy to search for.

So do:

  foo: "[untranslated] some English copy for now"


  foo: "some English copy for now"

We chose "[untranslated]" because it's easy to search for and shouldn't be super confusing to end users if they see it.

Add commas to the end of multiline lists and hashes


list = [

hash = {
  foo: 1,
  bar: 2,

The trailing commas mean you can move lines around without accidentally introducing syntax errors. It also makes for cleaner diffs and won't unnecessarily shift the git blame of the previous line.

Don't do this within one-liner lists or hashes, though, as it doesn't have any of the above benefits. So, do:

  list: [
    { one_liner: [ :hash, :and, :array ] },

Whitespace in arrays and hashes

Do [ 1, 2, 3 ] and { foo: 1, bar: 2 } instead of [1, 2, 3] and {foo: 1, bar: 2} for increased readability.

Put a blank line below guard statements.


def hello
  return nil unless greetable?


and not

def hello
  return nil unless greetable?

When a method has a happy path and guard statements, we like to have them visually distinct.

Explain why you lock down a Gemfile version or fork.

If you lock a gem to a specific version, or specify a non-standard GitHub repository or branch, you should explain why in a comment.

This helps the person who wants to upgrade that dependency later. Did the standard version have a regression? Does the fork have some fix we need? Is the new version especially hard to upgrade to?

A comment is not necessary when you lock down the major version to avoid it being changed when updating another gem (e.g. gem "redis", "~> 2.0"), since this is so common. But if you've tried upgrading the major version and it was especially difficult or had specific gotchas, please do specify these, of course.


# 1.2.4 is not compatible with "apricots".
gem "bananas", "1.2.3"

# (no need for a comment)
gem "redis", "~> 2.0"

Active Record

Avoid default_scope.

It tends to cause confusing behavior.

Always use lambdas with scope.

Do scope :cool, -> { where(cool: true) } and not scope :cool, where(cool: true).

The old style is deprecated in Rails 4 and removed in 4.1. The new style helps avoid issues where you need a lambda but forget.

There are some tricky bugs waiting to happen if you don't use lambdas everywhere, like:

scope :later, -> { where("happens_at > ?", }  # now = runtime
scope :later_alligator, -> { later.alligator }          # now = runtime
scope :later_alligator, later.alligator                 # now = server launch time


Write IS NOT NULL, never is not null.

Explicitly state SQL sort direction.

Write order("name ASC"), never order("name").

Avoid SQL outside models.

Ideally, each model encapsulates its underlying table. Changes to the table shouldn't need to break the model's API. Specifically:

  • Prefer scopes or custom methods to calling Active Record methods like where from outside the model.
  • Use merge to avoid using raw SQL from another model's scopes.

There's a trade-off between keeping the model API small and keeping its internals encapsulated. In some cases, as with statistics, it may make more sense overall to use SQL methods from outside the class.

Explicitly declare null: for every column in migrations.

If a column shouldn't be empty, make it "NOT NULL" (null: false in migrations) in the DB in the interests of data integrity.

Even when the column may be empty, explicitly declare null: true in migrations to force yourself to make an explicit decision, and to show code reviewers that you did so.

Ruby on Rails

Don't use delegate with prefix: true.

If you do delegate :bar, to: :foo, prefix: true, it defines a foo_bar method that is hard to search for. Define it explicitly instead.

Put the delegate to: on its own line


delegate :one, :two,
  to: :numbers

Even if you only delegate a single method.

Rationale: it's easier to spot delegations and determine their targets when you scan the code.

Don't use instance variables in views (including partials).

Pass in locals instead of using instance variables directly. This makes dependencies more obvious and makes renaming instance variables more predictable.

With a controller/view, this is as simple as:

def show
  render locals: { item: Item.find(params[:id]) }

Or, if you define a simple helper:

def show
  locals item: Item.find(params[:id])

Use the short style for partials when possible.

Prefer render "foo", bar: "baz" to render partial: "foo", locals: { bar: "baz" }.

Either write time zone safe code or document that it's unsafe.

These examples assume that:

  • the database stores UTC times
  • the server is in another zone, say EST
  • Rails is configured to use another zone, say CET

If you e.g. do DATE(fooed_at) in your SQL, that will be the date of the UTC timestamp, and not CET.

Or if you do Time.mktime(1999, 12, 31, 12, 0) that will be noon EST but not noon CET.

We should write "time zone safe" code when we can:

  • use where("BETWEEN ? AND ?", fooed_at.beginning_of_day, fooed_at.end_of_day) instead of DATE(fooed_at)
  • use instead of Time.mktime
  • other similar cases (update this section if you encounter them)

Sometimes it doesn't really matter and isn't worth the effort. In those cases, say so in a comment so others know:

# This might not be time zone safe but that's acceptable.

The above applies equally to any scripts we keep around: if they stay in the repo to be run again, or modified, or copy-pasted from, they should be either safe or explicitly unsafe.

For code we don't keep around, anything goes, of course.

Use require_dependency to require app code.

If non-test code needs to require code that is in Rails' autoload path (e.g. code in app or lib; perhaps for Rails-less unit tests), use require_dependency "foo", not require "foo".

require_dependency plays nice with Rails development auto-reloading of classes.

require does not, so if you use it, changes to the required class may not be picked up in dev unless you reload the app server.

Read more.


Use the new expect() style.

Prefer expect(foo).to be_bar to foo.should be_bar.

Avoid subject.

It's easier to read expect(account).to be_valid than expect(subject).to be_valid.

You're free to use subject(:account) { … }, but don't refer to it by the name subject elsewhere.

If you do need it for technical reasons, perhaps with shared examples, go ahead.

We haven't yet regulated using the subject implicitly like it { should be_valid }. Use it or not as you please.

Avoid described_class.

It's easier to read expect( eq("foo") than expect( eq("foo").

That clarity is worth more than not having to type the name, or not having to search-and-replace if it changes.

If the class name is inconveniently long, maybe a let works: let(:my_class) { Foo::Bar::Baz::MyClass }

If you do need it for technical reasons, perhaps with shared examples, go ahead.

Don't use be_foo in the spec for foo?

In describe Item, "#foo?", do expect( be_true but not expect(item).to be_foo.

In another test that isn't for that method specifically, you are free to use it:

describe "#fooify" do
  it "makes the item foo" do
    expect(item).to be_foo


The method under test should be tested as-is without additional methods inbetween.

The actual output expectaction (true or truthy?) will be explicit.

It can be used consistently. be_foo -> foo? works, have_foo -> has_foo works but e.g. need_foo -> needs_foo? does not.

Balance "not" tests with a DRY opposite.

A test like expect(foo).not_to include("bar") can become irrelevant, but keep passing, when someone changes copy.

Only have tests like that if you also have a test stating the opposite, and with both sharing a constant or variable:

describe "something" do
  let(:failed_message) { "it failed" }

  specify { expect(bar).to include(failed_message) }
  specify { expect(foo).not_to include(failed_message) }

Further reading: "How to make negative assertions in tests"

Prefer to have_received over to receive.

Assuming a Greeter.say_hello that calls say("hello"), do:

allow(Greeter).to receive(:say)


expect(Greeter).to have_received(:say).with("hello")

Rather than:

expect(Greeter).to receive(:say).with("hello")


The test reads clearer if we first exercise and then verify.

Note that you will need to replace the method or entire object with a test double as in the example above, for RSpec to be able to verify against it.

Use private for help methods.


describe "#something" do
  it "works" do
    expect(my_helper(foo)).to eq 123


  def my_helper(value)
    value + 1

The private line creates a visually clear separation.

Say why a test is pending.


it "foos" do
  pending "Waiting for the bar to baz"
  expect(a).to eq b

Don't do:

it "foos" do
  expect(a).to eq b

This communicates why it's pending so that others (or a later you) can tell, e.g. if it's abandoned.

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