This repository contains a predictive model developed to provide a patient risk score for the purposes of intelligently allocating rapid response team resources
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Model For Predicting Rapid Response Events


Below is the file structure of the project documentation

Overview Documentation
|   -
│   - OVERVIEW.ipynb
|   - predictingRRTevents.yml
|    |
|    └───src
|    |     -
|    |     -
|    |     -
|    |
|    └───queries
|         - rrt-info.sql
|         - rrt-most-recent-chart-value.sql
|         - rrt-avg-chart-value.sql
|         - rrt-patient-characteristics.sql
|         - rrt-on-medications.sql
|         - non-rrt-most-recent.sql
|         - non-rrt-avg-chart-value.sql
|         - non-rrt-patient-characteristics.sql
|         - non-rrt-on-medications.sql
|   |   
│   └───analytics_helpers
|   │     -
|   |
│   └───modeling
|   │     - modeling_base.ipynb
|   |     - modeling_diff_algorithms.ipynb
|   |     - RunModelOnExamplePatients.ipynb
│   │
│   └───EDA
│         - encounter_durations[EDA].ipynb
│         - explore_vitals_by_encounter[EDA].ipynb
|         - medications[EDA].ipynb
|         - multi_rrts[EDA].ipynb
|         - probe_encounter_types_classes[EDA].ipynb
|         - rrt_reasons[EDA].ipynb
│         - vitals_avg_over_visit[EDA].ipynb
       - Compare_arrival_depart_times.sql.txt
       - Count_MedCategory.sql.txt
       - demo_scores.sql.txt
       - demo_scores_with_changes.sql.txt
       - DrugCategories.sql.txt
       - DrugName_to_DrugCategory.sql.txt
       - encounter_location_history.sql.txt
       - encounter_location_history_pairs.sql.txt
       - med_hist_encntr_med_admin.sql.txt
       - med_hist_encntr_med_admin_hr_cnt.sql.txt
       - med_hist_RRT_event.sql.txt
       - med_hist_RRT_event_distinct_med_hr_bucket.sql.txt
       - med_hist_RRT_event_med_hr_bucket.sql.txt
       - med_hist_RRT_non-event.sql.txt
       - med_hist_RRT_non-event_distinct_med_hr_bucket.sql.txt
       - med_hist_RRT_non-event_med_hr_bucket.sql.txt
       - MostFrequentVitalsWLoc.sql.txt
       - PersonQuery_KnownPersonID.sql.txt

Approach to work

We typically explored the data using the Impala query editor in Hue. Once the data of interest were initially identified, we then ran such queries and worked with the results in jupyter notebooks. is a zip file of the Cerner data dictionary.


This section talks about what is in each of the notebooks and why we did what we did

analytics_helpers (subfolder)


A python library that contains useful helper functions for exploratory analysis, data cleaning, and visualization.

modeling (subfolder)

Contains notebooks which cover the creation of the predictive model and cross validation.


The main notebook for modeling.


Exploring different modeling algorithms -- for reference only


Extracts a small subset of patients, collects their statistics into a modeling tables based on different timeframes, loads the saved model, uses model to generate risk scores, then writes the scores and modeling tables to


Note: The trained model was removed from the public facing repo. The saved model file, in sklearn's joblib format.

EDA (subfolder)

Contains notebooks which cover Exploratory Data Analysis of the data.


Explores encounter durations for patients with and without RRT events. Explores subselection of patients without RRT events who have similar encounter durations to patients with RRT events.


Creates time series of vitals signs for RRT patients which indicate time of RRT.


Explores the number of patients taking different kinds of medications, and how that breaks down for patients with and without RRT events


Explores patients with multiple RRT events. Only text output.


Examine breakdowns of different patient/encounter types. Only text output.


Explore the reasons for RRT events & their frequencies


Compare if patients with RRTs have different average vitals than patients without RRTs, visually.

Features used & mapping to Cerner records (data dictionary)

  • Join clinical_event values to code_value table to see description
  • Some modeling features reference multiple Cerner fields
  • We create separate "recent" and "average" features for vitals signs taken during the time frame of interest.
feature description (final feature in model) feature type Cerner table Cerner field
Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) vital sign clinical_event event_cd = 703306
Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) vital sign clinical_event event_cd = 703501
Peripheral Pulse Rate (pulse) vital sign clinical_event event_cd = 703511
Diastolic Blood Pressure (DPB) vital sign clinical_event event_cd = 703516
Respiratory Rate (RR) vital sign clinical_event event_cd = 703540
Temperature Oral (temp) vital sign clinical_event event_cd = 703558
Height/length (obese) vital sign clinical_event event_cd = 2700653
SpO2 (SPO2) vital sign clinical_event event_cd = 3623994
Measured Weight (obese) vital sign clinical_event event_cd = 4674677
smoking code (smoker) patient info clinical_event event_cd = 75144985
On IV indicator (on_iv) patient info clinical_event event_cd = 679984
buprenorphine-naloxone (bu-nal) medication clinical_event event_cd = 2797130
naloxone (bu-nal) medication clinical_event event_cd = 2798305
buprenorphine (bu-nal) medication clinical_event event_cd = 2797129
narcotic analgesic (narcotics) medication mltm_drug_categories multum_category_id = 60
narcotic analgesic combination (narcotics) medication mltm_drug_categories multum_category_id = 191
antipsychotics (antipsychotics) medication mltm_drug_categories multum_category_id = 77, 210, 251, 341
chemo drugs (chemo) medication mltm_drug_categories multum_category_id = 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26
anticoagulants (anticoagulants) medication mltm_drug_categories multum_category_id = 261, 262, 283, 285
age patient info person age
sex (is_male) patient info person sex


We used the Impala Editor via Cloudera Hue to run queries on and explore the data. Queries which were not included in the notebooks are saved in this folder.

Queries are saved as .txt so files will open on jupyter.

Saved Queries

Query (file) name Description Subject
encounter_location_history Show history of changes to patient location or level of care. location_history
encounter_location_history_pairs Show the distinct pairings of [from > to] locations. location_history
med_hist_encntr_med_admin Associate medication with ordinal hour of administration within an encounter. med_history
med_hist_encntr_med_admin_hr_cnt Count number of medication administrations in each ordinal hour of encounter. med_history
med_hist_encntr_distinct_med_admin_hr_cnt Count number of distinct medications administered in each ordinal hour of encounter. med_history
med_hist_RRT_event Associate RRT event with ordinal hour of occurrence within an encounter. med_history
med_hist_RRT_non-event Associate non-RRT-event with ordinal hour of occurrence within an encounter. med_history
med_hist_RRT_event_med_hr_bucket Count number of medication administrations in 10 hourly buckets leading up to event med_history
med_hist_RRT_non-event_med_hr_bucket Count number of medication administrations in 10 hourly buckets leading up to non-event. med_history
med_hist_RRT_event_distinct_med_hr_bucket Count number of distinct medications administered in 10 hourly buckets leading up to event. med_history
med_hist_RRT_non-event_distinct_med_hr_bucket Count number of distinct medications administered in 10 hourly buckets leading up to non-event. med_history
demo_scores Join rows in scoring table to associated encounter and patient. demo
demo_scores_with_changes Show changes in score and feature values across sequential rows in scoring table. demo
MostFrequentVitalsWLoc Returns counts for potentially useful vitals signs vitals
DrugName_to_DrugCategory Return drug id and drug category given a partial drug name drugs
DrugCategories Show all the different drug categorizations drugs
Count_MedCategory Count the number of encounters where patients are taking various drug classes drugs
Compare_arrival_depart_times Output the different timestamps associated with an encounter time
PersonQuery_KnownPersonID Return info related to person, given a personid person info

Environment and notes

Environment and install: We recommmend users install the Anaconda scientific python distribution. We used python v2.7. We relied on the impyla and ibis packages to pull data from HDFS to the jupyter notebook, and to write back to the tables. Other dependencies include: pandas, numpy, matplotlib, scikit-learn, cPickle, and seaborn. The dependencies are included in the "sharppatientrisk.yml" environment file. The environment can be loaded by the command:

conda env create -f sharppatientrisk.yml

- The times of RRT events (and all events from the clinical_event table) was recorded in the field "event_end_dt_tm" in the clinical_event table. This is an example where it is very important to have good relationships with your subject matter experts. This field records when the event took place, not the time of the end of the event.
- We discovered partway through the process that not all arrival time information was recorded consistently in the encounters table. Sometimes, "arrival_dt_tm" field in the encounters table was overwritten with the time a patient became an inpatient in the facility, rather than the true time of arrival. To get true time of arrival, we need to join to the tracking_item and tracking_checkin tables. Below is an example of querying for the encounter id and the true arrival time. The MIN in the subquery is to select only one timestamp, as some records contained duplicate entries. The difference in arrival time may or may not be relevant to the question at hand.
SELECT enc.encntr_id, COALESCE(tci.checkin_dt_tm, enc.arrive_dt_tm) AS check_in_time
FROM encounter enc
INNER JOIN clinical_event ce
ON ce.encntr_id = enc.encntr_id
LEFT OUTER JOIN  ( SELECT ti.encntr_id AS encntr_id, MIN(tc.checkin_dt_tm)  AS checkin_dt_tm
    FROM tracking_item ti
  JOIN tracking_checkin  tc ON  ti.tracking_id  = tc.tracking_id
GROUP BY ti.encntr_id ) tci
ON tci.encntr_id = enc.encntr_id```