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Corrections and Esperanto update for isolating Pandunia

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barumau committed Mar 21, 2017
1 parent e741711 commit 67b9cc34a94f65a39d0472630033a813663c5b86
Showing with 1,634 additions and 1,784 deletions.
  1. +4 −10 english/FAQ.md
  2. +25 −13 english/grammar.md
  3. +4 −0 english/index.md
  4. +703 −749 english/pandunia-english.md
  5. +5 −5 english/spelling.md
  6. +703 −743 english/tiddly_2.txt
  7. +109 −45 english/word_by_word.md
  8. +0 −124 english/words.md
  9. +81 −95 esperanto/gramatiko.md
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@@ -49,23 +49,21 @@ The "family tree" of Pandunia is presented in the figure below.
![](http://www.pandunia.info/sura/familytree.gif "Pandunia's family tree")
#### Why analytic structure was chosen for Pandunia?
#### Why isolating structure was chosen for Pandunia?
Different structures were considered and tested during the development of Pandunia. The main choice was between an agglutinating and an isolating structure.
1. In an agglutinating language every word can be clearly divided into component parts. For example Esperanto word "niaj" (our) consists of three parts: ni- (we), -a- (adjective marker) and -j (plural marker).
2. In an isolating language every word consists of just one part. For example in Mandarin Chinese the word for "our" consists of three separate words: wǒ (first person pronoun), men (plural marker) and de (possessive marker). Then they are simply put together: wǒmende, 我们的.
Pandunia is best described as an _analytic language_. Pandunia uses a handful of suffixes for marking parts of speech and for word derivation. On the other hand, Pandunia uses separate words to express things like person, number, mood, tense and aspect, which are typically expressed with inflection in agglutinating languages.
Pandunia is an isolating language. It uses separate words to express things like person, number, mood, tense and aspect, which are typically expressed with inflection in agglutinating languages.
To demonstrate the difference, let's compare the same sentence in Esperanto (an agglutinating language) and Pandunia. Parts of word are separated with the bar sign.
Esperanto: Mi pov|as vid|i du bel|a|j|n okul|o|j|n nun.
Pandunia: mi ken vid|a du sundar yen nun.
Pandunia: mi ken vide du sundar yen nun.
I can see two beautiful eyes now.
So while Pandunia is not free from inflection, it is used relatively little.
<!--
#### What is a worldlang?
@@ -82,11 +80,7 @@ A worldlang is a constructed interlanguage that borrows its words, speech sounds
#### Did Esperanto and its kind influence Pandunia?
Yes, with a limited effect.
Esperanto has an ingenious system for marking parts of speech (PoS) with vowel endings. In Esperanto nouns end in -o, adjectives end in -a, verbs in -i and adverbs in -e. (These are the dictionary forms. Some of them are inflected in actual use.) Similar PoS marking systems are used in the offshoots of Esperanto. Most notable offshoots are Ido and Novial. In Novial the endings are different: nouns end in -e or -um, adjectives in -i, verbs in -a and adverbs in -men. Almost all words were marked with the part of speech markers in Esperanto and its kind.
Pandunia is different. It has part of speech markers for the noun, the verb and the adjective, but they are not always required. For example, when the root word is an adjective, it doesn't need the adjectival ending. Moreover, the endings are never inflected in Pandunia. So Pandunia is, in its core, a completely different type of language.
In the end, very little. Esperanto has an ingenious system for marking parts of speech (PoS) with vowel endings. In Esperanto nouns end in -o, adjectives end in -a, verbs in -i and adverbs in -e. (These are the dictionary forms. Some of them are inflected in actual use.) Similar PoS marking systems are used in the offshoots of Esperanto, such as Ido and Novial. The system is fascinating and it was tested in the development of Pandunia. However, it didn't fit together with Pandunia's diverse vocabulary and actually it made the grammar more complicated than what it needs to be. So finally all obvious Esperanto influences were left out.
#### Are the makers of Pandunia aware of the history of the IAL movement?
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@@ -143,7 +143,7 @@ The basic number words are:
- 6 **sis**
- 7 **set**
- 8 **bat**
- 9 **noy**
- 9 **noi**
Greater numbers are simply made by putting one digit after another – exactly like they are written in the universal numerical language of mathematics.
@@ -190,6 +190,9 @@ Pronouns can substitute thing-words and phrases of thing-words.
Note! The reflexive pronoun **se** is used for all persons, so it corresponds to English _myself_, _yourself_, _himself_, _herself_, _itself_, ourselves_ and _themselves_ all at once.
**mi vide se** - I see myself.
**ta vide se** - She sees herself. / He sees himself.
### Demonstrative pronouns
@@ -250,7 +253,7 @@ Likewise, it's possible that the subject is a pronoun and the predicate is a nou
But when two similar words (that belong to the same part of speech) are put together, it is necessary to separate them. Then the verb **e** (to be) is used.
> **ta e mi.** - It is me.
> **tu e batu.** - That is a stone.
> **sa e batu.** - That is a stone.
> **batu e ting.** - Stone is a thing.
> **jovan e sundar.** - Young is beautiful.
@@ -269,7 +272,7 @@ In predicates of action, the main word in the predicate is a verb (i.e. an actio
Active sentences are frequently in the subject–verb–object word order (SVO).
> **mi yem pingo.** - I eat apples.
> **mi auda musik.** - I hear music.
> **mi audi musik.** - I hear music.
> **mi vide ti.** - I see you.
There is also alternative word order, subject–object–verb (SOV). It can be used only in short sentences.
@@ -281,7 +284,8 @@ SOV and SVO are the two most common word orders by far in the languages of the w
In passive sentences, the subject is the undergoer of the action and there is no object.
> **ti vide.** - You are seen.
> **musik se auda.** - Music is heard.
> **musik audi.** - Music is heard.
@@ -389,22 +393,22 @@ Prepositions are not used as frequently in Pandunia as in English. In many phras
A preposition begins a prepositional phrase. In a simple prepositional phrase the preposition is complemented by a pronoun or a noun phrase.
> **mi na hotel.** - I'm in the hotel.
> **mi sona na hotel.** - I sleep in the hotel.
> **mi sona ze xam do suba.** - I sleep since evening until morning.
> **mi safara ze london do paris.** - I travel from London to Paris.
> **mi son na hotel.** - I sleep in the hotel.
> **mi son ze xam do suba.** - I sleep since evening until morning.
> **mi safar ze london do paris.** - I travel from London to Paris.
Prepositions can be complemented also by a verb phrase. Then they refer to time.
> **mi denga ze ti toka.** - I have waited since you left.
> **mi denga do ti lai jia.** - I wait until you come home.
> **mi denga na ti sona.** - I wait while you sleep.
> **mi deng ze ti toka.** - I have waited since you left.
> **mi deng do ti lai jia.** - I wait until you come home.
> **mi deng na ti son.** - I wait while you sleep.
More precise expressions of place and time are expressed with _a preposition + a place word + **de**_.
> **na dur de** - for the time/duration of
> **mi denga na dur de ti sona.** - I wait for the time when you sleep.
> **mi deng na dur de ti son.** - I wait for the time when you sleep.
> **na lok de** - at the place of
> **mi denga na lok de ti toka.** - I wait at the place where you left.
> **mi deng na lok de ti toka.** - I wait at the place where you left.
> **na xia de** - under, below
> **un kuta lala na xia de meza.** - A dog lies under the table.
> **na men de** - on the surface of
@@ -417,7 +421,15 @@ Similar meaning can be expressed also with compound words.
In addition, a preposition can be followed immediately by a verb.
> **dura** - to last, to take time
> **mi denga na dura ti sona.** - _I wait during you sleep._
> **mi deng na dura ti son.** - _I wait during you sleep._
### List of prepositions
**na ante** before. **na bada** after.
**na cen** in front. **na pice** behind.
**na xia** under, below. **na gau** over, above.
**na jin** near. **na long** far away. **na visin** beside, next to.
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@@ -24,6 +24,10 @@ Maybe! Pandunia is still under construction. The grammar is stable but some word
- [English-Pandunia](english-pandunia.md) dictionary
- [Pandunia-English](pandunia-english.md) dictionary
## Articles
- [Pandunia - a new world pidgin](intro.html)
## Join Others
Some people are already interested about Pandunia and they are using it. Here are some places where you can find them:
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