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Window functions in RapidMiner

An implementation of some window functions as a RapidMiner process.

Balázs Bárány

About window functions

Window functions in SQL databases are aggregation functions applied to defined "partitions" or groups of data, without actually grouping records together. The PostgreSQL project has a good introduction to window functions.

This very useful functionality of modern databases has been missing in RapidMiner until now. Advanced users were of course able to implement similar processes on their own, but it's not trivial. So I created this project to provide a central implementation of window functions as an easy-to-use RapidMiner process.

The Series extension contains some operators called Window. They are useful for time series data but not generally applicable to arbitrary datasets.

About this project

The goal is to create a process that can be used in RapidMiner processes as a "blackbox", calculating new attributes for attributes given in the process parameters. The process is available here, it can be saved in the RapidMiner repository and used without changing it.

The scope is to include useful functionality as far as possible in native RapidMiner, without any extensions or programming (aside from the internal Groovy scripting).

The license is Apache 2.0, so you can use it without any restrictions in your processes and also change it. If you implement a cool new function, please send me you version or put it on Github and send me a pull request.

Available Functionality

All functions available in the RapidMiner Aggregate operator are also available in the Window Functions process. (This operator is used in the background.)

In SQL databases, partial/cumulative aggregation is possible by specifying both PARTITION BY and ORDER BY in the window function. This gives you running sums, for example. This is not yet implemented in the Window Functions project, but it should be possible.

Some well-known SQL window functions are not available in RapidMiner's Aggregate operator. The following functions have been implemented here:

  • row_number: Unique sequential numbering of rows inside a group, ordered by an arbitrary attribute. Ties (equal values in the ordering attribute) still produce new row numbers, so this is quite useful for genereting an ID-like attribute for each group.

  • rank: Numerical rank of rows inside a group, ordered by an attribute. Ties result in the same rank (e. g. 1, 1, 3, 4, 5). The numbering can contain gaps behind ties, e. g. there is no second rank if two examples have rank = 1.

  • dense_rank: Numerical rank of rows inside a group, ordered by an attribute. Ties result in the same rank but the numbering doesn't contain any gaps (e. g. 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5).

More functions could be implemented in the process.


The example processes are available from the examples directory.

  • Calculating the average temperature for each different value of "outlook" and adding a global rank by humidity on the Golf dataset:

Golf with average temperature and humidity rank

  • Calculating the average value of "a3" in the Iris dataset and filtering examples that fall into the range of 90 to 110 % of their group:

Iris with average temperature by group


Import the Window Functions process into your repository by downloading and saving it in your Local Repository folder. You can also save it anywhere and use File/Import Process... to open it in Studio and save it in the repository of your choice, for example on a Server.

Drag the process from the repository into your process or use Execute Process and select its location. In any case, you need to specify a few macros in the Execute Process operator to configure it.

Configuration macros

groupFields: (required) Comma-separated list of attributes to group on. You can put spaces after the commas. At least one grouping attribute is required. If only one attribute is used, is has to be nominal (this is a RapidMiner limitation).

Sometimes it's useful to work without grouping, e. g. to calculate an overall average or a rank by some attribute. In this case, just generate a dummy grouping attribute with a value like "x", use it for grouping, and remove it later. (An obvious enhancement idea for a future version: the process could do this automatically.)

function: (required) Name of the function to apply. Either one of the function names from the Aggregate operator or one of the implemented functions:

  • row_number
  • rank
  • dense_rank

valueField: (required) The name of the value attribute which the aggregation function acts upon.

orderField: For the ranking and numbering functions, the ordering attribute inside the subgroup. If you're using the standard aggregation functions of RapidMiner's Aggregate operator, this doesn't need to be specified.


The process can be slow if the number of groups is high. This is especially the case when using the custom functions (row_number, rank etc.). The reason is that these are implemented with Groovy scripts that will be executed many times in a loop.

Some useful functions defined in the SQL standard are not yet implemented: percent_rank, cume_dist, ntile, lag, lead, first_value, last_value, nth_value.

(lag and lead are available in the Series extension.)

Windows can only be specified with attribute values but not in the other ways specified in SQL. (ROWS BETWEEN ... PRECEDING ... FOLLOWING)

The ordering attribute is only used for the ranking and row_number functions. The built-in aggregation functions are always calculated for the entire group, regardless of the orderField setting.

The groupFields attribute has to be nominal if only one is used. Numerical values are converted to nominal, which should be OK but could cause some surprises in special cases.

There is no support (yet) for working without a grouping field (which is possible in SQL with OVER ()). The workaround is to add a constant grouping field before executing the Window Functions process and remove it after.

Possible enhancements

  • Checking functionality in the Series extension that could be useful here. (However, the process is supposed to be able to run without any installed extensions.)

  • Implementing more functions:

    • Standard SQL functions mentioned in the Limitations
    • cumsum for cumulated sum (ordered by an attribute)
    • min/max until current record (SQL: MIN(value) OVER (ORDER BY whatever))


An implementation of some window functions as a RapidMiner process







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