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Store collectd metrics into a PostgreSQL database

branch: master

Changed the partition by just to use the fk on the dimension tables.

This should be sufficient as each tuple (hostname_id, plugin_id, type_id)
is unique
latest commit e13c2f7ca7
Bob Cotton authored May 01, 2009
Octocat-spinner-32 perl
Octocat-spinner-32 sql
Octocat-spinner-32 README Fixed the config examples. April 23, 2009
README
DBStore - A collectd output plugin to store values in an RDBMS.

Most of the SQL here is PostgreSQL specific. It has not been tested
with any other database. Please don't ask me how to make it work with
your database as I don't use your database (unless it is postgres :-)

This has been tested with Posgtres 8.3 and 8.4. I don't pretend to be
a DBA. I'm sure there are things that could be done better.

Dependencies:
1. collectd with perl
2. Postgres (8.4 if you want to interesting things with COUNTERS, see below)
3. Perl DBI
4. Perl DBD driver for postgres

Quick Start Guide

1. Have postgres installed and running
2. createdb <database>
3. psql -U <username> -f <path to here>/sql/metrics.sql
4. psql -U <username> -f <path to here>/sql/create_tables.sql
5. Add the following to your collectd.conf
LoadPlugin perl
<Plugin perl>
        IncludeDir "<path to this directory>/perl"
        BaseName "Collectd::Plugin"
        LoadPlugin DBStore
        <Plugin DBStore>
           DBIDriver "Pg"
           DatabaseHost "<hostname>"
           DatabasePort "5432"
           DatabaseName "<database name>"
           DatabaseUser "<username>"
           DatabasePassword "<password>"
        </Plugin>
</Plugin>
6. configure postgres to turn on constrain exclusion.

Rationale and Approach

We wanted to collect system stats at full resolution, possibly longer
than the configured RRAs, to go back in time to analyize performance.

After looking at the collectd Wiki about a table structure to store
the data, it occured to me that this could be handled as a
"dimensional model" or "star schema". Basically build a data
warehouse.

Putting the redundant information (hostname, plugin and plugin type)
into their own tables creates a very skinny "fact" table to hold
the measurements. The next problem was data volume.

Postgres supports data partitioning which will allow you to store
metrics data into "child" tables that have been partitioned by some
range of dates/times. Insertion and query time can be inproved for
very large data sets by only deailing with a subset of the data.

Insertions into the "parent" table are redirected to the appropriate
child table. The time-span of a child table can be any duration.

Indices are only kept on child tables and old data can quickly be
removed with a DROP TABLE.

While postgres does support data partitioning, the maintenance of the
required tables and triggers has to be done manually. That's what most
of the included SQL is doing.

Configuration

Depending on volume of data coming from collectd you may need to adjust
the time duration of your child tables.

There are two aspects of data partitioning that need to be created (and maintained):
      1. Child tables and indices
      2. The insert trigger function

The create_tables.sql file is the entry point for the functions that
will create the tables and trigger functions. There are two functions,
they both take the same arguments:
     1. create_partition_tables()
     2. create_partition_trigger()

The arguments (and postgres types) to these functions are:
    1. The parent table name (text)
    2. The start timestamp (timestamp)
    3. The length of time in the future to create tables (interval)
    4. The "step" for each table (e.g. month, day) (text)
    5. The format string for the table suffix. The table name will be
       <parent>_<suffix> (e.g. metrics_2009_02) (text)

create_partition_tables() will create the child tables with the
appropriate range checks.

create_partition_trigger() will create the trigger function that will
redirect the insert into the appropriate child table. This function
still needs to be associated with an insert trigger.

The insert trigger function is one giant if/then/else statement. So
you don't want the interval too far in the past, or generate too far
in the future and not update. At some point it will have some impact
on performance. I haven't tested this impact.

Maintenance

Depending on how far into the future you generate tables and the
trigger function, you will need to create new child tables and
regenerate the trigger function. I would suggest putting this into cron
just before you period is about to expire. I'll let you work out the
math as to when to do this.

Should you forget, all rows will be inserted into the parent
table. You won't loose data, but it will hurt performance.

Querying with partitions

To enable the query planner to use the table partitions you need to do
two things:
    1. Turn on constrain exclusion:
          SET constraint_exclusion = on;
       or set it in postgresql.conf
    2. Include in the where clause of your queries static timestamps.
       e.g. select * from metrics where timestamp between
            '2009-01-01'::timestamp and '2009-02-01'::timestamp
       functions that return timestamps don't count as 'static'. If in
       doubt use EXPLAIN.

Inserting Data

Because of the dimensional model, "fact" inserts need to lookup,
possibly create and attach the dimensions. This is accomplished
through the function insert_metric() whose signature looks like:

    insert_metric(in_timestamp timestamp,
                  in_measure double precision,
                  in_hostname text,
                  in_ds_type datasource_type,
                  in_plugin text,
                  in_plugin_instance text,
                  in_type text,
                  in_type_name text,
                  in_type_instance text) returns void

Where in_timestamp must be something that postgres can convert to a
timestamp.

datasource_type is either 'GUAGE' or 'COUNTER'
      
Working with COUNTERS

Many of the values collected by collectd are of type COUNTER. Ethernet
interfaces, for example, simply keep a counter of the number of
bytes/packets/octects etc sent. To calculate bytes/second you need to
know the difference in time, and the difference in the counter between
two samples.

Postgres introduced in 8.4 "window" functions which allow you to do
calculations among the rows returned from a query. One of those
functions is lag() which will subtract the value in one row from
another. This is a handy way of working with COUNTERS.

There is an example VIEW definition at the bottom on metrics.sql that
illustrates this use of this feature. Using views and partitioned
tables do not really work well as when the view is constructed it
will query the entire table without the needed WHERE clauses
illustrated above. This will be slow.

Patches and suggestions welcome.

Bob Cotton
bob.cotton@gmail.com

Further Reading
http://www.postgresql.org/docs/8.3/interactive/ddl-partitioning.html
http://www.slideshare.net/xzilla/postgresql-partitioning-pgcon-2007-presentation
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