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Doctrine 1 Integration with Zend Framework

This project tries to offer a complete Integration of Doctrine 1 with Zend Framework. The following components belong to this Integration:

  • Zend_Application Resource
  • Zend Framework Modular Project Support
  • Zend_Tool Provider for Doctrine Model Generation, Migrations and Fixtures
  • Zend_Paginator Adapter for Doctrine Queries
  • Dynamic Zend_Form generation from Doctrine Models

This integration requires the latest Doctrine version 1.2.2 to work completly

Installation

Get it!

SVN Export or Externals

Github offers SVN Read support for a while now, you can either use svn export or svn:externals to include ZFDoctrine into your project or into your PHP Include Path.

svn checkout http://svn.github.com/beberlei/zf-doctrine.git

Git Clone

git clone git://github.com/beberlei/zf-doctrine.git

Install ZF with Zend Tool

To get ZF with Zend-Tool support running you can execute the following (on Linux):

root@benny-pc:~# pear channel-discover pear.zfcampus.org
Adding Channel "pear.zfcampus.org" succeeded
Discovery of channel "pear.zfcampus.org" succeeded

root@benny-pc:~# pear install zfcampus/zf
downloading ZF-1.10.4.tgz ...
Starting to download ZF-1.10.4.tgz (3,528,732 bytes)
...................................done: 3,528,732 bytes
install ok: channel://pear.zfcampus.org/ZF-1.10.4

root@benny-pc:~# zf show version
Zend Framework Version: 1.10.4

Zend_Tool Configuration

To enable the ZFDoctrine Tool Providers you have to register them in your Zend Tool configuration. If you have ZFDoctrine in your include path this is as easy as calling:

benny@benny-pc:~$ zf enable config.provider ZFDoctrine_Tool_DoctrineProvider
Provider/Manifest 'ZFDoctrine_Tool_DoctrineProvider' was enabled for usage with Zend Tool.

If you don't have a .zf.ini configuration file you can create one by calling:

benny@benny-pc:~$ zf create config
Successfully written Zend Tool config.
It is located at: /home/benny/.zf.ini

If you don't have ZFDoctrine in your include path, you need to configure Zend Tools include path to do so. Go to your $HOME directory, open up .zf.ini and add a line:

php.include_path = "include-path here"

Now check if the installation worked by calling:

zf ? doctrine

The result should be help information on all the available commands:

Zend Framework Command Line Console Tool v1.10.4
Actions supported by provider "Doctrine"
  Doctrine
    zf create-project doctrine dsn zend-project-style library-per-module single-library
    zf build-project doctrine force load reload
    zf create-database doctrine
    zf drop-database doctrine force
    zf create-tables doctrine
    zf generate-sql doctrine
    zf dql doctrine
    zf load-data doctrine append
    zf dump-data doctrine individual-files
    zf generate-models-from-yaml doctrine
    zf generate-yaml-from-models doctrine
    zf generate-yaml-from-database doctrine
    zf generate-migration doctrine class-name from-database from-models
    zf excecute-migration doctrine to-version
    zf show-migration doctrine
    zf show doctrine

Some shells like Fish might require a:

zf '?' doctrine

in order to get that done.

Setting up a new Zend Framework Project

The Tool support for Doctrine 1 only works if your project contains a .zfproject.xml file that contains a "BootstrapFile" resource. For a new project you can easily achieve this by calling:

benny@benny-pc:/tmp$ zf create project my-project
Creating project at /tmp/my-project
Note: This command created a web project, for more information setting up your VHOST, please see docs/README

You should now import the ZFDoctrine and Doctrine 1.2 libraries into your application-root/library folder to make them available in your projects include path. Alternatively you can edit your application/configs/application.ini and change the include path to search for both projects.

To convert an existing project to use ZFDoctrine is a bit more complicated and really not recommended. If the project does not have a .zfproject.xml you have to create one. If you follow the Zend Standards you can get away with the following file contents:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<projectProfile type="default" version="1.10">
  <projectDirectory>
    <projectProfileFile filesystemName=".zfproject.xml"/>
    <applicationDirectory classNamePrefix="Application_">
      <configsDirectory>
        <applicationConfigFile type="ini"/>
      </configsDirectory>
      <bootstrapFile filesystemName="Bootstrap.php"/>
    </applicationDirectory>
  </projectDirectory>
</projectProfile>

Otherwise you have to twiggle on each of the nodes using the "filesystemName" attribute.

Doctrine and Zend Framework Integration Conventions

You have to follow one convention for ZFDoctrine to allow modular Doctrine models to work:

Models have to be called Model for all modules *including the module that is considered to be the "default" for the MVC.

Examples:

  • Default_Model_User
  • Default_Model_Group
  • Blog_Model_Post
  • Blog_Model_Category

To have Doctrine work with this classes you must explicitly spill out all the refClass, model, local and foreign properties on the Relations of your Doctrine models.

Doctrine-Enable a Zend Framework Project

To use tooling support, you have to Doctrine-Enable your Zend Framework Project by calling:

zf create-project doctrine --dsn=mysql://root:passwd@localhost/my_app --zend-project-style

This enables the Doctrine Zend_Application resource with the given DSN to connecto to a database. It also enables some additional lines for autoloading "Doctrine" and "ZFDoctrine" namespaces by the Zend_Loader_Autoloader.

Additionally a project style has to be specified that defines where code-generation puts your entities.

After execution there are 4 new directories generated inside your application/configs directory:

  • application/configs/schema - Contains the YAML Schema Metadata
  • application/configs/migrations - Contains the migration classes
  • application/configs/fixtures - Contains data-fixtures for your application
  • application/configs/sql - Contains SQL files

There are three different project styles that make sense in a Zend Framework Project:

  • Zend Project Style with --zend-project-style is also the default.
  • One Library directory per Module --library-per-module
  • Single Library directory per project --single-library

You can change this option at a later stage of the project, however you need to re-generate all the classes and manually delete the orphaned classes in this case.

You find this option in the application.ini under the section:

resources.doctrine.manager.attributes.attr_model_loading = "model_loading_zend"

Note

If Doctrine is not in your library or in your Include path you have to add it to the application.ini

includePaths.library = APPLICATION_PATH "/../library:/home/benny/code/doctrine1/lib"

1. Zend Project Style

The default Zend Project style has a folder "models" in each module. For example having only the default module your directories look like:

.
|-- application
|   |-- Bootstrap.php
|   |-- configs
|   |   |-- application.ini
|   |   |-- fixtures
|   |   |-- migrations
|   |   |-- schema
|   |   `-- sql
|   |-- controllers
|   |   |-- ErrorController.php
|   |   `-- IndexController.php
|   |-- *models*
|   `-- views
|       |-- helpers
|       `-- scripts
|           |-- error
|           |   `-- error.phtml
|           `-- index
|               `-- index.phtml
|-- library
|-- public
    `-- index.php

Having two additional modules "blog" and "guestbook" we end up with:

.
|-- application
|   |-- Bootstrap.php
|   |-- configs
|   |   `-- application.ini
|   |-- controllers
|   |   |-- ErrorController.php
|   |   `-- IndexController.php
|   |-- *models*
|   |-- modules
|   |   |-- blog
|   |   |   |-- controllers
|   |   |   |-- *models*
|   |   |   `-- views
|   |   |       |-- filters
|   |   |       |-- helpers
|   |   |       `-- scripts
|   |   `-- guestbook
|   |       |-- controllers
|   |       |-- *models*
|   |       `-- views
|   |           |-- filters
|   |           |-- helpers
|   |           `-- scripts
|   `-- views
|       |-- helpers
|       `-- scripts
|           |-- error
|           |   `-- error.phtml
|           `-- index
|               `-- index.phtml
|-- library
|-- public
    `-- index.php

This approach requires you to use the Module Autoloaders, which I personally find slow and unintuitive.

application.ini cofig is:

resources.doctrine.manager.attributes.attr_model_loading = "model_loading_zend"

2. Library per Module

In library per module you get some kind of duplication of knowledge in the paths, however you get to keep the simple Class Underscore to Directory Separator convention.

.
|-- application
|   |-- Bootstrap.php
|   |-- configs
|   |   `-- application.ini
|   |-- controllers
|   |   |-- ErrorController.php
|   |   `-- IndexController.php
|   |-- models
|   |-- modules
|   |   |-- blog
|   |   |   |-- controllers
|   |   |   |-- library
|   |   |   |   `-- Blog
|   |   |   |       `-- Model
|   |   |   `-- views
|   |   |       |-- filters
|   |   |       |-- helpers
|   |   |       `-- scripts
|   |   `-- guestbook
|   |       |-- controllers
|   |       |-- library
|   |       |   `-- Guestbook
|   |       |       `-- Model
|   |       `-- views
|   |           |-- filters
|   |           |-- helpers
|   |           `-- scripts
|   `-- views
|       |-- helpers
|       `-- scripts
|           |-- error
|           |   `-- error.phtml
|           `-- index
|               `-- index.phtml
|-- library
|-- public
    `-- index.php

Option is:

resources.doctrine.manager.attributes.attr_model_loading = "model_loading_zend_module_library"

3. Single Library Path

I have often seen the approach taken with a single library that contains all the models in subdirectories of each Modules library directory.

.
|-- application
|   |-- Bootstrap.php
|   |-- configs
|   |   `-- application.ini
|   |-- controllers
|   |   |-- ErrorController.php
|   |   `-- IndexController.php
|   |-- modules
|   |   |-- blog
|   |   |   |-- controllers
|   |   |   `-- views
|   |   |       |-- filters
|   |   |       |-- helpers
|   |   |       `-- scripts
|   |   `-- guestbook
|   |       |-- controllers
|   |       `-- views
|   |           |-- filters
|   |           |-- helpers
|   |           `-- scripts
|   `-- views
|       |-- helpers
|       `-- scripts
|           |-- error
|           |   `-- error.phtml
|           `-- index
|               `-- index.phtml
|-- library
|   |-- Blog
|   |   `-- Model
|   |-- Guestbook
|   |   `-- Model
|   `-- Model
|-- public
|   `-- index.php

Option is:

resources.doctrine.manager.attributes.attr_model_loading = "model_loading_zend_single_library"

Generating Models (With a single Module)

Using Zend Doctrine Integration with a Single module first begs the question, what is that modules prefix? By default, the prefix is "Default_Model_*". You can change this easily by opening up your application.ini and change it to "Zfplanet" for example like in our example, rebuilding Padraic Bradys fine application ZFPlanet.

; appnamespace is just for automatically adding autoloading
appnamespace = "Zfplanet"
; defaultModule is used for for class generation
resources.frontController.defaultModule = "zfplanet"

Note

Make sure the defaultModule line is before the controllerDirectory line. Sadly the ordering is important in this one.

Grab the modified zfplanet.yml file from the examples/Zfplanet folder of this project and put it in your projects application/configs/schema/ folder, then run:

zf generate-models-from-yaml doctrine

And you should see lots of newly created model files in the applications/models folder. Nice huh?

benny@benny-pc:~/code/php/zfdoctrine/singlemodule$ zf generate-models-from-yaml doctrine
[Doctrine] Generated record 'Zfplanet_Model_Blog' in Module 'zfplanet'.
[Doctrine] Generated record 'Zfplanet_Model_Feed' in Module 'zfplanet'.
[Doctrine] Generated record 'Zfplanet_Model_FeedMeta' in Module 'zfplanet'.
[Doctrine] Generated record 'Zfplanet_Model_Entry' in Module 'zfplanet'.
[Doctrine] Generated record 'Zfplanet_Model_Subscription' in Module 'zfplanet'.
[Doctrine] Generated record 'Zfplanet_Model_User' in Module 'zfplanet'.
[Doctrine] Successfully generated 6 record classes.

Generating Table Classes

If you want to generate the Table classes also you have to modify the application.ini to include:

resources.doctrine.generateModels.generateTableClasses = true

Generating Models in a Modular MVC

As a modular example we combine the "Real World Example" code from the Doctrine manual into two modules. We will implement a user-management and a forum in two modules. Our default module contains the user-management and our second module contains the forum code. Here is the modified YAML.

Note

Note the Default_Model_ and Forum_Model_ prefixes here which are necessary to comply with Zend Framework standards.

First the application/configs/schema/user.yml:

---
Default_Model_User:
  columns:
    username: string(255)
    password: string(255)
  relations:
    Roles:
      class: Default_Model_Role
      refClass: Default_Model_UserRole
      foreignAlias: Users
      local: user_id
      foreign: role_id
    Permissions:
      class: Default_Model_Permission
      refClass: Default_Model_UserPermission
      foreignAlias: Users
      local: user_id
      foreign: permission_id

Default_Model_Role:
  columns:
    name: string(255)
  relations:
    Permissions:
      class: Default_Model_Permission
      refClass: Default_Model_RolePermission
      foreignAlias: Roles
      local: role_id
      foreign: permission_id

Default_Model_Permission:
  columns:
    name: string(255)

Default_Model_RolePermission:
  columns:
    role_id:
      type: integer
      primary: true
    permission_id:
      type: integer
      primary: true
  relations:
    Role:
      class: Default_Model_Role
      local: role_id
    Permission:
      class: Default_Model_Permission
      local: permission_id

Default_Model_UserRole:
  columns:
    user_id:
      type: integer
      primary: true
    role_id:
      type: integer
      primary: true
  relations:
    User:
      class: Default_Model_User
      local: user_id
    Role:
      class: Default_Model_Role
      local: role_id

Default_Model_UserPermission:
  columns:
    user_id:
      type: integer
      primary: true
    permission_id:
      type: integer
      primary: true
  relations:
    User:
      class: Default_Model_User
      local: user_id
    Permission:
      class: Default_Model_Role
      local: permission_id

And the second file put into application/configs/schema/forum.yml:

---
Forum_Model_Category:
  columns:
    root_category_id: integer(10)
    parent_category_id: integer(10)
    name: string(50)
    description: string(99999)
  relations:
    Subcategory:
      class: Forum_Model_Category
      local: parent_category_id
      foreign: id
    Rootcategory:
      class: Forum_Model_Category
      local: root_category_id
      foreign: id

Forum_Model_Board:
  columns:
    category_id: integer(10)
    name: string(100)
    description: string(5000)
  relations:
    Category:
      class: Forum_Model_Category
      local: category_id
      foreign: id
    Threads:
      class: Forum_Model_Thread
      local: id
      foreign: board_id

Forum_Model_Entry:
  columns:
    topic: string(100)
    message: string(99999)
    parent_entry_id: integer(10)
    thread_id: integer(10)
    date: integer(10)
  relations:
    Author:
      class: Model_User
      local: author_id
      foreign: id
    Parent:
      class: Forum_Model_Entry
      local: parent_entry_id
      foreign: id
    Thread:
      class: Forum_Model_Thread
      local: thread_id
      foreign: id

Forum_Model_Thread:
  columns:
    board_id: integer(10)
    updated: integer(10)
    closed: integer(1)
  relations:
    Board:
      class: Forum_Model_Board
      local: board_id
      foreign: id
    Entries:
      class: Forum_Model_Entry
      local: id
      foreign: thread_id

Now if we put both files into application/configs/schema we can generate the model classes:

zf generate-models-from-yaml doctrine

We get an error:

                      An Error Has Occurred
 Unknown Zend Controller Module 'forum' inflected from model class
'Forum_Model_Category'. Have you configured your front-controller to
include modules?

We have to generate the modules:

zf create module default
zf create module forum

Now edit the application.ini and replace the entry resources.frontcontroller.controllerDirectory with:

resources.frontcontroller.moduleDirectory = APPLICATION_PATH "/modules"

For the "Zend Project Style" using the models/ directories we now need to instantiate module loaders, here is a generic approach to this problem:

class Bootstrap extends Zend_Application_Bootstrap_Bootstrap
{
    public function _initModuleLoaders()
    {
        $this->bootstrap('Frontcontroller');

        $fc = $this->getResource('Frontcontroller');
        $modules = $fc->getControllerDirectory();

        foreach ($modules AS $module => $dir) {
            $moduleName = strtolower($module);
            $moduleName = str_replace(array('-', '.'), ' ', $moduleName);
            $moduleName = ucwords($moduleName);
            $moduleName = str_replace(' ', '', $moduleName);

            $loader = new Zend_Application_Module_Autoloader(array(
                'namespace' => $moduleName,
                'basePath' => realpath($dir . "/../"),
            ));
        }
    }
}

For the other two project styles you have to make sure that the Zend_Loader_Autoloader or any other PSR-0 compatible loader points to the library directories correctly.

Generating the Database Tables

Now that we have an existing model we can create the database from it calling:

zf build-project doctrine --reload

This drops the database, re-creates it with tables and loads possible fixture data located in the applications/config/fixtures.

Using Migrations

Doctrine 1 comes with a powerful migration support, which can also accessed from the Zend Tool providers.

You can show the current migration version:

zf show-migration doctrine

You can generate new migrations either by creating a bare class:

zf generate-migration doctrine --class-name=MyMigration

From a database-diff:

zf generate-migration doctrine --from-database

From a model diff:

zf generate-migration doctrine --from-models

To migrate your database you can either specify a version to migrate to:

zf excecute-migration doctrine --to-version=123

Or don't specify a version and migrate to the latest:

zf excecute-migration doctrine

Paginator Adapter

ZFDoctrine offers a pagination adapter for Zend_Paginator that makes Doctrine_Query instances paginateable:

$query = Doctrine_Query::create(...)
$adapter = new ZFDoctrine_Paginator_Adapter($query);
$paginator = new Zend_Paginator($adapter);

Dynamic Form Generation

For admin purposes its often necesary and cumbersome to implement lots of forms that allow to add or edit database records. Using the ZFDoctrine_Form component you can easily generate simple and more complex forms that directly work on Doctrine_Record instances. These forms are dynamically generated upon request.

The very simplest form would look like this:

$form = new ZFDoctrine_From_Model(array(
    'model' => 'Default_Model_User',
    'action' => '.',
    'method' => 'post'
));

This would give you a class with the same interface as Zend_Form, but it would automatically get fields from the model called Default_Model_User. Having the same interface as Zend_Form means that you can essentially use the class just like any other Zend_Form instance; it just has some more magic. :)

Basic usage: Creating new records

//ExampleController.php
class ExampleController extends Zend_Controller_Action
{
    public function createAction()
    {
        $form = new ZFDoctrine_Form_Model(array(
            'model' => 'Default_Model_User',
            'action' => '.',
            'method' => 'post'
        ));

        if($this->getRequest()->isPost() && $form->isValid($_POST)) {
            // This saves the form's data to the DB.
            // $record will be the new model instance created when saving.
            $record = $form->save();

            //redirect elsewhere after completion
            $this->_helper->redirect('update', 'example');
        }

        //assign the form to the view
        $this->view->form = $form;
    }
}

The view script for formAction looks plain simple:

<h2>Fill this form</h2>
<?= $this->form; ?>

The formAction method is a pretty typical form process action: it creates a form and validates it if the request was a form submission, or displays it if it wasn’t or something was not valid.

Editing existing records

Editing existing records is similar to what seen above, but we must first load a record and assign it to the form before rendering, validating or saving:

public function editUserAction()
{
    $userId = $this->_getParam('id');
    $form = new ZFDoctrine_Form_Model(array(
        'model' => 'Default_Model_User',
        'action' => '/zf-doctrine/index/edit-user/id/'.$userId,
        'method' => 'post',
    ));

    $user = Doctrine::getTable('Default_Model_User')->find($userId);
    $form->setRecord($user);

    if($this->getRequest()->isPost() && $form->isValid($_POST)) {
        $record = $form->save();

        // redirect elsewhere after completion
        $this->_redirect('/');
    }

    //assign the form to the view
    $this->view->form = $userId;
    $this->view->form = $form;
}

After using setRecord, the default field values will be read from the record passed to the method. Also, when calling save(), any modifications will be saved to this record instead of a new one.

ModelForm Action Helper

The model form action helper simplifies the CRUD workflow of your application considerably, it helps you abstract to write the create and update form controller actions if you obey to some conventions:

  • The Helper uses the $form, $recordId and $record view variables, don't reuse them in an action using the helper.
  • The Helper assumes GET and POST handling of a form are done in the same action method.
  • The helper automatically sets the form method to POST and the form action to the current MVC action.

Register the ModelForm action helper by calling the following somewhere in your bootstrap:

Zend_Controller_Action_HelperBroker::addPath('ZFDoctrine/Controller/Helper', 'ZFDoctrine_Controller_Helper');

See it in action for a Create form, the Controller Action:

public function addCategoryAction()
{
    $form = $this->createCategoryForm();
    $this->_helper->modelForm($form, "index");
}

And the view script add-category.phtml:

<h1>Create a Category</h1>
<?= $this->form; ?>

Using the model form helper for updating a Doctrine Record is slightly more complicated, the controller action looks like:

public function editCategoryAction()
{
    $form = $this->createCategoryForm();
    $this->getHelper('modelForm')
         ->setRecordIdParam('id')
         ->handleForm($form, 'index');
}

And the view script edit-category.pthml:

<h1>Edit Category: <?= $this->record->name; ?><h1>
<?= $this->form; ?>

The method setRecordIdParam() accepts the name of the GET variable that contains the id of a record. If the value of this field is NULL the form creates a new record instance, if the value of this field is not null but no record is found of this model with that particular id an exception of the type ZFDoctrine_DoctrineException is thrown.

Handling Relations

All to one relations and all to many relations are handled by select and multi-select html fields respectively. By default they render as their ID, however when you implement the __toString() method on your Doctrine records you can modify how they are displayed in the forms.

Modifying the form behavior

The class in its current implementation supports both creating new records and editing existing ones, and it can also display some relations as select boxes and subforms. You can also make it ignore chosen columns so it won’t autogenerate fields for them and such. Other options include giving labels for fields and switching their types. Advanced settings example

<?php
class AdvancedForm extends ZFDoctrine_Form_Model
{
    protected $_model = 'Article';

    // By default, many-relations will be generated, but you can disable them.
    protected $_generateManyFields = true;

    // Let's ignore these two fields
    protected $_ignoreFields = array('created_at', 'updated_at');

    // Make the content column's field type 'textarea' instead of the default 'text'
    protected $_fieldTypes = array(
        'content' => 'textarea'
    );

    // Give some human-friendly labels for the fields:
    protected $_fieldLabels = array(
        'name' => 'Article name',
        'content' => 'Article content',
        'category_id' => 'Category'
    );

    protected function _preGenerate()
    {
        // this method is called before the form is generated
    }

    protected function _postGenerate()
    {
        // this method is called after the form is generated
    }
}

In the above snippet you can see all the configuration options and the two event methods. Most of the variables should be quite self-explanatory.

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