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VOC is currently on hiatus

The BeeWare project has pivoted away from using VOC for Android development. We now use an embedded CPython library to provide Android support.

We still believe there is value in a bytecode compilation approach; however, we're not dedicating any BeeWare resources to VOC development, and we we're not encouraging other to contribute to VOC at this time.

If you're still interested in working on VOC, please get in touch.


A transpiler that converts Python code into Java bytecode.

This is experimental code. If it breaks, you get to keep all the shiny pieces.

What it does:

  • Provides an API to let you programmatically create Java class files.
  • Compiles Python 3.4 source files into Java class files, enabling you to run Python code on a JVM (including Android's VM).

It isn't a completely compliant Python 3.4 implementation - there are some language features (some builtin functions) that still need to be implemented, and there is only a bare bones standard library implementation. However, it is possible to convert simple Python programs, and even write simple Android applications.


To take VOC for a spin, run through the Getting Started guide, then start with the first tutorial.

If you'd like to contribute to VOC development, we have a guide for first time contributors.


Documentation for VOC can be found on Read The Docs.

Why "VOC"?

VOC is a backronym for "Vestigial Output Compiler". Or "Vexing Obtuse Compiler". Or "Valuable Obscure Compiler". Or "Varigated Ocelot Calibrator". It's your choice.

Historically, VOC was the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC), or Dutch East India Company, often considered to be the world's first multinational corporation. It was also the first company to issue shares, and facilitate the trading of those shares. It was granted a 21 year monopoly to carry out trade activities in Asia, primarily the Spice Islands - the Dutch East Indies. They established a major trading port at Batavia - now Jakarta - on the island of Java (now part of Indonesia).

While VOC was a very profitable business for it's shareholders, it operated as a colonial power. Modern historians have expressed criticism of their business practices, which included exploitation of indigenous populations (including use of slave labour), slave trade, use of violence, and environmental destruction (including deforestation).

VOC also played a role in the European discovery of Australia, and there are many VOC shipwrecks on the coast of Western Australia.

The name VOC was chosen by the project because the project founder is from Western Australia, and VOC has a strong non-colonial presence in that state's history. It was also a convenient pun, as VOC was an enterprise Java company.

It should not be considered an endorsement or glorification of the exploitative business practices of the company.


VOC is part of the BeeWare suite. You can talk to the community through:

We foster a welcoming and respectful community as described in our BeeWare Community Code of Conduct.


To get started with contributing to VOC, head over to our First Timers Guide.

If you experience problems with VOC, log them on GitHub. If you want to contribute code, please fork the code and submit a pull request.