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Using behave

The command-line tool behave has a bunch of command-line arguments and is also configurable using configuration files.

Values defined in the configuration files are used as defaults which the command-line arguments may override.

Command-Line Arguments

You may see the same information presented below at any time using behave -h.

.. option:: -c, --no-color

    Disable the use of ANSI color escapes.

.. option:: --color

    Use ANSI color escapes. This is the default behaviour. This switch is
    used to override a configuration file setting.

.. option:: -d, --dry-run

    Invokes formatters without executing the steps.

.. option:: -D, --define

    Define user-specific data for the config.userdata dictionary. Example:
    -D foo=bar to store it in config.userdata["foo"].

.. option:: -e, --exclude

    Don't run feature files matching regular expression PATTERN.

.. option:: -i, --include

    Only run feature files matching regular expression PATTERN.

.. option:: --no-junit

    Don't output JUnit-compatible reports.

.. option:: --junit

    Output JUnit-compatible reports. When junit is enabled, all stdout and
    stderr will be redirected and dumped to the junit report,
    regardless of the "--capture" and "--no-capture" options.

.. option:: --junit-directory

    Directory in which to store JUnit reports.

.. option:: -f, --format

    Specify a formatter. If none is specified the default formatter is
    used. Pass "--format help" to get a list of available formatters.

.. option:: --steps-catalog

    Show a catalog of all available step definitions. SAME AS:
    --format=steps.catalog --dry-run --no-summary -q

.. option:: -k, --no-skipped

    Don't print skipped steps (due to tags).

.. option:: --show-skipped

    Print skipped steps. This is the default behaviour. This switch is
    used to override a configuration file setting.

.. option:: --no-snippets

    Don't print snippets for unimplemented steps.

.. option:: --snippets

    Print snippets for unimplemented steps. This is the default behaviour.
    This switch is used to override a configuration file setting.

.. option:: -m, --no-multiline

    Don't print multiline strings and tables under steps.

.. option:: --multiline

    Print multiline strings and tables under steps. This is the default
    behaviour. This switch is used to override a configuration file
    setting.

.. option:: -n, --name

    Only execute the feature elements which match part of the given name.
    If this option is given more than once, it will match against all
    the given names.

.. option:: --no-capture

    Don't capture stdout (any stdout output will be printed immediately.)

.. option:: --capture

    Capture stdout (any stdout output will be printed if there is a
    failure.) This is the default behaviour. This switch is used to
    override a configuration file setting.

.. option:: --no-capture-stderr

    Don't capture stderr (any stderr output will be printed immediately.)

.. option:: --capture-stderr

    Capture stderr (any stderr output will be printed if there is a
    failure.) This is the default behaviour. This switch is used to
    override a configuration file setting.

.. option:: --no-logcapture

    Don't capture logging. Logging configuration will be left intact.

.. option:: --logcapture

    Capture logging. All logging during a step will be captured and
    displayed in the event of a failure. This is the default
    behaviour. This switch is used to override a configuration file
    setting.

.. option:: --logging-level

    Specify a level to capture logging at. The default is INFO - capturing
    everything.

.. option:: --logging-format

    Specify custom format to print statements. Uses the same format as
    used by standard logging handlers. The default is
    "%(levelname)s:%(name)s:%(message)s".

.. option:: --logging-datefmt

    Specify custom date/time format to print statements. Uses the same
    format as used by standard logging handlers.

.. option:: --logging-filter

    Specify which statements to filter in/out. By default, everything is
    captured. If the output is too verbose, use this option to filter
    out needless output. Example: --logging-filter=foo will capture
    statements issued ONLY to foo or foo.what.ever.sub but not foobar
    or other logger. Specify multiple loggers with comma:
    filter=foo,bar,baz. If any logger name is prefixed with a minus,
    eg filter=-foo, it will be excluded rather than included.

.. option:: --logging-clear-handlers

    Clear all other logging handlers.

.. option:: --no-summary

    Don't display the summary at the end of the run.

.. option:: --summary

    Display the summary at the end of the run.

.. option:: -o, --outfile

    Write to specified file instead of stdout.

.. option:: -q, --quiet

    Alias for --no-snippets --no-source.

.. option:: -s, --no-source

    Don't print the file and line of the step definition with the steps.

.. option:: --show-source

    Print the file and line of the step definition with the steps. This is
    the default behaviour. This switch is used to override a
    configuration file setting.

.. option:: --stage

    Defines the current test stage. The test stage name is used as name
    prefix for the environment file and the steps directory (instead
    of default path names).

.. option:: --stop

    Stop running tests at the first failure.

.. option:: -t, --tags

    Only execute features or scenarios with tags matching TAG_EXPRESSION.
    Pass "--tags-help" for more information.

.. option:: -T, --no-timings

    Don't print the time taken for each step.

.. option:: --show-timings

    Print the time taken, in seconds, of each step after the step has
    completed. This is the default behaviour. This switch is used to
    override a configuration file setting.

.. option:: -v, --verbose

    Show the files and features loaded.

.. option:: -w, --wip

    Only run scenarios tagged with "wip". Additionally: use the "plain"
    formatter, do not capture stdout or logging output and stop at the
    first failure.

.. option:: -x, --expand

    Expand scenario outline tables in output.

.. option:: --lang

    Use keywords for a language other than English.

.. option:: --lang-list

    List the languages available for --lang.

.. option:: --lang-help

    List the translations accepted for one language.

.. option:: --tags-help

    Show help for tag expressions.

.. option:: --version

    Show version.



Tag Expression

Scenarios inherit tags that are declared on the Feature level. The simplest TAG_EXPRESSION is simply a tag:

--tags=@dev

You may even leave off the "@" - behave doesn't mind.

You can also exclude all features / scenarios that have a tag, by using boolean NOT:

--tags="not @dev"

A tag expression can also use a logical OR:

--tags="@dev or @wip"

The --tags option can be specified several times, and this represents logical AND, for instance this represents the boolean expression:

--tags="(@foo or not @bar) and @zap"

You can also exclude several tags:

--tags="not (@fixme or @buggy)"

Configuration Files

Configuration files for behave are called either ".behaverc", "behave.ini", "setup.cfg" or "tox.ini" (your preference) and are located in one of three places:

  1. the current working directory (good for per-project settings),
  2. your home directory ($HOME), or
  3. on Windows, in the %APPDATA% directory.

If you are wondering where behave is getting its configuration defaults from you can use the "-v" command-line argument and it'll tell you.

Configuration files must start with the label "[behave]" and are formatted in the Windows INI style, for example:

[behave]
format=plain
logging_clear_handlers=yes
logging_filter=-suds

Configuration Parameter Types

The following types are supported (and used):

text
This just assigns whatever text you supply to the configuration setting.
bool
This assigns a boolean value to the configuration setting. The text describes the functionality when the value is true. True values are "1", "yes", "true", and "on". False values are "0", "no", "false", and "off".
sequence<text>

These fields accept one or more values on new lines, for example a tag expression might look like:

default_tags= (@foo or not @bar) and @zap

which is the equivalent of the command-line usage:

--tags="(@foo or not @bar) and @zap"

Configuration Parameters

.. index::
    single: configuration param; color

.. describe:: color : bool

    Use ANSI color escapes. This is the default behaviour. This switch is
    used to override a configuration file setting.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; dry_run

.. describe:: dry_run : bool

    Invokes formatters without executing the steps.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; userdata_defines

.. describe:: userdata_defines : sequence<text>

    Define user-specific data for the config.userdata dictionary. Example:
    -D foo=bar to store it in config.userdata["foo"].

.. index::
    single: configuration param; exclude_re

.. describe:: exclude_re : text

    Don't run feature files matching regular expression PATTERN.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; include_re

.. describe:: include_re : text

    Only run feature files matching regular expression PATTERN.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; junit

.. describe:: junit : bool

    Output JUnit-compatible reports. When junit is enabled, all stdout and
    stderr will be redirected and dumped to the junit report,
    regardless of the "--capture" and "--no-capture" options.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; junit_directory

.. describe:: junit_directory : text

    Directory in which to store JUnit reports.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; default_format

.. describe:: default_format : text

    Specify default formatter (default: pretty).

.. index::
    single: configuration param; format

.. describe:: format : sequence<text>

    Specify a formatter. If none is specified the default formatter is
    used. Pass "--format help" to get a list of available formatters.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; steps_catalog

.. describe:: steps_catalog : bool

    Show a catalog of all available step definitions. SAME AS:
    --format=steps.catalog --dry-run --no-summary -q

.. index::
    single: configuration param; scenario_outline_annotation_schema

.. describe:: scenario_outline_annotation_schema : text

    Specify name annotation schema for scenario outline (default="{name}
    -- @{row.id} {examples.name}").

.. index::
    single: configuration param; show_skipped

.. describe:: show_skipped : bool

    Print skipped steps. This is the default behaviour. This switch is
    used to override a configuration file setting.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; show_snippets

.. describe:: show_snippets : bool

    Print snippets for unimplemented steps. This is the default behaviour.
    This switch is used to override a configuration file setting.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; show_multiline

.. describe:: show_multiline : bool

    Print multiline strings and tables under steps. This is the default
    behaviour. This switch is used to override a configuration file
    setting.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; name

.. describe:: name : sequence<text>

    Only execute the feature elements which match part of the given name.
    If this option is given more than once, it will match against all
    the given names.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; stdout_capture

.. describe:: stdout_capture : bool

    Capture stdout (any stdout output will be printed if there is a
    failure.) This is the default behaviour. This switch is used to
    override a configuration file setting.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; stderr_capture

.. describe:: stderr_capture : bool

    Capture stderr (any stderr output will be printed if there is a
    failure.) This is the default behaviour. This switch is used to
    override a configuration file setting.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; log_capture

.. describe:: log_capture : bool

    Capture logging. All logging during a step will be captured and
    displayed in the event of a failure. This is the default
    behaviour. This switch is used to override a configuration file
    setting.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; logging_level

.. describe:: logging_level : text

    Specify a level to capture logging at. The default is INFO - capturing
    everything.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; logging_format

.. describe:: logging_format : text

    Specify custom format to print statements. Uses the same format as
    used by standard logging handlers. The default is
    "%(levelname)s:%(name)s:%(message)s".

.. index::
    single: configuration param; logging_datefmt

.. describe:: logging_datefmt : text

    Specify custom date/time format to print statements. Uses the same
    format as used by standard logging handlers.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; logging_filter

.. describe:: logging_filter : text

    Specify which statements to filter in/out. By default, everything is
    captured. If the output is too verbose, use this option to filter
    out needless output. Example: ``logging_filter = foo`` will
    capture statements issued ONLY to "foo" or "foo.what.ever.sub" but
    not "foobar" or other logger. Specify multiple loggers with comma:
    ``logging_filter = foo,bar,baz``. If any logger name is prefixed
    with a minus, eg ``logging_filter = -foo``, it will be excluded
    rather than included.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; logging_clear_handlers

.. describe:: logging_clear_handlers : bool

    Clear all other logging handlers.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; summary

.. describe:: summary : bool

    Display the summary at the end of the run.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; outfiles

.. describe:: outfiles : sequence<text>

    Write to specified file instead of stdout.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; paths

.. describe:: paths : sequence<text>

    Specify default feature paths, used when none are provided.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; quiet

.. describe:: quiet : bool

    Alias for --no-snippets --no-source.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; show_source

.. describe:: show_source : bool

    Print the file and line of the step definition with the steps. This is
    the default behaviour. This switch is used to override a
    configuration file setting.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; stage

.. describe:: stage : text

    Defines the current test stage. The test stage name is used as name
    prefix for the environment file and the steps directory (instead
    of default path names).

.. index::
    single: configuration param; stop

.. describe:: stop : bool

    Stop running tests at the first failure.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; default_tags

.. describe:: default_tags : sequence<text>

    Define default tags when non are provided. See --tags for more
    information.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; tags

.. describe:: tags : sequence<text>

    Only execute certain features or scenarios based on the tag expression
    given. See below for how to code tag expressions in configuration
    files.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; show_timings

.. describe:: show_timings : bool

    Print the time taken, in seconds, of each step after the step has
    completed. This is the default behaviour. This switch is used to
    override a configuration file setting.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; verbose

.. describe:: verbose : bool

    Show the files and features loaded.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; wip

.. describe:: wip : bool

    Only run scenarios tagged with "wip". Additionally: use the "plain"
    formatter, do not capture stdout or logging output and stop at the
    first failure.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; expand

.. describe:: expand : bool

    Expand scenario outline tables in output.

.. index::
    single: configuration param; lang

.. describe:: lang : text

    Use keywords for a language other than English.



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