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resume redo and reorg

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commit 057247d79db7d15eefc4d7123f830e24eea38125 1 parent 0635ad0
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Showing with 23 additions and 34 deletions.
  1. +0 −1  0001/03/01/speaking-experience.json
  2. +0 −1  0001/03/10/web-development-and-management.json
  3. +0 −1  0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science.json
  4. +0 −1  0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy.json
  5. +0 −1  0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate.json
  6. +0 −1  0001/08/01/chief-technology-officer.json
  7. +0 −1  0001/08/10/developer-wordpress-document-revisions.json
  8. +0 −1  0001/09/01/new-media-fellow.json
  9. +0 −1  0001/10/01/software-automation-technology-swat-team.json
  10. +0 −1  0001/10/05/e-government-information-technology.json
  11. +0 −1  0001/10/10/presidential-innovation-fellow.json
  12. +1 −1  2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin.json
  13. +1 −1  2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party.json
  14. +1 −1  2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining.json
  15. +1 −1  2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility.json
  16. +1 −1  2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing.json
  17. +1 −1  2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds.json
  18. +1 −1  2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it.json
  19. +1 −1  2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments.json
  20. +1 −1  2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes.json
  21. +1 −1  2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials.json
  22. +1 −1  2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer.json
  23. +1 −1  2011/01/11/twitter-goes-to-bat-for-wikileaks.json
  24. +1 −1  2011/01/11/wordpress-emphasis-plugin.json
  25. +1 −1  2011/01/25/gw-course-schedule-and-campus-api.json
  26. +1 −1  2011/02/03/a-site-by-any-other-name.json
  27. +1 −1  2011/03/09/craft-your-personal-brand.json
  28. +1 −1  2011/03/20/regular-expression-to-parse-word-style-footnotes.json
  29. +1 −1  2011/04/04/when-all-you-have-is-a-pair-of-bolt-cutters.json
  30. +1 −1  2011/04/12/love-the-code.json
  31. +1 −1  2011/04/27/fair-use-excerpting-and-copying-content-in-the-internet-ecosystem.json
  32. +1 −1  2011/05/10/whats-your-hosting-companys-average-subpoena-response-time.json
  33. +1 −1  2011/06/16/groupon-and-livingsocial.json
  34. +1 −1  2011/06/30/google-analytics-tracking-of-jetpack-sharedaddy-social-engagement.json
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1  0001/03/01/speaking-experience.json
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-{"title":"Speaking Experience","organization":null,"section":"Technical Skills","from":null,"to":null,"location":null,"category":"resume","robots":"noindex, nofollow","layout":"default","url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","date":"0001-03-01 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience","categories":["resume"],"next":"* Expertise in modern web development methods — HTML5, CSS, CoffeeScript (Javascript), Rails (Ruby), relational databases (MySQL), PHP, verson control (Git) — enterprise system architecture; application programing interfaces (APIs); WordPress management, development, and integration; and Unix system administration.\n* Lead development of six active open-source projects with more than 60,000 downloads to date.","previous":null,"tags":[],"content":"<ul>\n<li><a href='http://sxsw.com'>South by Southwest</a> Interactive, panelist, <a href='http://panelpicker.sxsw.com/ideas/view/10270'>Content and Coding are not Commodities</a></li>\n\n<li>Guest lecturer, American University, <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/03/09/craft-your-personal-brand/'>Personal Branding and Social Media</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://crushIQ.com'>CrushIQ</a>, speaker, <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/11/14/making-wordpress-more-shareable-sociable-and-likeable/' rel='bookmark' title='Making WordPress More Shareable, Sociable, and Likeable'>Making WordPress More Shareable, Sociable, and Likeable</a>.</li>\n\n<li>Social Media Summit, panelist, <a href='http://sls2012.sched.org/event/17d29cfcb8dcba402bfc0b75368e15ae'>The Digital Me: Personal Branding</a></li>\n\n<li>Present regularly at <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/04/12/love-the-code/'>local technology</a> meetups including Hacks/Hackers DC, <a href='http://ben.balter.com/digital-strategy-reporting/'>Drupal4Gov</a>, and WordPress DC</li>\n</ul>","related_posts":[{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"},{"url":"/0001/08/01/chief-technology-officer/","title":"Chief Technology Officer"},{"url":"/0001/08/10/developer-wordpress-document-revisions/","title":"Developer, WordPress Document Revisions"},{"url":"/0001/09/01/new-media-fellow/","title":"New Media Fellow, Office of the Managing Director"},{"url":"/0001/10/01/software-automation-technology-swat-team/","title":"SoftWare Automation &#038; Technology (SWAT) Team, Office of Administration"},{"url":"/0001/10/05/e-government-information-technology/","title":"Fellow, Office of the US Chief Information Officer\n"},{"url":"/0001/10/10/presidential-innovation-fellow/","title":"Presidential Innovation Fellow"}]}
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1  0001/03/10/web-development-and-management.json
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-{"title":"Web Development and Management","organization":null,"section":"Technical Skills","from":null,"to":null,"location":null,"category":"resume","robots":"noindex, nofollow","layout":"default","url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","date":"0001-03-10 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management","categories":["resume"],"next":" ","previous":"<ul>\n<li><a href='http://sxsw.com'>South by Southwest</a> Interactive, panelist, <a href='http://panelpicker.sxsw.com/ideas/view/10270'>Content and Coding are not Commodities</a></li>\n\n<li>Guest lecturer, American University, <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/03/09/craft-your-personal-brand/'>Personal Branding and Social Media</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://crushIQ.com'>CrushIQ</a>, speaker, <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/11/14/making-wordpress-more-shareable-sociable-and-likeable/' rel='bookmark' title='Making WordPress More Shareable, Sociable, and Likeable'>Making WordPress More Shareable, Sociable, and Likeable</a>.</li>\n\n<li>Social Media Summit, panelist, <a href='http://sls2012.sched.org/event/17d29cfcb8dcba402bfc0b75368e15ae'>The Digital Me: Personal Branding</a></li>\n\n<li>Present regularly at <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/04/12/love-the-code/'>local technology</a> meetups including Hacks/Hackers DC, <a href='http://ben.balter.com/digital-strategy-reporting/'>Drupal4Gov</a>, and WordPress DC</li>\n</ul>","tags":[],"content":"<ul>\n<li>Expertise in modern web development methods — HTML5, CSS, CoffeeScript (Javascript), Rails (Ruby), relational databases (MySQL), PHP, verson control (Git) — enterprise system architecture; application programing interfaces (APIs); WordPress management, development, and integration; and Unix system administration.</li>\n\n<li>Lead development of six active open-source projects with more than 60,000 downloads to date.</li>\n</ul>","related_posts":[{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"},{"url":"/0001/08/01/chief-technology-officer/","title":"Chief Technology Officer"},{"url":"/0001/08/10/developer-wordpress-document-revisions/","title":"Developer, WordPress Document Revisions"},{"url":"/0001/09/01/new-media-fellow/","title":"New Media Fellow, Office of the Managing Director"},{"url":"/0001/10/01/software-automation-technology-swat-team/","title":"SoftWare Automation &#038; Technology (SWAT) Team, Office of Administration"},{"url":"/0001/10/05/e-government-information-technology/","title":"Fellow, Office of the US Chief Information Officer\n"},{"url":"/0001/10/10/presidential-innovation-fellow/","title":"Presidential Innovation Fellow"}]}
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1  0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science.json
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-{"title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science","organization":"The George Washington University","section":"Education","from":null,"to":"May 2009","location":"Washington, D.C.","category":"resume","robots":"noindex, nofollow","layout":"default","url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","date":"0001-05-01 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science","categories":["resume"],"next":"* International residency, Stockholm, Sweden — consultancy for Swedish green-technology firm seeking to bring environmentally friendly biofuel pumps to US market; created market-entry plan, including analysis of regulatory framework and licensing considerations.","previous":"<ul>\n<li>Expertise in modern web development methods — HTML5, CSS, CoffeeScript (Javascript), Rails (Ruby), relational databases (MySQL), PHP, verson control (Git) — enterprise system architecture; application programing interfaces (APIs); WordPress management, development, and integration; and Unix system administration.</li>\n\n<li>Lead development of six active open-source projects with more than 60,000 downloads to date.</li>\n</ul>","tags":[],"content":"<p> </p>","related_posts":[{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"},{"url":"/0001/08/01/chief-technology-officer/","title":"Chief Technology Officer"},{"url":"/0001/08/10/developer-wordpress-document-revisions/","title":"Developer, WordPress Document Revisions"},{"url":"/0001/09/01/new-media-fellow/","title":"New Media Fellow, Office of the Managing Director"},{"url":"/0001/10/01/software-automation-technology-swat-team/","title":"SoftWare Automation &#038; Technology (SWAT) Team, Office of Administration"},{"url":"/0001/10/05/e-government-information-technology/","title":"Fellow, Office of the US Chief Information Officer\n"},{"url":"/0001/10/10/presidential-innovation-fellow/","title":"Presidential Innovation Fellow"}]}
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1  0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy.json
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-{"title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n","organization":"The George Washington University School of Business\n","section":"Education","from":null,"to":"May 2013","location":"Washington, D.C.","category":"resume","robots":"noindex, nofollow","layout":"default","url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","date":"0001-05-05 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy","categories":["resume"],"next":"* Technology Editor, [The Public Contract Law Journal](http://pclj.org/), authored published note arguing that [federal IT procurement practices should be made more amenable to agile software development methodologies](http://ben.balter.com/2011/11/29/towards-a-more-agile-government/ \"Towards a More Agile Government\").\n* President, Jay Chapter, [Phi Alpha Delta](http://phialphadeltagw.com) Legal Fraternity\n* Member, [Federal Communications Bar Association](http://fcba.org/)\n* Member, [National Contract Management Association](http://www.ncmahq.org/)\n","previous":"<p> </p>","tags":[],"content":"<ul>\n<li>International residency, Stockholm, Sweden — consultancy for Swedish green-technology firm seeking to bring environmentally friendly biofuel pumps to US market; created market-entry plan, including analysis of regulatory framework and licensing considerations.</li>\n</ul>","related_posts":[{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"},{"url":"/0001/08/01/chief-technology-officer/","title":"Chief Technology Officer"},{"url":"/0001/08/10/developer-wordpress-document-revisions/","title":"Developer, WordPress Document Revisions"},{"url":"/0001/09/01/new-media-fellow/","title":"New Media Fellow, Office of the Managing Director"},{"url":"/0001/10/01/software-automation-technology-swat-team/","title":"SoftWare Automation &#038; Technology (SWAT) Team, Office of Administration"},{"url":"/0001/10/05/e-government-information-technology/","title":"Fellow, Office of the US Chief Information Officer\n"},{"url":"/0001/10/10/presidential-innovation-fellow/","title":"Presidential Innovation Fellow"}]}
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1  0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate.json
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-{"title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate","organization":"The George Washington University Law School\n","section":"Education","from":null,"to":"May 2013","location":"Washington, D.C.","category":"resume","robots":"noindex, nofollow","layout":"default","url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","date":"0001-05-10 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate","categories":["resume"],"next":"* Support technology needs of rapidly expanding, 10,000+ member [international grassroots journalism organization][1] in 26 cities and 7 countries dedicated to creating a thriving network of journalists and technologists rethinking the future of news and information.\n\n [1]: http://hackshackers.com/","previous":"<ul>\n<li>International residency, Stockholm, Sweden — consultancy for Swedish green-technology firm seeking to bring environmentally friendly biofuel pumps to US market; created market-entry plan, including analysis of regulatory framework and licensing considerations.</li>\n</ul>","tags":[],"content":"<ul>\n<li>Technology Editor, <a href='http://pclj.org/'>The Public Contract Law Journal</a>, authored published note arguing that <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/11/29/towards-a-more-agile-government/' title='Towards a More Agile Government'>federal IT procurement practices should be made more amenable to agile software development methodologies</a>.</li>\n\n<li>President, Jay Chapter, <a href='http://phialphadeltagw.com'>Phi Alpha Delta</a> Legal Fraternity</li>\n\n<li>Member, <a href='http://fcba.org/'>Federal Communications Bar Association</a></li>\n\n<li>Member, <a href='http://www.ncmahq.org/'>National Contract Management Association</a></li>\n</ul>","related_posts":[{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/08/01/chief-technology-officer/","title":"Chief Technology Officer"},{"url":"/0001/08/10/developer-wordpress-document-revisions/","title":"Developer, WordPress Document Revisions"},{"url":"/0001/09/01/new-media-fellow/","title":"New Media Fellow, Office of the Managing Director"},{"url":"/0001/10/01/software-automation-technology-swat-team/","title":"SoftWare Automation &#038; Technology (SWAT) Team, Office of Administration"},{"url":"/0001/10/05/e-government-information-technology/","title":"Fellow, Office of the US Chief Information Officer\n"},{"url":"/0001/10/10/presidential-innovation-fellow/","title":"Presidential Innovation Fellow"}]}
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1  0001/08/01/chief-technology-officer.json
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-{"title":"Chief Technology Officer","organization":"Hacks/Hackers","section":"Experience","from":"April 2011","to":"Present","location":null,"category":"resume","robots":"noindex, nofollow","layout":"default","url":"/0001/08/01/chief-technology-officer/","date":"0001-08-01 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/0001/08/01/chief-technology-officer","categories":["resume"],"next":"* With stipend from Google, developed government- and enterprise-friendly, [open-source document and workflow management system][1] for WordPress, the content management system that powers nearly a quarter of new websites today. The project has been downloaded more than 25,000 times to date.\n\n [1]: http://ben.balter.com/2011/08/29/wp-document-revisions-document-management-version-control-wordpress/","previous":"<ul>\n<li>Technology Editor, <a href='http://pclj.org/'>The Public Contract Law Journal</a>, authored published note arguing that <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/11/29/towards-a-more-agile-government/' title='Towards a More Agile Government'>federal IT procurement practices should be made more amenable to agile software development methodologies</a>.</li>\n\n<li>President, Jay Chapter, <a href='http://phialphadeltagw.com'>Phi Alpha Delta</a> Legal Fraternity</li>\n\n<li>Member, <a href='http://fcba.org/'>Federal Communications Bar Association</a></li>\n\n<li>Member, <a href='http://www.ncmahq.org/'>National Contract Management Association</a></li>\n</ul>","tags":[],"content":"<ul>\n<li>Support technology needs of rapidly expanding, 10,000+ member <a href='http://hackshackers.com/'>international grassroots journalism organization</a> in 26 cities and 7 countries dedicated to creating a thriving network of journalists and technologists rethinking the future of news and information.</li>\n</ul>","related_posts":[{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"},{"url":"/0001/08/10/developer-wordpress-document-revisions/","title":"Developer, WordPress Document Revisions"},{"url":"/0001/09/01/new-media-fellow/","title":"New Media Fellow, Office of the Managing Director"},{"url":"/0001/10/01/software-automation-technology-swat-team/","title":"SoftWare Automation &#038; Technology (SWAT) Team, Office of Administration"},{"url":"/0001/10/05/e-government-information-technology/","title":"Fellow, Office of the US Chief Information Officer\n"},{"url":"/0001/10/10/presidential-innovation-fellow/","title":"Presidential Innovation Fellow"}]}
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1  0001/08/10/developer-wordpress-document-revisions.json
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-{"title":"Developer, WordPress Document Revisions","organization":"Google Summer of Code","section":"Experience","from":"April 2011","to":"August 2011","location":null,"category":"resume","robots":"noindex, nofollow","layout":"default","url":"/0001/08/10/developer-wordpress-document-revisions/","date":"0001-08-10 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/0001/08/10/developer-wordpress-document-revisions","categories":["resume"],"next":"* Negotiated agency-wide, federal service agreements with the web's top service providers including FISMA-compliant cloud hosting, social media, data manipulation, source code collaboration, and geospacial firms.\n* Drafted website privacy policy, comment moderation policy, third-party privacy notices, and API terms of service for agency’s reimagined web presence.\n* Created legal and technical roadmaps to ensure compliance of new media platforms with White House Office of Management and Budget memorandums M-10-22 and M-10-23 governing federal agencies' use of website tracking technologies and third-party services.\n* Supported New Media Team’s procurement efforts, including scope of work, impact statement, and limited source justification drafting.\n* Received Superior Achievement Award for customer service, quality performance, and overall contribution to the agency mission.\n* Led adoption, implementation, and analysis of Google Analytics website visitor tracking statistics.\n* Developed more than 30 in-house software tools including [open-source website auditing and site-mapping software][1] instrumental to evaluation of online presence spanning more than 1.2 million pages.\n\n [1]: http://github.com/fcc","previous":"<ul>\n<li>Support technology needs of rapidly expanding, 10,000+ member <a href='http://hackshackers.com/'>international grassroots journalism organization</a> in 26 cities and 7 countries dedicated to creating a thriving network of journalists and technologists rethinking the future of news and information.</li>\n</ul>","tags":[],"content":"<ul>\n<li>With stipend from Google, developed government- and enterprise-friendly, <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/08/29/wp-document-revisions-document-management-version-control-wordpress/'>open-source document and workflow management system</a> for WordPress, the content management system that powers nearly a quarter of new websites today. The project has been downloaded more than 25,000 times to date.</li>\n</ul>","related_posts":[{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"},{"url":"/0001/08/01/chief-technology-officer/","title":"Chief Technology Officer"},{"url":"/0001/09/01/new-media-fellow/","title":"New Media Fellow, Office of the Managing Director"},{"url":"/0001/10/01/software-automation-technology-swat-team/","title":"SoftWare Automation &#038; Technology (SWAT) Team, Office of Administration"},{"url":"/0001/10/05/e-government-information-technology/","title":"Fellow, Office of the US Chief Information Officer\n"},{"url":"/0001/10/10/presidential-innovation-fellow/","title":"Presidential Innovation Fellow"}]}
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1  0001/09/01/new-media-fellow.json
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-{"title":"New Media Fellow, Office of the Managing Director","organization":"Federal Communications Commission","section":"Experience","from":"May 2010","to":"January 2012","location":"Washington, D.C.","robots":"noindex, nofollow","category":"resume","layout":"default","url":"/0001/09/01/new-media-fellow/","date":"0001-09-01 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/0001/09/01/new-media-fellow","categories":["resume"],"next":"* Created enterprise business solutions to automate and streamline business processes in support of the President of the United States as part of the White House’s first-ever agile software development team.\n* In close coordination with the Office of Federal Financial Management, lead development of [prototypical government-wide, open-source classifieds system][1] for sharing of federal real and other properties among executive agencies.\n* Regularly met with and presented to C-level executives and key stakeholders to develop and support mission-critical applications including public data collection, White House comment line, goods and services tracking, and employee on-boarding and off-boarding.\n* Developed application to catalog blackberry SMS and PIN messages to aid E-Discovery team and assure compliance with Federal Records Act, Presidential Records Act, and Freedom of Information Act.\n* Assisted information assurance teams with application certification and accreditation.\n\n [1]: https://max.gov/unclesamslist/","previous":"<ul>\n<li>With stipend from Google, developed government- and enterprise-friendly, <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/08/29/wp-document-revisions-document-management-version-control-wordpress/'>open-source document and workflow management system</a> for WordPress, the content management system that powers nearly a quarter of new websites today. The project has been downloaded more than 25,000 times to date.</li>\n</ul>","tags":[],"content":"<ul>\n<li>Negotiated agency-wide, federal service agreements with the web&#8217;s top service providers including FISMA-compliant cloud hosting, social media, data manipulation, source code collaboration, and geospacial firms.</li>\n\n<li>Drafted website privacy policy, comment moderation policy, third-party privacy notices, and API terms of service for agency’s reimagined web presence.</li>\n\n<li>Created legal and technical roadmaps to ensure compliance of new media platforms with White House Office of Management and Budget memorandums M-10-22 and M-10-23 governing federal agencies&#8217; use of website tracking technologies and third-party services.</li>\n\n<li>Supported New Media Team’s procurement efforts, including scope of work, impact statement, and limited source justification drafting.</li>\n\n<li>Received Superior Achievement Award for customer service, quality performance, and overall contribution to the agency mission.</li>\n\n<li>Led adoption, implementation, and analysis of Google Analytics website visitor tracking statistics.</li>\n\n<li>Developed more than 30 in-house software tools including <a href='http://github.com/fcc'>open-source website auditing and site-mapping software</a> instrumental to evaluation of online presence spanning more than 1.2 million pages.</li>\n</ul>","related_posts":[{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"},{"url":"/0001/08/01/chief-technology-officer/","title":"Chief Technology Officer"},{"url":"/0001/08/10/developer-wordpress-document-revisions/","title":"Developer, WordPress Document Revisions"},{"url":"/0001/10/01/software-automation-technology-swat-team/","title":"SoftWare Automation &#038; Technology (SWAT) Team, Office of Administration"},{"url":"/0001/10/05/e-government-information-technology/","title":"Fellow, Office of the US Chief Information Officer\n"},{"url":"/0001/10/10/presidential-innovation-fellow/","title":"Presidential Innovation Fellow"}]}
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1  0001/10/01/software-automation-technology-swat-team.json
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-{"title":"SoftWare Automation &#038; Technology (SWAT) Team, Office of Administration","organization":"Executive Office of the President","section":"Experience","from":"September 2011","to":"January 2012","location":"Washington, D.C.","category":"resume","robots":"noindex, nofollow","layout":"default","url":"/0001/10/01/software-automation-technology-swat-team/","date":"0001-10-01 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/0001/10/01/software-automation-technology-swat-team","categories":["resume"],"next":"* Assisted with drafting, stakeholder outreach, and coordination of the release of [the President’s Digital Government Strategy][1], a fundamental reimagination of the role of technology in the public sector\n* In response to presidential mandate requiring the release of open source software, coordinated and led negotiation of contract for code-sharing services including creation of records management plans under both the Federal Records and Presidential Records Acts\n* Briefed senior White House officials on legal implications and licensing consideration surrounding the creation of government-funded open-source software collaborations\n* Prepared US Chief Information Officer for public appearances including speech writing, messaging, and creation of multiple HTML5-based presentations\n* Developed technical roadmap, prototyped, and implemented [first-of-its-kind mechanism][2] for agencies to report progress on the Digital Government Strategy\n\n [1]: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/egov/digital-government/digital-government.html\n [2]: https://github.com/GSA/digital-strategy","previous":"<ul>\n<li>Negotiated agency-wide, federal service agreements with the web&#8217;s top service providers including FISMA-compliant cloud hosting, social media, data manipulation, source code collaboration, and geospacial firms.</li>\n\n<li>Drafted website privacy policy, comment moderation policy, third-party privacy notices, and API terms of service for agency’s reimagined web presence.</li>\n\n<li>Created legal and technical roadmaps to ensure compliance of new media platforms with White House Office of Management and Budget memorandums M-10-22 and M-10-23 governing federal agencies&#8217; use of website tracking technologies and third-party services.</li>\n\n<li>Supported New Media Team’s procurement efforts, including scope of work, impact statement, and limited source justification drafting.</li>\n\n<li>Received Superior Achievement Award for customer service, quality performance, and overall contribution to the agency mission.</li>\n\n<li>Led adoption, implementation, and analysis of Google Analytics website visitor tracking statistics.</li>\n\n<li>Developed more than 30 in-house software tools including <a href='http://github.com/fcc'>open-source website auditing and site-mapping software</a> instrumental to evaluation of online presence spanning more than 1.2 million pages.</li>\n</ul>","tags":[],"content":"<ul>\n<li>Created enterprise business solutions to automate and streamline business processes in support of the President of the United States as part of the White House’s first-ever agile software development team.</li>\n\n<li>In close coordination with the Office of Federal Financial Management, lead development of <a href='https://max.gov/unclesamslist/'>prototypical government-wide, open-source classifieds system</a> for sharing of federal real and other properties among executive agencies.</li>\n\n<li>Regularly met with and presented to C-level executives and key stakeholders to develop and support mission-critical applications including public data collection, White House comment line, goods and services tracking, and employee on-boarding and off-boarding.</li>\n\n<li>Developed application to catalog blackberry SMS and PIN messages to aid E-Discovery team and assure compliance with Federal Records Act, Presidential Records Act, and Freedom of Information Act.</li>\n\n<li>Assisted information assurance teams with application certification and accreditation.</li>\n</ul>","related_posts":[{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"},{"url":"/0001/08/01/chief-technology-officer/","title":"Chief Technology Officer"},{"url":"/0001/08/10/developer-wordpress-document-revisions/","title":"Developer, WordPress Document Revisions"},{"url":"/0001/09/01/new-media-fellow/","title":"New Media Fellow, Office of the Managing Director"},{"url":"/0001/10/05/e-government-information-technology/","title":"Fellow, Office of the US Chief Information Officer\n"},{"url":"/0001/10/10/presidential-innovation-fellow/","title":"Presidential Innovation Fellow"}]}
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1  0001/10/05/e-government-information-technology.json
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-{"title":"Fellow, Office of the US Chief Information Officer\n","organization":"Executive Office of the President","section":"Experience","from":"January 2012","to":"August 2012","location":"Washington, D.C.","category":"resume","robots":"noindex, nofollow","layout":"default","url":"/0001/10/05/e-government-information-technology/","date":"0001-10-05 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/0001/10/05/e-government-information-technology","categories":["resume"],"next":"Described by the US Chief Technology Officer as \"the baddest of the badass innovators,\" and by the White House Director of Digital Strategy as \"<a href=\"http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhtlOYOhE8w#t=51m12s\">lightning in a bottle</a>,\" serve as entrepreneur in residence reimagining the role of technology in brokering the relationship between citizens and government.\n","previous":"<ul>\n<li>Created enterprise business solutions to automate and streamline business processes in support of the President of the United States as part of the White House’s first-ever agile software development team.</li>\n\n<li>In close coordination with the Office of Federal Financial Management, lead development of <a href='https://max.gov/unclesamslist/'>prototypical government-wide, open-source classifieds system</a> for sharing of federal real and other properties among executive agencies.</li>\n\n<li>Regularly met with and presented to C-level executives and key stakeholders to develop and support mission-critical applications including public data collection, White House comment line, goods and services tracking, and employee on-boarding and off-boarding.</li>\n\n<li>Developed application to catalog blackberry SMS and PIN messages to aid E-Discovery team and assure compliance with Federal Records Act, Presidential Records Act, and Freedom of Information Act.</li>\n\n<li>Assisted information assurance teams with application certification and accreditation.</li>\n</ul>","tags":[],"content":"<ul>\n<li>Assisted with drafting, stakeholder outreach, and coordination of the release of <a href='http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/egov/digital-government/digital-government.html'>the President’s Digital Government Strategy</a>, a fundamental reimagination of the role of technology in the public sector</li>\n\n<li>In response to presidential mandate requiring the release of open source software, coordinated and led negotiation of contract for code-sharing services including creation of records management plans under both the Federal Records and Presidential Records Acts</li>\n\n<li>Briefed senior White House officials on legal implications and licensing consideration surrounding the creation of government-funded open-source software collaborations</li>\n\n<li>Prepared US Chief Information Officer for public appearances including speech writing, messaging, and creation of multiple HTML5-based presentations</li>\n\n<li>Developed technical roadmap, prototyped, and implemented <a href='https://github.com/GSA/digital-strategy'>first-of-its-kind mechanism</a> for agencies to report progress on the Digital Government Strategy</li>\n</ul>","related_posts":[{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"},{"url":"/0001/08/01/chief-technology-officer/","title":"Chief Technology Officer"},{"url":"/0001/08/10/developer-wordpress-document-revisions/","title":"Developer, WordPress Document Revisions"},{"url":"/0001/09/01/new-media-fellow/","title":"New Media Fellow, Office of the Managing Director"},{"url":"/0001/10/01/software-automation-technology-swat-team/","title":"SoftWare Automation &#038; Technology (SWAT) Team, Office of Administration"},{"url":"/0001/10/10/presidential-innovation-fellow/","title":"Presidential Innovation Fellow"}]}
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1  0001/10/10/presidential-innovation-fellow.json
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-{"title":"Presidential Innovation Fellow","organization":"Executive Office of the President","section":"Experience","from":"July 2012","to":"Present","location":"Washington, D.C.","category":"resume","robots":"noindex, nofollow","layout":"default","url":"/0001/10/10/presidential-innovation-fellow/","date":"0001-10-10 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/0001/10/10/presidential-innovation-fellow","categories":["resume"],"next":"I'm always intrigued by developers who use the term \"open source\" as a verb. As if a switch could magically be thrown, and via a quick mouse click in the [Danger Zone](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V8rZWw9HE7o), a proprietary or purpose-built project quickly morphs into one that's \"open source\".\n\nOpen source is not simply about publishing code. That'd be like saying democracy's simply about the ability to vote. Sure, you can vote, but if your vote doesn't matter because the act is solely symbolic, it's not really democracy. It's just a ruse. Like publishing code, voting is necessary but not sufficient.\n\nOpen source, at its core, is actually not about code, but about connecting people around a shared vision. It's about community building. It's about collaboration. It's about getting a bunch of enthusiastic, like-minded folks in a metaphorical room together, and giving them the resources they need to solve a shared problem and create something of benefit to others, something that none of them would have been able to do alone. It's about building and sharing, not about publishing.\n\nPut another way, open source is not an alternative workflow or development method. It's not as if you can choose between waterfall, agile, and open source means of producing software in a workplace. Instead, it's a overriding philosophy that guides a project. Like forward thinking, simple, interoperable, system oriented, or open standards. It's how you approach a problem from the start, not what you do after you've already solved it.\n\nTo say *\"hey, we've got something decent here, let's take this closed-sourced project and just hit publish\"* misses the mark. Your motivation can't be to seek free labor, as in *\"hey, if developers want to give us their time, great, let's put this out there and see what happens we have nothing to lose\"*, or about sporadically seeking to garner good will from a niche community of dedicated fans. Trust me, an open source developer can smell astroturf a mile a way, and that's exactly how far they'll stay.\n\n**So what makes an open source project truly open source and not simply \"published\"?**\n\n* **Shared Vision** - Open source developers want to get behind a cause. Think of it as analogous to volunteering for a political campaign. They want to know what the project stands for, and where it is going. If they contribute, what will their code be used for in a six months or a year?\n* **Clear Goals** - What's the goal of the project? What's the roadmap look like? Do you trust the community enough to share it? Can they shape that roadmap or is it set in stone?\n* **Active Development** - When's the last public commit? Are you commiting privately, bundling together a release and then blessing the community with your efforts or is development occuring in the open?\n* **Us/Them Mentality** - Is there a class system between paid/unpaid contributors? Are outside contributions handled with equal footing? Are any outside developers delegated authority or given commit access?\n* **Mechanics** - Is it in version control or just a static download? Is the bug tracker public? Can I comment and submit? What about documentation? Is it maintained in a wiki?\n* **Communication** - Can developers communicate directly or must they go through the parent organization? (e.g., announcement verses conversation models)\n* **Purpose-built Code** - Is the code writen for open source? Is it sufficiently documented? Is it modular? Is it specific to the initial usecase or abstracted out to the underlying logic?\n\nAll of the above are underlying principles that drive development from day one, and yet not incompatible with a philosophy that dictates code remains under lock and key until a minimum viable product (MVP) has been reached. They do remain incompatible, however, with a philosophy that says that business as usual can be easily switched mid-stream to a successful open source project by simply not keeping the code secret. \n\nIn the end, it's about [developing a community](http://ben.balter.com/open-source-for-government/#open_source_community_building), not about developing software. You're selling an experience — whether it's scratching a developer's personal itch or giving them the opportunity to change the world. Next time you seek to build something useful, unless it's the recipe for your secret sauce or something so specific as to render it worthless outside the organization's walls, consider [making it open source from the start](http://ben.balter.com/2012/06/26/why-you-should-always-write-software-as-open-source/), and instead seeking to grow a vibrant community around a cause, rather than simply coding a piece of software that happens to not be secret.","previous":"<ul>\n<li>Assisted with drafting, stakeholder outreach, and coordination of the release of <a href='http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/egov/digital-government/digital-government.html'>the President’s Digital Government Strategy</a>, a fundamental reimagination of the role of technology in the public sector</li>\n\n<li>In response to presidential mandate requiring the release of open source software, coordinated and led negotiation of contract for code-sharing services including creation of records management plans under both the Federal Records and Presidential Records Acts</li>\n\n<li>Briefed senior White House officials on legal implications and licensing consideration surrounding the creation of government-funded open-source software collaborations</li>\n\n<li>Prepared US Chief Information Officer for public appearances including speech writing, messaging, and creation of multiple HTML5-based presentations</li>\n\n<li>Developed technical roadmap, prototyped, and implemented <a href='https://github.com/GSA/digital-strategy'>first-of-its-kind mechanism</a> for agencies to report progress on the Digital Government Strategy</li>\n</ul>","tags":[],"content":"<p>Described by the US Chief Technology Officer as &#8220;the baddest of the badass innovators,&#8221; and by the White House Director of Digital Strategy as &#8221;<a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhtlOYOhE8w#t=51m12s'>lightning in a bottle</a>,&#8221; serve as entrepreneur in residence reimagining the role of technology in brokering the relationship between citizens and government.</p>","related_posts":[{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"},{"url":"/0001/08/01/chief-technology-officer/","title":"Chief Technology Officer"},{"url":"/0001/08/10/developer-wordpress-document-revisions/","title":"Developer, WordPress Document Revisions"},{"url":"/0001/09/01/new-media-fellow/","title":"New Media Fellow, Office of the Managing Director"},{"url":"/0001/10/01/software-automation-technology-swat-team/","title":"SoftWare Automation &#038; Technology (SWAT) Team, Office of Administration"},{"url":"/0001/10/05/e-government-information-technology/","title":"Fellow, Office of the US Chief Information Officer\n"}]}
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2  2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin.json
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-{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"WordPress Resume Plugin","excerpt":"WP Resume is an out-of-the-box solution to get your resume online and keep it updated. Built on WordPress 3.0's custom post type functionality, it offers a uniquely familiar approach to publishing. If you've got a WordPress site, you already know how to use WP Resume.\n","layout":"post","category":["Technology"],"tags":["career","job","online reputation","open source","plugin","Resume","wordpress"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/","date":"2010-09-12 00:00:00 -0400","id":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin","categories":[["Technology"]],"next":"A recent [back][1] and [forth][2] in the opinion pages of GW's paper of note brought to light an emerging divide in publicists' approaches to social media. One the one hand, GW's primary Twitter account, @GWTweets, casts the University in a stoic, buttoned-up light, with little, if any interactions with members of the rather active online community (*e.g.*, mentions, @replies, or ReTweets). @GWToday on the other hand, the *de facto *hub of the campus's Twitter scene, and arguably a [significant presence in higher education's social media world][3], has historically taken a more cavalier approach to serving as the University's digital face. But which approach is \"best\"?\n\n![][4]\n\nTechnology has the bad habit of upsetting social norms, and as much as we try, there's nothing we can do to stop it.[^5] Organizations looking to establish a presence on Twitter cannot afford to treat social media like other media they may have encountered. Social media is not a megaphone for a flaks to broadcast the press releases they would otherwise post elsewhere, but rather a cocktail party that provide organizations with the unique opportunity to loosen their tie, grab a drink, and work the room.\n\nThere is a generation of communications directors and public affairs vice presidents out there that see the liberalizing power of social media as a *liability*, rather than an *opportunity*. Personal interaction with stakeholders, be they students at a university or just those who enjoy [delicious, delicious sandwiches][6],[^7] allow organizations to connect with the people most passionate about their brand in a very real way. Just as it is second nature for city dwellers to walk past solicitors handing out pamphlets on the street corner, as the culture surrounding the technology continues to evolve so too will Twitter community begin to ostracize those members who refuse to join the ongoing digital dialog.\n\nSimply put, Twitter is not a dumping ground for pre-vetted paper.[^8] The occasional typo or personal quip doesn't hurt a company's reputation, but rather humanizes it. So long as @GWToday (or any corporate handle for that matter) falls short of sharing a [picture of what they're having for lunch][9], we can only hope that they continue to be the model for establishing an online presence, rather than the exception.\n\n*\\[Photo: [tranchis][10]\\]*\n\n [1]: http://media.www.gwhatchet.com/media/storage/paper332/news/2010/09/07/Opinions/gwtoday.Stop.Damaging.Gws.Reputation-3928003.shtml\n [2]: http://media.www.gwhatchet.com/media/storage/paper332/news/2010/09/13/Opinions/Conor.Rogers.jguiffre.Pls.Refudiate-3930388.shtml\n [3]: http://www.socialmediahighered.com/\n [4]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/3708549622_42a7d7e450_o-1024x363.jpg \"Megaphone\"\n [^5]: Without too much of a history lesson, see, e.g., Abraham Lincoln overseeing the Civil War from the telegraph office ushering in a new era of hands-on presidential leadership; home telephones giving rise to entire industries dedicated to interrupting families' dinners; Blackberrys changing business e-mail etiquette.\n [6]: http://twitter.com/jimmyjohns\n [^7]: Jimmy John's often frat-boy-esq vocabulary may push the limits of informal interactions with stakeholders, but none-the-less serves to promote their brand.\n [^8]: Thank the internet gods that TwitterFeed‘s RSS to Twitter conversion service didn't catch on.\n [9]: http://search.twitter.com/search?q=nom+twitpic\n [10]: http://www.flickr.com/photos/tranchis/3708549622/\n [11]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Lincoln_and_the_Civil_War#Conducting_the_war_effort\n [14]: http://twitterfeed.com/","previous":"<p>Described by the US Chief Technology Officer as &#8220;the baddest of the badass innovators,&#8221; and by the White House Director of Digital Strategy as &#8221;<a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhtlOYOhE8w#t=51m12s'>lightning in a bottle</a>,&#8221; serve as entrepreneur in residence reimagining the role of technology in brokering the relationship between citizens and government.</p>","content":"<p>As I began to set up my own site, I was not a huge fan of the options out there for adding a resume or CV to a WordPress blog. Many personal Web sites used lackluster TinyMCE formatting (bold, italic, bullets, nothing else) or simply stuffed pre-styled HTML into an existing page. I can&#8217;t even begin to fathom the workflows some people must go through every time they want to update their resume.<sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> A few purpose-built plugins offered a slightly more streamlined approach, but cluttered the backend with unnecessary and unfamiliar menus, and spawned legions of database tables to store the data.</p><p><em>Enter WP Resume…</em></p><p>WP Resume is an out-of-the-box solution to get your resume online and keep it updated. Built on WordPress 3.0&#8217;s custom post type functionality, it offers a uniquely familiar approach to publishing. If you&#8217;ve got a WordPress site, you already know how to use WP Resume.</p><p><strong>Features include:</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Support for sections (e.g., education, experience), organizations (e.g., somewhere state university, Cogs, Inc.), positions (e.g., bachelor of arts, chief widget specialist), and details (e.g., grew bottom line by 15%, president of the sustainability club)</li>\n\n<li>Follows best practices in resume layout and design</li>\n\n<li>One click install, just start adding content</li>\n\n<li>Drag and drop ordering of resume elements</li>\n\n<li>Built on existing WordPress code, utilizing a single custom post type and two custom taxonomies</li>\n\n<li>The WYSIWYG editing experience you know and love</li>\n\n<li>Revisioning</li>\n\n<li>Integrates with your theme like they were made for each other</li>\n\n<li>Custom URL</li>\n\n<li>Does not use pretentious accents on the word &#8220;resume&#8221;</li>\n\n<li>Extremely original title</li>\n</ul><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/wp_resume-300x223.png' />The hardest part of getting your resume online should be doing the work listed on it, not wrestling the publishing platform. Simply put, WP Resume steps aside and lets your experience shine.</p><p>Interested? You can <a href='http://ben.balter.com/resume/'>see it in action</a>, or if you&#8217;re ready to take the plunge, <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-resume/'>download it from the WordPress plugin repository</a>, and <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-resume/installation/'>try it today</a>. There&#8217;s even a <a href='http://tech.journalism.cuny.edu/documentation/wp-resume/'>great walkthrough put together by the good folks at CUNY Graduate School of Journalism.</a> Bugs, questions, comments, feedback? I&#8217;d love to hear about your experience with WP Resume in the comments below.</p><p><em>Enjoy using WP Resume? Feel free to <a href='http://ben.balter.com/donate/' title='Donate'>make a small donation</a> to support the software&#8217;s continued development.</em></p><p><em>[Photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/shawnmichael/4246330043/'>shawnmichael</a>]</em></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>I imagine it would resemble a highly digitized <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qybUFnY7Y8w'>Rube Goldberg Machine</a></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/about/","title":"About"},{"url":"/contact/","title":"Contact"},{"url":"/donate/","title":"Donate"},{"url":"/fine-print/","title":"Fine Print"},{"url":"/resume/","title":"Resume"},{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"}]}
+{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"WordPress Resume Plugin","excerpt":"WP Resume is an out-of-the-box solution to get your resume online and keep it updated. Built on WordPress 3.0's custom post type functionality, it offers a uniquely familiar approach to publishing. If you've got a WordPress site, you already know how to use WP Resume.\n","layout":"post","category":["Technology"],"tags":["career","job","online reputation","open source","plugin","Resume","wordpress"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/","date":"2010-09-12 00:00:00 -0400","id":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin","categories":[["Technology"]],"next":"A recent [back][1] and [forth][2] in the opinion pages of GW's paper of note brought to light an emerging divide in publicists' approaches to social media. One the one hand, GW's primary Twitter account, @GWTweets, casts the University in a stoic, buttoned-up light, with little, if any interactions with members of the rather active online community (*e.g.*, mentions, @replies, or ReTweets). @GWToday on the other hand, the *de facto *hub of the campus's Twitter scene, and arguably a [significant presence in higher education's social media world][3], has historically taken a more cavalier approach to serving as the University's digital face. But which approach is \"best\"?\n\n![][4]\n\nTechnology has the bad habit of upsetting social norms, and as much as we try, there's nothing we can do to stop it.[^5] Organizations looking to establish a presence on Twitter cannot afford to treat social media like other media they may have encountered. Social media is not a megaphone for a flaks to broadcast the press releases they would otherwise post elsewhere, but rather a cocktail party that provide organizations with the unique opportunity to loosen their tie, grab a drink, and work the room.\n\nThere is a generation of communications directors and public affairs vice presidents out there that see the liberalizing power of social media as a *liability*, rather than an *opportunity*. Personal interaction with stakeholders, be they students at a university or just those who enjoy [delicious, delicious sandwiches][6],[^7] allow organizations to connect with the people most passionate about their brand in a very real way. Just as it is second nature for city dwellers to walk past solicitors handing out pamphlets on the street corner, as the culture surrounding the technology continues to evolve so too will Twitter community begin to ostracize those members who refuse to join the ongoing digital dialog.\n\nSimply put, Twitter is not a dumping ground for pre-vetted paper.[^8] The occasional typo or personal quip doesn't hurt a company's reputation, but rather humanizes it. So long as @GWToday (or any corporate handle for that matter) falls short of sharing a [picture of what they're having for lunch][9], we can only hope that they continue to be the model for establishing an online presence, rather than the exception.\n\n*\\[Photo: [tranchis][10]\\]*\n\n [1]: http://media.www.gwhatchet.com/media/storage/paper332/news/2010/09/07/Opinions/gwtoday.Stop.Damaging.Gws.Reputation-3928003.shtml\n [2]: http://media.www.gwhatchet.com/media/storage/paper332/news/2010/09/13/Opinions/Conor.Rogers.jguiffre.Pls.Refudiate-3930388.shtml\n [3]: http://www.socialmediahighered.com/\n [4]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/3708549622_42a7d7e450_o-1024x363.jpg \"Megaphone\"\n [^5]: Without too much of a history lesson, see, e.g., Abraham Lincoln overseeing the Civil War from the telegraph office ushering in a new era of hands-on presidential leadership; home telephones giving rise to entire industries dedicated to interrupting families' dinners; Blackberrys changing business e-mail etiquette.\n [6]: http://twitter.com/jimmyjohns\n [^7]: Jimmy John's often frat-boy-esq vocabulary may push the limits of informal interactions with stakeholders, but none-the-less serves to promote their brand.\n [^8]: Thank the internet gods that TwitterFeed‘s RSS to Twitter conversion service didn't catch on.\n [9]: http://search.twitter.com/search?q=nom+twitpic\n [10]: http://www.flickr.com/photos/tranchis/3708549622/\n [11]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Lincoln_and_the_Civil_War#Conducting_the_war_effort\n [14]: http://twitterfeed.com/","previous":null,"content":"<p>As I began to set up my own site, I was not a huge fan of the options out there for adding a resume or CV to a WordPress blog. Many personal Web sites used lackluster TinyMCE formatting (bold, italic, bullets, nothing else) or simply stuffed pre-styled HTML into an existing page. I can&#8217;t even begin to fathom the workflows some people must go through every time they want to update their resume.<sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> A few purpose-built plugins offered a slightly more streamlined approach, but cluttered the backend with unnecessary and unfamiliar menus, and spawned legions of database tables to store the data.</p><p><em>Enter WP Resume…</em></p><p>WP Resume is an out-of-the-box solution to get your resume online and keep it updated. Built on WordPress 3.0&#8217;s custom post type functionality, it offers a uniquely familiar approach to publishing. If you&#8217;ve got a WordPress site, you already know how to use WP Resume.</p><p><strong>Features include:</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Support for sections (e.g., education, experience), organizations (e.g., somewhere state university, Cogs, Inc.), positions (e.g., bachelor of arts, chief widget specialist), and details (e.g., grew bottom line by 15%, president of the sustainability club)</li>\n\n<li>Follows best practices in resume layout and design</li>\n\n<li>One click install, just start adding content</li>\n\n<li>Drag and drop ordering of resume elements</li>\n\n<li>Built on existing WordPress code, utilizing a single custom post type and two custom taxonomies</li>\n\n<li>The WYSIWYG editing experience you know and love</li>\n\n<li>Revisioning</li>\n\n<li>Integrates with your theme like they were made for each other</li>\n\n<li>Custom URL</li>\n\n<li>Does not use pretentious accents on the word &#8220;resume&#8221;</li>\n\n<li>Extremely original title</li>\n</ul><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/wp_resume-300x223.png' />The hardest part of getting your resume online should be doing the work listed on it, not wrestling the publishing platform. Simply put, WP Resume steps aside and lets your experience shine.</p><p>Interested? You can <a href='http://ben.balter.com/resume/'>see it in action</a>, or if you&#8217;re ready to take the plunge, <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-resume/'>download it from the WordPress plugin repository</a>, and <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-resume/installation/'>try it today</a>. There&#8217;s even a <a href='http://tech.journalism.cuny.edu/documentation/wp-resume/'>great walkthrough put together by the good folks at CUNY Graduate School of Journalism.</a> Bugs, questions, comments, feedback? I&#8217;d love to hear about your experience with WP Resume in the comments below.</p><p><em>Enjoy using WP Resume? Feel free to <a href='http://ben.balter.com/donate/' title='Donate'>make a small donation</a> to support the software&#8217;s continued development.</em></p><p><em>[Photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/shawnmichael/4246330043/'>shawnmichael</a>]</em></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>I imagine it would resemble a highly digitized <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qybUFnY7Y8w'>Rube Goldberg Machine</a></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party/","title":"New Media Flak: Megaphone vs. Cocktail Party"},{"url":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/","title":"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?"},{"url":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility/","title":"Removing the Barriers to Organizational Agility\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing/","title":"What Fourteen-Century Apple Pie Teaches Us About Sharing\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds/","title":"Will Federal Contracting Officers Soon Have Their Heads in the Clouds?\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it/","title":"Free Trade in China? Just Google it."},{"url":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/","title":"Twitter Mentions as Comments WordPress Plugin\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes/","title":"The Internet is Series of Tubes (oh, and Tollgates too)\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/","title":"Late-Night Infomercials: Guaranteed to Extend the 4th Amendment or Your Money Back"},{"url":"/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer/","title":"The Files \"in\" the Computer -- Zoolander and the California Supreme Court"}]}
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-{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"New Media Flak: Megaphone vs. Cocktail Party","excerpt":"A recent back and forth in the opinion pages of GW's paper of note brought to light an emerging divide in publicists' approaches to social media.","layout":"post","category":["Business","Technology"],"tags":["generation gap","gw","pr","social media","twitter"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party/","date":"2010-09-13 00:00:00 -0400","id":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party","categories":[["Business","Technology"]],"next":"[][1]Today's New York Times article [outlining law enforcement officials' attempts to expand their digital wiretapping authority][2], offers interesting insight into the law enforcement world of tomorrow. In the not too distant future, TV's crime-process dramas may take on a very different feel. Gone will be the days of [gun-toting detectives busting down doors, search warrant in hand][3]. Instead, as our lives become increasingly digital, investigations will be conducted by [keyboard-wielding lab techs submitting automated requests to service providers][4]. Don't be surprised if the next CSI spinoff is CSI: Inbox Inspectors Division.\n\nBut why does this shift matter? Simply put, in [the cloud][5], there is no door for the police to kick in. While the law is clear in that your physical files and those computer files stored on your computer itself enjoy the protections of the fourth amendment, those stored in the cloud do not, and the standards of proof required differ dramatically.[^6]\n\n![][7]\n\nConsider this: you are the target of a criminal investigation and the police believe that six months ago you e-mailed an accomplice to discuss the crime. Depending on your e-mail settings and which service you use (e.g., if the \"[leave downloaded messages on server][8]\" option is checked), the police may need only offer \"specific and articulable facts\" that they suspect the e-mail is related to the crime.[^9] That same e-mail stored on your computer (e.g., if the setting is not checked), would require a search warrant and showing of probable cause, and thus would be afforded significantly greater protections under the law.[^10]\n\nHowever, the typical \"*if you don't want it public, don't put it on the internet*\" argument doesn't apply here. While that may be true for [photos and updates posted to social networking sites][11], as more and more of our lives (and [commercial dealings][12]) are pushed to the cloud, we're loosing our abilities to have a digital private sphere.[^13]\n\nThe good news is that it's in service providers' interest to instill confidence in the integrity of your data by [disclosing when information is shared with authorities][14] and by [pushing for legal reform ][15]to better safeguard personal data stored in the cloud. The bad news, beyond more [painfully tacky computer search scenes][16], is that before we know it, our perception of privacy may be forced to evolve.\n\nThunderstorms occur when divergent forces collide in clouds. It is becoming increasingly clear that cloud computing is in our extended forecast, but whether the imminent [digital due process][17] storm the cloud foreshadows will contain a silver privacy lining remains to be seen.\n\nPhoto credit: [garyhayes][18]\n\n [1]: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/4502026170_4bf31f04e6.jpg\n [2]: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/27/us/27wiretap.html?_r=1&ref=technology \"NYT: U.S. Tries to Make It Easier to Wiretap the Internet\"\n [3]: http://www.hulu.com/watch/53368/swat-best-of-breaches \"Hulu: Best of Swatch Breaches\"\n [4]: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Z70BmmSkMY&feature=related \"CSI Miami IP Address Lookup\"\n [5]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing \"Wikipedia: Cloud Computing\"\n [^6]: *Compare* Fed. R. Crim. P. 41(e)(2)(B) *with* 18 U.S.C.A. § 2703(d) (West).\n [7]: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/4502026170_4bf31f04e6.jpg \"Cloud Computing - 500px\"\n [8]: http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/outlook-help/leave-e-mail-messages-on-your-e-mail-server-HA001150793.aspx\n [^9]: 18 U.S.C.A. § 2703(d) (West).\n [^10]: *See generall*y [Obtaining Electronic Evidence][21], Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (July 2003).\n [11]: http://youropenbook.org/ \"Your Open Book\"\n [12]: http://www.google.com/apps/intl/en/business/customers.html \"Google Business Customers\"\n [^13]: Take Google, as an example, who, to their credit, is a [front-runner in the push toward digital due process][23], testifying on the Hill just last week. Without signing up for a Google account, through the use of cookies, Google can compile a relatively accurate profile of [what Web sites you visit][24] and [how often you visit them][25], what [products you purchase][26], and [where you go][27]. And if you sign-up for a near-ubiquitous Google account, you introduce the cloud to [what others are saying about you][28], [what you read][29], [files stored on your computer][30], and even [your medical history][31], not to mention with [whom][32] [you][33] [communicate][34], what [you're doing][35], and [where you are right now][36]. \n [14]: http://www.google.com/transparencyreport/governmentrequests/ \"Google Government Inqueries\"\n [15]: http://digitaldueprocess.org/index.cfm?objectid=37940370-2551-11DF-8E02000C296BA163 \"Digital Due Process\"\n [16]: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hkDD03yeLnU \"YouTube: CSI Blog Search\"\n [17]: http://digitaldueprocess.org/\n [18]: http://www.flickr.com/photos/garyhayes/4502026170/\n [21]: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IYzfdrim0owJ:www.fletc.gov/training/programs/legal-division/downloads-articles-and-faqs/downloads/other/obtaining_electronic.pdf/download+&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgpYeTPUFAijEyb4BnY4_wzFLwSJmRNv8yL2ZD8EkhQTjt7oXv9kELuYHG7A202xJ9_MGwvgVDwjviAEh0zW76gZQAbieBYwR6cnNUyD83txcScrGTU0qDUME590QPAMej6hmSy&sig=AHIEtbTf4jZconLMbkMO_hVK8xQ92bqZNQ\n [23]: http://googlepublicpolicy.blogspot.com/2010/09/digital-due-process-time-is-now.html \"Google Policy Blog: Digital Due Process the Time is Now\"\n [24]: http://google.com \"Google.com\"\n [25]: http://google.com/analytics \"Google Analytics\"\n [26]: http://checkout.google.com \"Google Checkout\"\n [27]: http://maps.google.com \"Google Maps\"\n [28]: http://alerts.google.com \"Google Alerts\"\n [29]: http://books.google.com \"Google Books\"\n [30]: http://desktop.google.com \"Google Desktop\"\n [31]: http://google.com/health/ \"Google Health\"\n [32]: http://google.com/talk \"Google Talk\"\n [33]: http://gmail.com \"Gmail\"\n [34]: http://google.com/voice/ \"Google Voice\"\n [35]: http://google.com/calendar/ \"Google Calendar\"\n [36]: http://mobile.google.com \"Google Mobile\"","previous":"<p>As I began to set up my own site, I was not a huge fan of the options out there for adding a resume or CV to a WordPress blog. Many personal Web sites used lackluster TinyMCE formatting (bold, italic, bullets, nothing else) or simply stuffed pre-styled HTML into an existing page. I can&#8217;t even begin to fathom the workflows some people must go through every time they want to update their resume.<sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> A few purpose-built plugins offered a slightly more streamlined approach, but cluttered the backend with unnecessary and unfamiliar menus, and spawned legions of database tables to store the data.</p><p><em>Enter WP Resume…</em></p><p>WP Resume is an out-of-the-box solution to get your resume online and keep it updated. Built on WordPress 3.0&#8217;s custom post type functionality, it offers a uniquely familiar approach to publishing. If you&#8217;ve got a WordPress site, you already know how to use WP Resume.</p><p><strong>Features include:</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Support for sections (e.g., education, experience), organizations (e.g., somewhere state university, Cogs, Inc.), positions (e.g., bachelor of arts, chief widget specialist), and details (e.g., grew bottom line by 15%, president of the sustainability club)</li>\n\n<li>Follows best practices in resume layout and design</li>\n\n<li>One click install, just start adding content</li>\n\n<li>Drag and drop ordering of resume elements</li>\n\n<li>Built on existing WordPress code, utilizing a single custom post type and two custom taxonomies</li>\n\n<li>The WYSIWYG editing experience you know and love</li>\n\n<li>Revisioning</li>\n\n<li>Integrates with your theme like they were made for each other</li>\n\n<li>Custom URL</li>\n\n<li>Does not use pretentious accents on the word &#8220;resume&#8221;</li>\n\n<li>Extremely original title</li>\n</ul><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/wp_resume-300x223.png' />The hardest part of getting your resume online should be doing the work listed on it, not wrestling the publishing platform. Simply put, WP Resume steps aside and lets your experience shine.</p><p>Interested? You can <a href='http://ben.balter.com/resume/'>see it in action</a>, or if you&#8217;re ready to take the plunge, <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-resume/'>download it from the WordPress plugin repository</a>, and <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-resume/installation/'>try it today</a>. There&#8217;s even a <a href='http://tech.journalism.cuny.edu/documentation/wp-resume/'>great walkthrough put together by the good folks at CUNY Graduate School of Journalism.</a> Bugs, questions, comments, feedback? I&#8217;d love to hear about your experience with WP Resume in the comments below.</p><p><em>Enjoy using WP Resume? Feel free to <a href='http://ben.balter.com/donate/' title='Donate'>make a small donation</a> to support the software&#8217;s continued development.</em></p><p><em>[Photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/shawnmichael/4246330043/'>shawnmichael</a>]</em></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>I imagine it would resemble a highly digitized <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qybUFnY7Y8w'>Rube Goldberg Machine</a></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p>A recent <a href='http://media.www.gwhatchet.com/media/storage/paper332/news/2010/09/07/Opinions/gwtoday.Stop.Damaging.Gws.Reputation-3928003.shtml'>back</a> and <a href='http://media.www.gwhatchet.com/media/storage/paper332/news/2010/09/13/Opinions/Conor.Rogers.jguiffre.Pls.Refudiate-3930388.shtml'>forth</a> in the opinion pages of GW&#8217;s paper of note brought to light an emerging divide in publicists&#8217; approaches to social media. One the one hand, GW&#8217;s primary Twitter account, @GWTweets, casts the University in a stoic, buttoned-up light, with little, if any interactions with members of the rather active online community (<em>e.g.</em>, mentions, @replies, or ReTweets). @GWToday on the other hand, the <em>de facto</em>hub of the campus&#8217;s Twitter scene, and arguably a <a href='http://www.socialmediahighered.com/'>significant presence in higher education&#8217;s social media world</a>, has historically taken a more cavalier approach to serving as the University&#8217;s digital face. But which approach is &#8220;best&#8221;?</p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/3708549622_42a7d7e450_o-1024x363.jpg' /></p><p>Technology has the bad habit of upsetting social norms, and as much as we try, there&#8217;s nothing we can do to stop it.<sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> Organizations looking to establish a presence on Twitter cannot afford to treat social media like other media they may have encountered. Social media is not a megaphone for a flaks to broadcast the press releases they would otherwise post elsewhere, but rather a cocktail party that provide organizations with the unique opportunity to loosen their tie, grab a drink, and work the room.</p><p>There is a generation of communications directors and public affairs vice presidents out there that see the liberalizing power of social media as a <em>liability</em>, rather than an <em>opportunity</em>. Personal interaction with stakeholders, be they students at a university or just those who enjoy <a href='http://twitter.com/jimmyjohns'>delicious, delicious sandwiches</a>,<sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> allow organizations to connect with the people most passionate about their brand in a very real way. Just as it is second nature for city dwellers to walk past solicitors handing out pamphlets on the street corner, as the culture surrounding the technology continues to evolve so too will Twitter community begin to ostracize those members who refuse to join the ongoing digital dialog.</p><p>Simply put, Twitter is not a dumping ground for pre-vetted paper.<sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> The occasional typo or personal quip doesn&#8217;t hurt a company&#8217;s reputation, but rather humanizes it. So long as @GWToday (or any corporate handle for that matter) falls short of sharing a <a href='http://search.twitter.com/search?q=nom+twitpic'>picture of what they&#8217;re having for lunch</a>, we can only hope that they continue to be the model for establishing an online presence, rather than the exception.</p><p><em>[Photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/tranchis/3708549622/'>tranchis</a>]</em></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>Without too much of a history lesson, see, e.g., Abraham Lincoln overseeing the Civil War from the telegraph office ushering in a new era of hands-on presidential leadership; home telephones giving rise to entire industries dedicated to interrupting families&#8217; dinners; Blackberrys changing business e-mail etiquette.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>Jimmy John&#8217;s often frat-boy-esq vocabulary may push the limits of informal interactions with stakeholders, but none-the-less serves to promote their brand.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>Thank the internet gods that TwitterFeed‘s RSS to Twitter conversion service didn&#8217;t catch on.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/about/","title":"About"},{"url":"/contact/","title":"Contact"},{"url":"/donate/","title":"Donate"},{"url":"/fine-print/","title":"Fine Print"},{"url":"/resume/","title":"Resume"},{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"}]}
+{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"New Media Flak: Megaphone vs. Cocktail Party","excerpt":"A recent back and forth in the opinion pages of GW's paper of note brought to light an emerging divide in publicists' approaches to social media.","layout":"post","category":["Business","Technology"],"tags":["generation gap","gw","pr","social media","twitter"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party/","date":"2010-09-13 00:00:00 -0400","id":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party","categories":[["Business","Technology"]],"next":"[][1]Today's New York Times article [outlining law enforcement officials' attempts to expand their digital wiretapping authority][2], offers interesting insight into the law enforcement world of tomorrow. In the not too distant future, TV's crime-process dramas may take on a very different feel. Gone will be the days of [gun-toting detectives busting down doors, search warrant in hand][3]. Instead, as our lives become increasingly digital, investigations will be conducted by [keyboard-wielding lab techs submitting automated requests to service providers][4]. Don't be surprised if the next CSI spinoff is CSI: Inbox Inspectors Division.\n\nBut why does this shift matter? Simply put, in [the cloud][5], there is no door for the police to kick in. While the law is clear in that your physical files and those computer files stored on your computer itself enjoy the protections of the fourth amendment, those stored in the cloud do not, and the standards of proof required differ dramatically.[^6]\n\n![][7]\n\nConsider this: you are the target of a criminal investigation and the police believe that six months ago you e-mailed an accomplice to discuss the crime. Depending on your e-mail settings and which service you use (e.g., if the \"[leave downloaded messages on server][8]\" option is checked), the police may need only offer \"specific and articulable facts\" that they suspect the e-mail is related to the crime.[^9] That same e-mail stored on your computer (e.g., if the setting is not checked), would require a search warrant and showing of probable cause, and thus would be afforded significantly greater protections under the law.[^10]\n\nHowever, the typical \"*if you don't want it public, don't put it on the internet*\" argument doesn't apply here. While that may be true for [photos and updates posted to social networking sites][11], as more and more of our lives (and [commercial dealings][12]) are pushed to the cloud, we're loosing our abilities to have a digital private sphere.[^13]\n\nThe good news is that it's in service providers' interest to instill confidence in the integrity of your data by [disclosing when information is shared with authorities][14] and by [pushing for legal reform ][15]to better safeguard personal data stored in the cloud. The bad news, beyond more [painfully tacky computer search scenes][16], is that before we know it, our perception of privacy may be forced to evolve.\n\nThunderstorms occur when divergent forces collide in clouds. It is becoming increasingly clear that cloud computing is in our extended forecast, but whether the imminent [digital due process][17] storm the cloud foreshadows will contain a silver privacy lining remains to be seen.\n\nPhoto credit: [garyhayes][18]\n\n [1]: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/4502026170_4bf31f04e6.jpg\n [2]: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/27/us/27wiretap.html?_r=1&ref=technology \"NYT: U.S. Tries to Make It Easier to Wiretap the Internet\"\n [3]: http://www.hulu.com/watch/53368/swat-best-of-breaches \"Hulu: Best of Swatch Breaches\"\n [4]: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Z70BmmSkMY&feature=related \"CSI Miami IP Address Lookup\"\n [5]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing \"Wikipedia: Cloud Computing\"\n [^6]: *Compare* Fed. R. Crim. P. 41(e)(2)(B) *with* 18 U.S.C.A. § 2703(d) (West).\n [7]: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/4502026170_4bf31f04e6.jpg \"Cloud Computing - 500px\"\n [8]: http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/outlook-help/leave-e-mail-messages-on-your-e-mail-server-HA001150793.aspx\n [^9]: 18 U.S.C.A. § 2703(d) (West).\n [^10]: *See generall*y [Obtaining Electronic Evidence][21], Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (July 2003).\n [11]: http://youropenbook.org/ \"Your Open Book\"\n [12]: http://www.google.com/apps/intl/en/business/customers.html \"Google Business Customers\"\n [^13]: Take Google, as an example, who, to their credit, is a [front-runner in the push toward digital due process][23], testifying on the Hill just last week. Without signing up for a Google account, through the use of cookies, Google can compile a relatively accurate profile of [what Web sites you visit][24] and [how often you visit them][25], what [products you purchase][26], and [where you go][27]. And if you sign-up for a near-ubiquitous Google account, you introduce the cloud to [what others are saying about you][28], [what you read][29], [files stored on your computer][30], and even [your medical history][31], not to mention with [whom][32] [you][33] [communicate][34], what [you're doing][35], and [where you are right now][36]. \n [14]: http://www.google.com/transparencyreport/governmentrequests/ \"Google Government Inqueries\"\n [15]: http://digitaldueprocess.org/index.cfm?objectid=37940370-2551-11DF-8E02000C296BA163 \"Digital Due Process\"\n [16]: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hkDD03yeLnU \"YouTube: CSI Blog Search\"\n [17]: http://digitaldueprocess.org/\n [18]: http://www.flickr.com/photos/garyhayes/4502026170/\n [21]: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IYzfdrim0owJ:www.fletc.gov/training/programs/legal-division/downloads-articles-and-faqs/downloads/other/obtaining_electronic.pdf/download+&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgpYeTPUFAijEyb4BnY4_wzFLwSJmRNv8yL2ZD8EkhQTjt7oXv9kELuYHG7A202xJ9_MGwvgVDwjviAEh0zW76gZQAbieBYwR6cnNUyD83txcScrGTU0qDUME590QPAMej6hmSy&sig=AHIEtbTf4jZconLMbkMO_hVK8xQ92bqZNQ\n [23]: http://googlepublicpolicy.blogspot.com/2010/09/digital-due-process-time-is-now.html \"Google Policy Blog: Digital Due Process the Time is Now\"\n [24]: http://google.com \"Google.com\"\n [25]: http://google.com/analytics \"Google Analytics\"\n [26]: http://checkout.google.com \"Google Checkout\"\n [27]: http://maps.google.com \"Google Maps\"\n [28]: http://alerts.google.com \"Google Alerts\"\n [29]: http://books.google.com \"Google Books\"\n [30]: http://desktop.google.com \"Google Desktop\"\n [31]: http://google.com/health/ \"Google Health\"\n [32]: http://google.com/talk \"Google Talk\"\n [33]: http://gmail.com \"Gmail\"\n [34]: http://google.com/voice/ \"Google Voice\"\n [35]: http://google.com/calendar/ \"Google Calendar\"\n [36]: http://mobile.google.com \"Google Mobile\"","previous":"<p>As I began to set up my own site, I was not a huge fan of the options out there for adding a resume or CV to a WordPress blog. Many personal Web sites used lackluster TinyMCE formatting (bold, italic, bullets, nothing else) or simply stuffed pre-styled HTML into an existing page. I can&#8217;t even begin to fathom the workflows some people must go through every time they want to update their resume.<sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> A few purpose-built plugins offered a slightly more streamlined approach, but cluttered the backend with unnecessary and unfamiliar menus, and spawned legions of database tables to store the data.</p><p><em>Enter WP Resume…</em></p><p>WP Resume is an out-of-the-box solution to get your resume online and keep it updated. Built on WordPress 3.0&#8217;s custom post type functionality, it offers a uniquely familiar approach to publishing. If you&#8217;ve got a WordPress site, you already know how to use WP Resume.</p><p><strong>Features include:</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Support for sections (e.g., education, experience), organizations (e.g., somewhere state university, Cogs, Inc.), positions (e.g., bachelor of arts, chief widget specialist), and details (e.g., grew bottom line by 15%, president of the sustainability club)</li>\n\n<li>Follows best practices in resume layout and design</li>\n\n<li>One click install, just start adding content</li>\n\n<li>Drag and drop ordering of resume elements</li>\n\n<li>Built on existing WordPress code, utilizing a single custom post type and two custom taxonomies</li>\n\n<li>The WYSIWYG editing experience you know and love</li>\n\n<li>Revisioning</li>\n\n<li>Integrates with your theme like they were made for each other</li>\n\n<li>Custom URL</li>\n\n<li>Does not use pretentious accents on the word &#8220;resume&#8221;</li>\n\n<li>Extremely original title</li>\n</ul><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/wp_resume-300x223.png' />The hardest part of getting your resume online should be doing the work listed on it, not wrestling the publishing platform. Simply put, WP Resume steps aside and lets your experience shine.</p><p>Interested? You can <a href='http://ben.balter.com/resume/'>see it in action</a>, or if you&#8217;re ready to take the plunge, <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-resume/'>download it from the WordPress plugin repository</a>, and <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-resume/installation/'>try it today</a>. There&#8217;s even a <a href='http://tech.journalism.cuny.edu/documentation/wp-resume/'>great walkthrough put together by the good folks at CUNY Graduate School of Journalism.</a> Bugs, questions, comments, feedback? I&#8217;d love to hear about your experience with WP Resume in the comments below.</p><p><em>Enjoy using WP Resume? Feel free to <a href='http://ben.balter.com/donate/' title='Donate'>make a small donation</a> to support the software&#8217;s continued development.</em></p><p><em>[Photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/shawnmichael/4246330043/'>shawnmichael</a>]</em></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>I imagine it would resemble a highly digitized <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qybUFnY7Y8w'>Rube Goldberg Machine</a></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p>A recent <a href='http://media.www.gwhatchet.com/media/storage/paper332/news/2010/09/07/Opinions/gwtoday.Stop.Damaging.Gws.Reputation-3928003.shtml'>back</a> and <a href='http://media.www.gwhatchet.com/media/storage/paper332/news/2010/09/13/Opinions/Conor.Rogers.jguiffre.Pls.Refudiate-3930388.shtml'>forth</a> in the opinion pages of GW&#8217;s paper of note brought to light an emerging divide in publicists&#8217; approaches to social media. One the one hand, GW&#8217;s primary Twitter account, @GWTweets, casts the University in a stoic, buttoned-up light, with little, if any interactions with members of the rather active online community (<em>e.g.</em>, mentions, @replies, or ReTweets). @GWToday on the other hand, the <em>de facto</em>hub of the campus&#8217;s Twitter scene, and arguably a <a href='http://www.socialmediahighered.com/'>significant presence in higher education&#8217;s social media world</a>, has historically taken a more cavalier approach to serving as the University&#8217;s digital face. But which approach is &#8220;best&#8221;?</p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/3708549622_42a7d7e450_o-1024x363.jpg' /></p><p>Technology has the bad habit of upsetting social norms, and as much as we try, there&#8217;s nothing we can do to stop it.<sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> Organizations looking to establish a presence on Twitter cannot afford to treat social media like other media they may have encountered. Social media is not a megaphone for a flaks to broadcast the press releases they would otherwise post elsewhere, but rather a cocktail party that provide organizations with the unique opportunity to loosen their tie, grab a drink, and work the room.</p><p>There is a generation of communications directors and public affairs vice presidents out there that see the liberalizing power of social media as a <em>liability</em>, rather than an <em>opportunity</em>. Personal interaction with stakeholders, be they students at a university or just those who enjoy <a href='http://twitter.com/jimmyjohns'>delicious, delicious sandwiches</a>,<sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> allow organizations to connect with the people most passionate about their brand in a very real way. Just as it is second nature for city dwellers to walk past solicitors handing out pamphlets on the street corner, as the culture surrounding the technology continues to evolve so too will Twitter community begin to ostracize those members who refuse to join the ongoing digital dialog.</p><p>Simply put, Twitter is not a dumping ground for pre-vetted paper.<sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> The occasional typo or personal quip doesn&#8217;t hurt a company&#8217;s reputation, but rather humanizes it. So long as @GWToday (or any corporate handle for that matter) falls short of sharing a <a href='http://search.twitter.com/search?q=nom+twitpic'>picture of what they&#8217;re having for lunch</a>, we can only hope that they continue to be the model for establishing an online presence, rather than the exception.</p><p><em>[Photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/tranchis/3708549622/'>tranchis</a>]</em></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>Without too much of a history lesson, see, e.g., Abraham Lincoln overseeing the Civil War from the telegraph office ushering in a new era of hands-on presidential leadership; home telephones giving rise to entire industries dedicated to interrupting families&#8217; dinners; Blackberrys changing business e-mail etiquette.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>Jimmy John&#8217;s often frat-boy-esq vocabulary may push the limits of informal interactions with stakeholders, but none-the-less serves to promote their brand.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>Thank the internet gods that TwitterFeed‘s RSS to Twitter conversion service didn&#8217;t catch on.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/","title":"WordPress Resume Plugin"},{"url":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/","title":"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?"},{"url":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility/","title":"Removing the Barriers to Organizational Agility\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing/","title":"What Fourteen-Century Apple Pie Teaches Us About Sharing\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds/","title":"Will Federal Contracting Officers Soon Have Their Heads in the Clouds?\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it/","title":"Free Trade in China? Just Google it."},{"url":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/","title":"Twitter Mentions as Comments WordPress Plugin\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes/","title":"The Internet is Series of Tubes (oh, and Tollgates too)\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/","title":"Late-Night Infomercials: Guaranteed to Extend the 4th Amendment or Your Money Back"},{"url":"/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer/","title":"The Files \"in\" the Computer -- Zoolander and the California Supreme Court"}]}
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2  2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining.json
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-{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?","excerpt":"Thunderstorms occur when divergent forces collide in clouds. It is becoming increasingly clear that cloud computing is in our extended forecast, but whether the imminent digital due process storm the cloud foreshadows will contain a silver privacy lining remains to be seen.\n","layout":"post","category":["Law","Technology"],"tags":["cloud computing","digital due process","google","privacy"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/","date":"2010-10-10 00:00:00 -0400","id":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining","categories":[["Law","Technology"]],"next":"*Recorded at the [The George Washington University Tech Alumni Group][1] Federal Executive Roundtable, November 4, 2010.*\n\n![][2]\nPanelists Steven Bucci, William Kirkendale, Brian Moran, Mark Rosenfeld, and Mariano Tan / Photo: GW Tech Alumni Group\n\n**Introduction of Panelists \n**16m 10s | 14.8 MB | [mp3][3] | [torrent][4] \n<audio id=\"wp\\_mep\\_1\" controls=\"controls\" preload=\"none\" class=\"mejs-player \" data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}'> <source src=\"http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3\" type=\"audio/mp3\" /> </audio>\n\n[][4]**Agile Systems Development versus Waterfall Systems Development \n**57m 07s | 52.3MB | [mp3][5] | [torrent][6] \n<audio id=\"wp\\_mep\\_2\" controls=\"controls\" src=\"http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Agile-v-Waterfall-Systems-Development.mp3\" preload=\"none\" class=\"mejs-player \" data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}'> </audio> \n**Cloud Computing versus FISMA, Acquisitions, and Budget \n**34m 58s | 32MB | [mp3][7] | [torrent][8] \n<audio id=\"wp\\_mep\\_3\" controls=\"controls\" src=\"http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Cloud-Computing-v-FISMA.mp3\" preload=\"none\" class=\"mejs-player \" data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}'> </audio> \n**Complete recording of all three \n**1h 48m | 99.3MB | [mp3][9] | [torrent][10] \n<audio id=\"wp\\_mep\\_4\" controls=\"controls\" src=\"http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Removing-Barriers-to-Organizational-Agility.mp3\" preload=\"none\" class=\"mejs-player \" data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}'> </audio> \n**Roundtable Participants**\n\n* Hamid Ouyachi, Chief Technology Officer, U.S. Department of Labor\n* Steven Bucci, Cyber Security Lead, Global Leadership Initiative, at IBM & former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense & Defense Support of Civil Authorities\n* William Kirkendale, Chief Information Officer, Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency\n* Mark Bryan Rosenfeld, Associate Partner, Public Sector CRM Call Center Optimization, IBM Global Business Services\n* Mariano Tan, President, TeleTech Government Solutions\n\n**Moderator**\n\n* Brian Moran, President, GW Tech Alumni Group; CEO, Nester Consulting; & former Director of IT Services, U.S. International Trade Commission\n\n [1]: http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=154839957865223\n [2]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/68153_493302469280_603259280_5451391_4928024_n-300x199.jpg \"Steven Bucci, William Kirkendale, Brian Moran, Mark Rosenfeld, Mariano Tan \"\n [3]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3\n [4]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3?torrent\n [5]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Agile-v-Waterfall-Systems-Development.mp3\n [6]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Agile-v-Waterfall-Systems-Development.mp3?torrent\n [7]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Cloud-Computing-v-FISMA.mp3\n [8]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Cloud-Computing-v-FISMA.mp3?torrent\n [9]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Removing-Barriers-to-Organizational-Agility.mp3\n [10]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Removing-Barriers-to-Organizational-Agility.mp3?torrent","previous":"<p>A recent <a href='http://media.www.gwhatchet.com/media/storage/paper332/news/2010/09/07/Opinions/gwtoday.Stop.Damaging.Gws.Reputation-3928003.shtml'>back</a> and <a href='http://media.www.gwhatchet.com/media/storage/paper332/news/2010/09/13/Opinions/Conor.Rogers.jguiffre.Pls.Refudiate-3930388.shtml'>forth</a> in the opinion pages of GW&#8217;s paper of note brought to light an emerging divide in publicists&#8217; approaches to social media. One the one hand, GW&#8217;s primary Twitter account, @GWTweets, casts the University in a stoic, buttoned-up light, with little, if any interactions with members of the rather active online community (<em>e.g.</em>, mentions, @replies, or ReTweets). @GWToday on the other hand, the <em>de facto</em>hub of the campus&#8217;s Twitter scene, and arguably a <a href='http://www.socialmediahighered.com/'>significant presence in higher education&#8217;s social media world</a>, has historically taken a more cavalier approach to serving as the University&#8217;s digital face. But which approach is &#8220;best&#8221;?</p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/3708549622_42a7d7e450_o-1024x363.jpg' /></p><p>Technology has the bad habit of upsetting social norms, and as much as we try, there&#8217;s nothing we can do to stop it.<sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> Organizations looking to establish a presence on Twitter cannot afford to treat social media like other media they may have encountered. Social media is not a megaphone for a flaks to broadcast the press releases they would otherwise post elsewhere, but rather a cocktail party that provide organizations with the unique opportunity to loosen their tie, grab a drink, and work the room.</p><p>There is a generation of communications directors and public affairs vice presidents out there that see the liberalizing power of social media as a <em>liability</em>, rather than an <em>opportunity</em>. Personal interaction with stakeholders, be they students at a university or just those who enjoy <a href='http://twitter.com/jimmyjohns'>delicious, delicious sandwiches</a>,<sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> allow organizations to connect with the people most passionate about their brand in a very real way. Just as it is second nature for city dwellers to walk past solicitors handing out pamphlets on the street corner, as the culture surrounding the technology continues to evolve so too will Twitter community begin to ostracize those members who refuse to join the ongoing digital dialog.</p><p>Simply put, Twitter is not a dumping ground for pre-vetted paper.<sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> The occasional typo or personal quip doesn&#8217;t hurt a company&#8217;s reputation, but rather humanizes it. So long as @GWToday (or any corporate handle for that matter) falls short of sharing a <a href='http://search.twitter.com/search?q=nom+twitpic'>picture of what they&#8217;re having for lunch</a>, we can only hope that they continue to be the model for establishing an online presence, rather than the exception.</p><p><em>[Photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/tranchis/3708549622/'>tranchis</a>]</em></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>Without too much of a history lesson, see, e.g., Abraham Lincoln overseeing the Civil War from the telegraph office ushering in a new era of hands-on presidential leadership; home telephones giving rise to entire industries dedicated to interrupting families&#8217; dinners; Blackberrys changing business e-mail etiquette.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>Jimmy John&#8217;s often frat-boy-esq vocabulary may push the limits of informal interactions with stakeholders, but none-the-less serves to promote their brand.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>Thank the internet gods that TwitterFeed‘s RSS to Twitter conversion service didn&#8217;t catch on.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p><a href='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/4502026170_4bf31f04e6.jpg' />Today&#8217;s New York Times article <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/27/us/27wiretap.html?_r=1&amp;ref=technology' title='NYT: U.S. Tries to Make It Easier to Wiretap the Internet'>outlining law enforcement officials&#8217; attempts to expand their digital wiretapping authority</a>, offers interesting insight into the law enforcement world of tomorrow. In the not too distant future, TV&#8217;s crime-process dramas may take on a very different feel. Gone will be the days of <a href='http://www.hulu.com/watch/53368/swat-best-of-breaches' title='Hulu: Best of Swatch Breaches'>gun-toting detectives busting down doors, search warrant in hand</a>. Instead, as our lives become increasingly digital, investigations will be conducted by <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Z70BmmSkMY&amp;feature=related' title='CSI Miami IP Address Lookup'>keyboard-wielding lab techs submitting automated requests to service providers</a>. Don&#8217;t be surprised if the next CSI spinoff is CSI: Inbox Inspectors Division.</p><p>But why does this shift matter? Simply put, in <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing' title='Wikipedia: Cloud Computing'>the cloud</a>, there is no door for the police to kick in. While the law is clear in that your physical files and those computer files stored on your computer itself enjoy the protections of the fourth amendment, those stored in the cloud do not, and the standards of proof required differ dramatically.<sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup></p><p><img alt='' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/4502026170_4bf31f04e6.jpg' /></p><p>Consider this: you are the target of a criminal investigation and the police believe that six months ago you e-mailed an accomplice to discuss the crime. Depending on your e-mail settings and which service you use (e.g., if the &#8221;<a href='http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/outlook-help/leave-e-mail-messages-on-your-e-mail-server-HA001150793.aspx'>leave downloaded messages on server</a>&#8221; option is checked), the police may need only offer &#8220;specific and articulable facts&#8221; that they suspect the e-mail is related to the crime.<sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> That same e-mail stored on your computer (e.g., if the setting is not checked), would require a search warrant and showing of probable cause, and thus would be afforded significantly greater protections under the law.<sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup></p><p>However, the typical &#8221;<em>if you don&#8217;t want it public, don&#8217;t put it on the internet</em>&#8221; argument doesn&#8217;t apply here. While that may be true for <a href='http://youropenbook.org/' title='Your Open Book'>photos and updates posted to social networking sites</a>, as more and more of our lives (and <a href='http://www.google.com/apps/intl/en/business/customers.html' title='Google Business Customers'>commercial dealings</a>) are pushed to the cloud, we&#8217;re loosing our abilities to have a digital private sphere.<sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup></p><p>The good news is that it&#8217;s in service providers&#8217; interest to instill confidence in the integrity of your data by <a href='http://www.google.com/transparencyreport/governmentrequests/' title='Google Government Inqueries'>disclosing when information is shared with authorities</a> and by <a href='http://digitaldueprocess.org/index.cfm?objectid=37940370-2551-11DF-8E02000C296BA163' title='Digital Due Process'>pushing for legal reform</a>to better safeguard personal data stored in the cloud. The bad news, beyond more <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hkDD03yeLnU' title='YouTube: CSI Blog Search'>painfully tacky computer search scenes</a>, is that before we know it, our perception of privacy may be forced to evolve.</p><p>Thunderstorms occur when divergent forces collide in clouds. It is becoming increasingly clear that cloud computing is in our extended forecast, but whether the imminent <a href='http://digitaldueprocess.org/'>digital due process</a> storm the cloud foreshadows will contain a silver privacy lining remains to be seen.</p><p>Photo credit: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/garyhayes/4502026170/'>garyhayes</a></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p><em>Compare</em> Fed. R. Crim. P. 41(e)(2)(B) <em>with</em> 18 U.S.C.A. § 2703(d) (West).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>18 U.S.C.A. § 2703(d) (West).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p><em>See generall</em>y <a href='http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&amp;q=cache:IYzfdrim0owJ:www.fletc.gov/training/programs/legal-division/downloads-articles-and-faqs/downloads/other/obtaining_electronic.pdf/download+&amp;hl=en&amp;gl=us&amp;pid=bl&amp;srcid=ADGEESgpYeTPUFAijEyb4BnY4_wzFLwSJmRNv8yL2ZD8EkhQTjt7oXv9kELuYHG7A202xJ9_MGwvgVDwjviAEh0zW76gZQAbieBYwR6cnNUyD83txcScrGTU0qDUME590QPAMej6hmSy&amp;sig=AHIEtbTf4jZconLMbkMO_hVK8xQ92bqZNQ'>Obtaining Electronic Evidence</a>, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (July 2003).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>Take Google, as an example, who, to their credit, is a <a href='http://googlepublicpolicy.blogspot.com/2010/09/digital-due-process-time-is-now.html' title='Google Policy Blog: Digital Due Process the Time is Now'>front-runner in the push toward digital due process</a>, testifying on the Hill just last week. Without signing up for a Google account, through the use of cookies, Google can compile a relatively accurate profile of <a href='http://google.com' title='Google.com'>what Web sites you visit</a> and <a href='http://google.com/analytics' title='Google Analytics'>how often you visit them</a>, what <a href='http://checkout.google.com' title='Google Checkout'>products you purchase</a>, and <a href='http://maps.google.com' title='Google Maps'>where you go</a>. And if you sign-up for a near-ubiquitous Google account, you introduce the cloud to <a href='http://alerts.google.com' title='Google Alerts'>what others are saying about you</a>, <a href='http://books.google.com' title='Google Books'>what you read</a>, <a href='http://desktop.google.com' title='Google Desktop'>files stored on your computer</a>, and even <a href='http://google.com/health/' title='Google Health'>your medical history</a>, not to mention with <a href='http://google.com/talk' title='Google Talk'>whom</a> <a href='http://gmail.com' title='Gmail'>you</a> <a href='http://google.com/voice/' title='Google Voice'>communicate</a>, what <a href='http://google.com/calendar/' title='Google Calendar'>you&#8217;re doing</a>, and <a href='http://mobile.google.com' title='Google Mobile'>where you are right now</a>.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/about/","title":"About"},{"url":"/contact/","title":"Contact"},{"url":"/donate/","title":"Donate"},{"url":"/fine-print/","title":"Fine Print"},{"url":"/resume/","title":"Resume"},{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"}]}
+{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?","excerpt":"Thunderstorms occur when divergent forces collide in clouds. It is becoming increasingly clear that cloud computing is in our extended forecast, but whether the imminent digital due process storm the cloud foreshadows will contain a silver privacy lining remains to be seen.\n","layout":"post","category":["Law","Technology"],"tags":["cloud computing","digital due process","google","privacy"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/","date":"2010-10-10 00:00:00 -0400","id":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining","categories":[["Law","Technology"]],"next":"*Recorded at the [The George Washington University Tech Alumni Group][1] Federal Executive Roundtable, November 4, 2010.*\n\n![][2]\nPanelists Steven Bucci, William Kirkendale, Brian Moran, Mark Rosenfeld, and Mariano Tan / Photo: GW Tech Alumni Group\n\n**Introduction of Panelists \n**16m 10s | 14.8 MB | [mp3][3] | [torrent][4] \n<audio id=\"wp\\_mep\\_1\" controls=\"controls\" preload=\"none\" class=\"mejs-player \" data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}'> <source src=\"http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3\" type=\"audio/mp3\" /> </audio>\n\n[][4]**Agile Systems Development versus Waterfall Systems Development \n**57m 07s | 52.3MB | [mp3][5] | [torrent][6] \n<audio id=\"wp\\_mep\\_2\" controls=\"controls\" src=\"http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Agile-v-Waterfall-Systems-Development.mp3\" preload=\"none\" class=\"mejs-player \" data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}'> </audio> \n**Cloud Computing versus FISMA, Acquisitions, and Budget \n**34m 58s | 32MB | [mp3][7] | [torrent][8] \n<audio id=\"wp\\_mep\\_3\" controls=\"controls\" src=\"http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Cloud-Computing-v-FISMA.mp3\" preload=\"none\" class=\"mejs-player \" data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}'> </audio> \n**Complete recording of all three \n**1h 48m | 99.3MB | [mp3][9] | [torrent][10] \n<audio id=\"wp\\_mep\\_4\" controls=\"controls\" src=\"http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Removing-Barriers-to-Organizational-Agility.mp3\" preload=\"none\" class=\"mejs-player \" data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}'> </audio> \n**Roundtable Participants**\n\n* Hamid Ouyachi, Chief Technology Officer, U.S. Department of Labor\n* Steven Bucci, Cyber Security Lead, Global Leadership Initiative, at IBM & former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense & Defense Support of Civil Authorities\n* William Kirkendale, Chief Information Officer, Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency\n* Mark Bryan Rosenfeld, Associate Partner, Public Sector CRM Call Center Optimization, IBM Global Business Services\n* Mariano Tan, President, TeleTech Government Solutions\n\n**Moderator**\n\n* Brian Moran, President, GW Tech Alumni Group; CEO, Nester Consulting; & former Director of IT Services, U.S. International Trade Commission\n\n [1]: http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=154839957865223\n [2]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/68153_493302469280_603259280_5451391_4928024_n-300x199.jpg \"Steven Bucci, William Kirkendale, Brian Moran, Mark Rosenfeld, Mariano Tan \"\n [3]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3\n [4]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3?torrent\n [5]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Agile-v-Waterfall-Systems-Development.mp3\n [6]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Agile-v-Waterfall-Systems-Development.mp3?torrent\n [7]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Cloud-Computing-v-FISMA.mp3\n [8]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Cloud-Computing-v-FISMA.mp3?torrent\n [9]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Removing-Barriers-to-Organizational-Agility.mp3\n [10]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Removing-Barriers-to-Organizational-Agility.mp3?torrent","previous":"<p>A recent <a href='http://media.www.gwhatchet.com/media/storage/paper332/news/2010/09/07/Opinions/gwtoday.Stop.Damaging.Gws.Reputation-3928003.shtml'>back</a> and <a href='http://media.www.gwhatchet.com/media/storage/paper332/news/2010/09/13/Opinions/Conor.Rogers.jguiffre.Pls.Refudiate-3930388.shtml'>forth</a> in the opinion pages of GW&#8217;s paper of note brought to light an emerging divide in publicists&#8217; approaches to social media. One the one hand, GW&#8217;s primary Twitter account, @GWTweets, casts the University in a stoic, buttoned-up light, with little, if any interactions with members of the rather active online community (<em>e.g.</em>, mentions, @replies, or ReTweets). @GWToday on the other hand, the <em>de facto</em>hub of the campus&#8217;s Twitter scene, and arguably a <a href='http://www.socialmediahighered.com/'>significant presence in higher education&#8217;s social media world</a>, has historically taken a more cavalier approach to serving as the University&#8217;s digital face. But which approach is &#8220;best&#8221;?</p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/3708549622_42a7d7e450_o-1024x363.jpg' /></p><p>Technology has the bad habit of upsetting social norms, and as much as we try, there&#8217;s nothing we can do to stop it.<sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> Organizations looking to establish a presence on Twitter cannot afford to treat social media like other media they may have encountered. Social media is not a megaphone for a flaks to broadcast the press releases they would otherwise post elsewhere, but rather a cocktail party that provide organizations with the unique opportunity to loosen their tie, grab a drink, and work the room.</p><p>There is a generation of communications directors and public affairs vice presidents out there that see the liberalizing power of social media as a <em>liability</em>, rather than an <em>opportunity</em>. Personal interaction with stakeholders, be they students at a university or just those who enjoy <a href='http://twitter.com/jimmyjohns'>delicious, delicious sandwiches</a>,<sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> allow organizations to connect with the people most passionate about their brand in a very real way. Just as it is second nature for city dwellers to walk past solicitors handing out pamphlets on the street corner, as the culture surrounding the technology continues to evolve so too will Twitter community begin to ostracize those members who refuse to join the ongoing digital dialog.</p><p>Simply put, Twitter is not a dumping ground for pre-vetted paper.<sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> The occasional typo or personal quip doesn&#8217;t hurt a company&#8217;s reputation, but rather humanizes it. So long as @GWToday (or any corporate handle for that matter) falls short of sharing a <a href='http://search.twitter.com/search?q=nom+twitpic'>picture of what they&#8217;re having for lunch</a>, we can only hope that they continue to be the model for establishing an online presence, rather than the exception.</p><p><em>[Photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/tranchis/3708549622/'>tranchis</a>]</em></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>Without too much of a history lesson, see, e.g., Abraham Lincoln overseeing the Civil War from the telegraph office ushering in a new era of hands-on presidential leadership; home telephones giving rise to entire industries dedicated to interrupting families&#8217; dinners; Blackberrys changing business e-mail etiquette.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>Jimmy John&#8217;s often frat-boy-esq vocabulary may push the limits of informal interactions with stakeholders, but none-the-less serves to promote their brand.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>Thank the internet gods that TwitterFeed‘s RSS to Twitter conversion service didn&#8217;t catch on.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p><a href='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/4502026170_4bf31f04e6.jpg' />Today&#8217;s New York Times article <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/27/us/27wiretap.html?_r=1&amp;ref=technology' title='NYT: U.S. Tries to Make It Easier to Wiretap the Internet'>outlining law enforcement officials&#8217; attempts to expand their digital wiretapping authority</a>, offers interesting insight into the law enforcement world of tomorrow. In the not too distant future, TV&#8217;s crime-process dramas may take on a very different feel. Gone will be the days of <a href='http://www.hulu.com/watch/53368/swat-best-of-breaches' title='Hulu: Best of Swatch Breaches'>gun-toting detectives busting down doors, search warrant in hand</a>. Instead, as our lives become increasingly digital, investigations will be conducted by <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Z70BmmSkMY&amp;feature=related' title='CSI Miami IP Address Lookup'>keyboard-wielding lab techs submitting automated requests to service providers</a>. Don&#8217;t be surprised if the next CSI spinoff is CSI: Inbox Inspectors Division.</p><p>But why does this shift matter? Simply put, in <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing' title='Wikipedia: Cloud Computing'>the cloud</a>, there is no door for the police to kick in. While the law is clear in that your physical files and those computer files stored on your computer itself enjoy the protections of the fourth amendment, those stored in the cloud do not, and the standards of proof required differ dramatically.<sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup></p><p><img alt='' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/4502026170_4bf31f04e6.jpg' /></p><p>Consider this: you are the target of a criminal investigation and the police believe that six months ago you e-mailed an accomplice to discuss the crime. Depending on your e-mail settings and which service you use (e.g., if the &#8221;<a href='http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/outlook-help/leave-e-mail-messages-on-your-e-mail-server-HA001150793.aspx'>leave downloaded messages on server</a>&#8221; option is checked), the police may need only offer &#8220;specific and articulable facts&#8221; that they suspect the e-mail is related to the crime.<sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> That same e-mail stored on your computer (e.g., if the setting is not checked), would require a search warrant and showing of probable cause, and thus would be afforded significantly greater protections under the law.<sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup></p><p>However, the typical &#8221;<em>if you don&#8217;t want it public, don&#8217;t put it on the internet</em>&#8221; argument doesn&#8217;t apply here. While that may be true for <a href='http://youropenbook.org/' title='Your Open Book'>photos and updates posted to social networking sites</a>, as more and more of our lives (and <a href='http://www.google.com/apps/intl/en/business/customers.html' title='Google Business Customers'>commercial dealings</a>) are pushed to the cloud, we&#8217;re loosing our abilities to have a digital private sphere.<sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup></p><p>The good news is that it&#8217;s in service providers&#8217; interest to instill confidence in the integrity of your data by <a href='http://www.google.com/transparencyreport/governmentrequests/' title='Google Government Inqueries'>disclosing when information is shared with authorities</a> and by <a href='http://digitaldueprocess.org/index.cfm?objectid=37940370-2551-11DF-8E02000C296BA163' title='Digital Due Process'>pushing for legal reform</a>to better safeguard personal data stored in the cloud. The bad news, beyond more <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hkDD03yeLnU' title='YouTube: CSI Blog Search'>painfully tacky computer search scenes</a>, is that before we know it, our perception of privacy may be forced to evolve.</p><p>Thunderstorms occur when divergent forces collide in clouds. It is becoming increasingly clear that cloud computing is in our extended forecast, but whether the imminent <a href='http://digitaldueprocess.org/'>digital due process</a> storm the cloud foreshadows will contain a silver privacy lining remains to be seen.</p><p>Photo credit: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/garyhayes/4502026170/'>garyhayes</a></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p><em>Compare</em> Fed. R. Crim. P. 41(e)(2)(B) <em>with</em> 18 U.S.C.A. § 2703(d) (West).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>18 U.S.C.A. § 2703(d) (West).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p><em>See generall</em>y <a href='http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&amp;q=cache:IYzfdrim0owJ:www.fletc.gov/training/programs/legal-division/downloads-articles-and-faqs/downloads/other/obtaining_electronic.pdf/download+&amp;hl=en&amp;gl=us&amp;pid=bl&amp;srcid=ADGEESgpYeTPUFAijEyb4BnY4_wzFLwSJmRNv8yL2ZD8EkhQTjt7oXv9kELuYHG7A202xJ9_MGwvgVDwjviAEh0zW76gZQAbieBYwR6cnNUyD83txcScrGTU0qDUME590QPAMej6hmSy&amp;sig=AHIEtbTf4jZconLMbkMO_hVK8xQ92bqZNQ'>Obtaining Electronic Evidence</a>, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (July 2003).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>Take Google, as an example, who, to their credit, is a <a href='http://googlepublicpolicy.blogspot.com/2010/09/digital-due-process-time-is-now.html' title='Google Policy Blog: Digital Due Process the Time is Now'>front-runner in the push toward digital due process</a>, testifying on the Hill just last week. Without signing up for a Google account, through the use of cookies, Google can compile a relatively accurate profile of <a href='http://google.com' title='Google.com'>what Web sites you visit</a> and <a href='http://google.com/analytics' title='Google Analytics'>how often you visit them</a>, what <a href='http://checkout.google.com' title='Google Checkout'>products you purchase</a>, and <a href='http://maps.google.com' title='Google Maps'>where you go</a>. And if you sign-up for a near-ubiquitous Google account, you introduce the cloud to <a href='http://alerts.google.com' title='Google Alerts'>what others are saying about you</a>, <a href='http://books.google.com' title='Google Books'>what you read</a>, <a href='http://desktop.google.com' title='Google Desktop'>files stored on your computer</a>, and even <a href='http://google.com/health/' title='Google Health'>your medical history</a>, not to mention with <a href='http://google.com/talk' title='Google Talk'>whom</a> <a href='http://gmail.com' title='Gmail'>you</a> <a href='http://google.com/voice/' title='Google Voice'>communicate</a>, what <a href='http://google.com/calendar/' title='Google Calendar'>you&#8217;re doing</a>, and <a href='http://mobile.google.com' title='Google Mobile'>where you are right now</a>.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/","title":"WordPress Resume Plugin"},{"url":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party/","title":"New Media Flak: Megaphone vs. Cocktail Party"},{"url":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility/","title":"Removing the Barriers to Organizational Agility\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing/","title":"What Fourteen-Century Apple Pie Teaches Us About Sharing\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds/","title":"Will Federal Contracting Officers Soon Have Their Heads in the Clouds?\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it/","title":"Free Trade in China? Just Google it."},{"url":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/","title":"Twitter Mentions as Comments WordPress Plugin\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes/","title":"The Internet is Series of Tubes (oh, and Tollgates too)\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/","title":"Late-Night Infomercials: Guaranteed to Extend the 4th Amendment or Your Money Back"},{"url":"/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer/","title":"The Files \"in\" the Computer -- Zoolander and the California Supreme Court"}]}
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-{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"Removing the Barriers to Organizational Agility\n","excerpt":null,"layout":"post","category":["Technology"],"tags":["agile","cloud computing","federal","government","procurement"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility/","date":"2010-11-06 00:00:00 -0400","id":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility","categories":[["Technology"]],"next":"Everyone knows the old adage: \"If it's on the internet, it must be true free.[^1]\" It turns out despite the internet's [otherwise murky attribution waters][2], that's not quite the case.\n\n![Apple Pie Courtesy belochkavita][3]Last week writer Monica Gaudio [received an e-mail from a friend][4] congratulating her on getting an article published in the Northeast-regional cooking magazine [Cooks Source][5]. There was only one problem — she didn't. The article, a recipe for fourteen-century apple pie, was lifted, word-for-word, from [Gaudio's Web site][6]. After an e-mail back-and-forth in which Gaudio asked for an apology, a copy of the magazine, and a $130 donation to the Columbia Journalism School, Cooks [Source Editor Judith Griggs noted][4]:\n\n> \"…the web is considered \"public domain\" and you should be happy we just didn't \"lift\" your whole article and put someone else's name on it! It happens a lot, clearly more than you are aware of, especially on college campuses, and the workplace.\"\n\nA quick search on WestLaw reveals that the \"[\\[w\\]ell, it was on the Internet][7]\" defense is not recognized as a valid defense to copyright infringement in any American court of jurisprudence. It turns out, anything on the internet has the same copyright protections as its physical analog.[^2] So long as the work is fixed, original, and creative, it is subject to copyright protections.[^3] This remains true whether or not a conspicuous copyright notice is present or the work is registered with the copyright office [^4].\n\nAfter several [major][11] [blogs][12] got whiff of the story, and not long after, [Time][13], [CNN][14], [The New York Times][15], [The Washington Post][16], [Wired][17], [Mashable][18] and [MSNBC][19], faceless internet millions began scouring the Web for proof supporting the [accusations][20] that Cooks Source had previously done the same – [160 recipes, pictures, and stories][21] so far to be exact. The July 2010 issue alone, for example, had [Chicken Chopped Mediterranean Salad with Feta Vinaigrette][22], [Blackberry Lemonade][23], [Mixed Berry Soup][24], [Fresh Mozzarella BLT with Pesto][25], [Alton Brown's Best Burger][26], [Napa Valley Basil-Smoked Burgers][27], and [Jairs Burgers][28], all lifted with limited modification from the Food Network Web site.[^5]\n\nWhile it may be true that in a world where CTRL-C and CTRL-V (or Command for Mac users and \"[Open Apple][30]\" for really old Mac users) are literally right in front of us, attribution and proper citation may not be at the forefront of content producers (or copiers) minds, the Cooks Source blowback shows unequivocally that the Internet takes care of its own.\n\nThe unfortunate incident spawned the ever-venerable [meme][31]. Cooks Source has become the brunt of every [#ButHonestlyMonica][32] joke on Twitter, and they have even joined the exclusive ranks of those with satirical Twitter handles, @CooksSource and @JudithGriggs. Every few minutes yet another heckler chimes in on [the Cooks Source Facebook Page][33] and as inevitably is the case, one malcontent even went so far as to produce a YouTube video [comparing Cooks Source to Nazis][34].[^6]\n\nThe story, illustrating the true mob-power of the Internet, might be even more interesting if it turns out Cooks Source [isn't in the wrong][36] after all or that the e-mails were actually [made up][37]. So what if Cooks Source has [lost advertisers][38] and so what if Cooks Source Editor Judith Griggs name has been [forever digi-tarnished][39]. The important thing is that internet justice has been served.[^7] It is all too easy to forget that despite its incredible power to democratize and decentralize knowledge, the Web, at it's 3:00 am core, is an echo chamber in which rumors reverberate louder than they would in even the most gossip-centric high school cafeteria — and the worst part is, here, the AV club kids are the bullies. So foodies, aspiring journalists, and internet memesters, copy judiciously, cite liberally,[^8] and [hire a good lawyer][42].\n\n*Ed. Note: Journalism students, please make sure to pay attention in your media law class. Miss one lecture and this is what happens. On second thought, don't go. The legal economy [is][43] [bad][44] [enough][45] as it is — we need all the lawsuits we can get.*\n\n**Update (11/11):** Final score: Internet, 1, Cooks Source, 0. It appears the Internet has beaten Cooks Source into submission. Cooks Source has sworn to never \"be on Facebook again,\" canceling its Facebook account and [taking down its Web site][46], after [hackers gained access][47].[^9] Ironically, Cooks Source claims that their intellectual property rights were violated when [copies of their most-recent issue][49] were posted online.[^10] They have made the donation Gaudio requested to the Columbia School of Journalism, as well as a contribution to a local food bank, also in her name [11][51]. Moral of the story? Whatever you do, [don't post statements in Comic Sans.][52]\n\n*\\[Photo used under Creative Commons License courtesy **[belochkavita][53]**\\]*\n\n[^1]: *See generally [TechCrunch: If it's on the Internet, It Must Be True.][54]*\n[^2]: 17 USC § 102 (allowing for communication of works \"with the aid of a machine or device\").\n[^3]: *Feist Publications, Inc. vs. Rural Telephone Service Co.*, 499 U.S. 340 (1991) (establishing a three-part test for copyright protection).\n[^4]: [*Copyright Basics*][58]. U.S. Copyright Office (July 2008) (noting that for works created after the 1988 ratification of the [Berne Convention][59], copyright is assumed, thus neither notice nor registration is required to invoke protections).\n[^5]: Edward Champion, [The Cooks Source Scandal: How a Magazine Profits on Theft][7].\n[^6]: *See generally *[Goodwin's Law][62].\n[^7]: Internet Justice (*n.*) – a form of justice only slightly less barbaric than the [Thunderdome][64].\n[^8]: *See generally supra notes* 1-7.\n[^9]: [Cooks Source Web site][46] (*Last accessed: *November 11, 2010).\n[^10]: *Id.*\n[^11]: *Id.*\n\n [1]: \"See generally TechCrunch: If it's on the Internet, It Must Be True.\"\n [2]: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jay-rosen/the-uncharted-from-off-th_b_96575.html\n [3]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/244921874_44ec1cbfa9-292x300.jpg \"Apple Pie Courtesy belochkavita\"\n [4]: http://illadore.livejournal.com/30674.html\n [5]: http://cookssource.com\n [6]: http://godecookery.com/twotarts/twotarts.html\n [7]: http://www.edrants.com/the-cooks-source-scandal-how-a-magazine-profits-on-theft/\n [11]: http://gawker.com/5681770/magazine-editor-steals-article-tells-writer-you-should-compensate-me?skyline=true&s=i\n [12]: http://gizmodo.com/5681714/attention-the-web-is-not-public-domain\n [13]: http://newsfeed.time.com/2010/11/05/exclusive-cooks-source-writer-marvels-at-the-nerd-rage-keeps-waiting-for-that-apology/\n [14]: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-11-05/tech/cooks.source.plagiarism_1_internet-twitter-web?_s=PM:TECH\n [15]: http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/04/a-social-media-firestorm-about-apple-pies/\n [16]: http://voices.washingtonpost.com/blog-post/2010/11/cooks_source_magazine_an_onlin.html\n [17]: http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/11/web-decries-infringement/\n [18]: http://mashable.com/2010/11/06/cooks-source/\n [19]: http://technolog.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2010/11/05/5416008-exclusive-cooks-source-kicks-hornets-nest-wronged-writer-responds\n [20]: http://www.facebook.com/topic.php?uid=196994196748&topic=23238\n [21]: https://spreadsheets.google.com/ccc?key=0AmTaIPHPnkSedGFhbHo1d1FIR2oxNWJLaDZLeXhEVEE&hl=en#gid=0\n [22]: http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/chicken-chopped-mediterranean-salad-with-feta-vinaigrette-recipe/index.html\n [23]: http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/blackberry-lemonade-recipe/index.html\n [24]: http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/giada-de-laurentiis/mixed-berry-soup-with-gelato-recipe/index.html\n [25]: http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/tyler-florence/fresh-mozzarella-blt-with-pesto-recipe/index.html\n [26]: http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/alton-brown/best-burger-ever-recipe/index.html\n [27]: http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/napa-valley-basil-smoked-burgers-recipe/index.html\n [28]: http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/food-network-challenge/feta-sun-dried-tomato-stuffed-prosciutto-burgers-recipe/index.html\n [30]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Command_key\n [31]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meme\n [32]: http://twitter.com/search?q=%23ButHonestlyMonica\n [33]: http://www.facebook.com/pages/Cooks-Source-Magazine/196994196748\n [34]: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YC-tVHLM99w\n [36]: http://www.copyright.gov/fls/fl122.html\n [37]: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/you-20/201011/are-cooks-source-magazine-and-judith-griggs-innocent\n [38]: http://www.masslive.com/news/index.ssf/2010/11/sunderland-based_magazine_cook.html\n [39]: http://www.google.com/search?q=Judith+Griggs+Cooks+Source\n [42]: http://ben.balter.com/contact/\n [43]: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704866204575224350917718446.html\n [44]: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/30/AR2010103004638.html?nav=hcmoduletmv\n [45]: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/26/business/26lawyers.html?_r=1\n [46]: http://www.cookssource.com/\n [47]: http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=159332990768717&set=a.159072834128066.23501.159072764128073\n [49]: http://www.facebook.com/album.php?aid=23582&id=159072764128073\n [52]: http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=159300057438677&set=a.159072834128066.23501.159072764128073&pid=241073&id=159072764128073\n [53]: http://www.flickr.com/photos/belochkavita/244921874/\n [54]: http://techcrunch.com/2010/08/14/internet-must-be-true/\n [58]: http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ1.pdf\n [59]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berne_Convention_for_the_Protection_of_Literary_and_Artistic_Works\n [62]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godwin's_law\n [64]: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3hQC3nkftrk","previous":"<p><a href='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/4502026170_4bf31f04e6.jpg' />Today&#8217;s New York Times article <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/27/us/27wiretap.html?_r=1&amp;ref=technology' title='NYT: U.S. Tries to Make It Easier to Wiretap the Internet'>outlining law enforcement officials&#8217; attempts to expand their digital wiretapping authority</a>, offers interesting insight into the law enforcement world of tomorrow. In the not too distant future, TV&#8217;s crime-process dramas may take on a very different feel. Gone will be the days of <a href='http://www.hulu.com/watch/53368/swat-best-of-breaches' title='Hulu: Best of Swatch Breaches'>gun-toting detectives busting down doors, search warrant in hand</a>. Instead, as our lives become increasingly digital, investigations will be conducted by <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Z70BmmSkMY&amp;feature=related' title='CSI Miami IP Address Lookup'>keyboard-wielding lab techs submitting automated requests to service providers</a>. Don&#8217;t be surprised if the next CSI spinoff is CSI: Inbox Inspectors Division.</p><p>But why does this shift matter? Simply put, in <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing' title='Wikipedia: Cloud Computing'>the cloud</a>, there is no door for the police to kick in. While the law is clear in that your physical files and those computer files stored on your computer itself enjoy the protections of the fourth amendment, those stored in the cloud do not, and the standards of proof required differ dramatically.<sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup></p><p><img alt='' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/4502026170_4bf31f04e6.jpg' /></p><p>Consider this: you are the target of a criminal investigation and the police believe that six months ago you e-mailed an accomplice to discuss the crime. Depending on your e-mail settings and which service you use (e.g., if the &#8221;<a href='http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/outlook-help/leave-e-mail-messages-on-your-e-mail-server-HA001150793.aspx'>leave downloaded messages on server</a>&#8221; option is checked), the police may need only offer &#8220;specific and articulable facts&#8221; that they suspect the e-mail is related to the crime.<sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> That same e-mail stored on your computer (e.g., if the setting is not checked), would require a search warrant and showing of probable cause, and thus would be afforded significantly greater protections under the law.<sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup></p><p>However, the typical &#8221;<em>if you don&#8217;t want it public, don&#8217;t put it on the internet</em>&#8221; argument doesn&#8217;t apply here. While that may be true for <a href='http://youropenbook.org/' title='Your Open Book'>photos and updates posted to social networking sites</a>, as more and more of our lives (and <a href='http://www.google.com/apps/intl/en/business/customers.html' title='Google Business Customers'>commercial dealings</a>) are pushed to the cloud, we&#8217;re loosing our abilities to have a digital private sphere.<sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup></p><p>The good news is that it&#8217;s in service providers&#8217; interest to instill confidence in the integrity of your data by <a href='http://www.google.com/transparencyreport/governmentrequests/' title='Google Government Inqueries'>disclosing when information is shared with authorities</a> and by <a href='http://digitaldueprocess.org/index.cfm?objectid=37940370-2551-11DF-8E02000C296BA163' title='Digital Due Process'>pushing for legal reform</a>to better safeguard personal data stored in the cloud. The bad news, beyond more <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hkDD03yeLnU' title='YouTube: CSI Blog Search'>painfully tacky computer search scenes</a>, is that before we know it, our perception of privacy may be forced to evolve.</p><p>Thunderstorms occur when divergent forces collide in clouds. It is becoming increasingly clear that cloud computing is in our extended forecast, but whether the imminent <a href='http://digitaldueprocess.org/'>digital due process</a> storm the cloud foreshadows will contain a silver privacy lining remains to be seen.</p><p>Photo credit: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/garyhayes/4502026170/'>garyhayes</a></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p><em>Compare</em> Fed. R. Crim. P. 41(e)(2)(B) <em>with</em> 18 U.S.C.A. § 2703(d) (West).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>18 U.S.C.A. § 2703(d) (West).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p><em>See generall</em>y <a href='http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&amp;q=cache:IYzfdrim0owJ:www.fletc.gov/training/programs/legal-division/downloads-articles-and-faqs/downloads/other/obtaining_electronic.pdf/download+&amp;hl=en&amp;gl=us&amp;pid=bl&amp;srcid=ADGEESgpYeTPUFAijEyb4BnY4_wzFLwSJmRNv8yL2ZD8EkhQTjt7oXv9kELuYHG7A202xJ9_MGwvgVDwjviAEh0zW76gZQAbieBYwR6cnNUyD83txcScrGTU0qDUME590QPAMej6hmSy&amp;sig=AHIEtbTf4jZconLMbkMO_hVK8xQ92bqZNQ'>Obtaining Electronic Evidence</a>, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (July 2003).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>Take Google, as an example, who, to their credit, is a <a href='http://googlepublicpolicy.blogspot.com/2010/09/digital-due-process-time-is-now.html' title='Google Policy Blog: Digital Due Process the Time is Now'>front-runner in the push toward digital due process</a>, testifying on the Hill just last week. Without signing up for a Google account, through the use of cookies, Google can compile a relatively accurate profile of <a href='http://google.com' title='Google.com'>what Web sites you visit</a> and <a href='http://google.com/analytics' title='Google Analytics'>how often you visit them</a>, what <a href='http://checkout.google.com' title='Google Checkout'>products you purchase</a>, and <a href='http://maps.google.com' title='Google Maps'>where you go</a>. And if you sign-up for a near-ubiquitous Google account, you introduce the cloud to <a href='http://alerts.google.com' title='Google Alerts'>what others are saying about you</a>, <a href='http://books.google.com' title='Google Books'>what you read</a>, <a href='http://desktop.google.com' title='Google Desktop'>files stored on your computer</a>, and even <a href='http://google.com/health/' title='Google Health'>your medical history</a>, not to mention with <a href='http://google.com/talk' title='Google Talk'>whom</a> <a href='http://gmail.com' title='Gmail'>you</a> <a href='http://google.com/voice/' title='Google Voice'>communicate</a>, what <a href='http://google.com/calendar/' title='Google Calendar'>you&#8217;re doing</a>, and <a href='http://mobile.google.com' title='Google Mobile'>where you are right now</a>.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p><em>Recorded at the <a href='http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=154839957865223'>The George Washington University Tech Alumni Group</a> Federal Executive Roundtable, November 4, 2010.</em></p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/68153_493302469280_603259280_5451391_4928024_n-300x199.jpg' /> Panelists Steven Bucci, William Kirkendale, Brian Moran, Mark Rosenfeld, and Mariano Tan / Photo: GW Tech Alumni Group</p><p><strong>Introduction of Panelists<br /></strong>16m 10s | 14.8 MB | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3'>mp3</a> | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3?torrent'>torrent</a><br /><audio class='mejs-player ' controls='controls' data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}' id='wp\\_mep\\_1' preload='none'> <source src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3' type='audio/mp3' /> </audio></p><p><a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3?torrent' /><strong>Agile Systems Development versus Waterfall Systems Development<br /></strong>57m 07s | 52.3MB | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Agile-v-Waterfall-Systems-Development.mp3'>mp3</a> | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Agile-v-Waterfall-Systems-Development.mp3?torrent'>torrent</a><br /><audio class='mejs-player ' controls='controls' data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}' id='wp\\_mep\\_2' preload='none' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Agile-v-Waterfall-Systems-Development.mp3'> </audio><br /><strong>Cloud Computing versus FISMA, Acquisitions, and Budget<br /></strong>34m 58s | 32MB | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Cloud-Computing-v-FISMA.mp3'>mp3</a> | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Cloud-Computing-v-FISMA.mp3?torrent'>torrent</a><br /><audio class='mejs-player ' controls='controls' data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}' id='wp\\_mep\\_3' preload='none' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Cloud-Computing-v-FISMA.mp3'> </audio><br /><strong>Complete recording of all three<br /></strong>1h 48m | 99.3MB | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Removing-Barriers-to-Organizational-Agility.mp3'>mp3</a> | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Removing-Barriers-to-Organizational-Agility.mp3?torrent'>torrent</a><br /><audio class='mejs-player ' controls='controls' data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}' id='wp\\_mep\\_4' preload='none' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Removing-Barriers-to-Organizational-Agility.mp3'> </audio><br /><strong>Roundtable Participants</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Hamid Ouyachi, Chief Technology Officer, U.S. Department of Labor</li>\n\n<li>Steven Bucci, Cyber Security Lead, Global Leadership Initiative, at IBM &amp; former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense &amp; Defense Support of Civil Authorities</li>\n\n<li>William Kirkendale, Chief Information Officer, Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency</li>\n\n<li>Mark Bryan Rosenfeld, Associate Partner, Public Sector CRM Call Center Optimization, IBM Global Business Services</li>\n\n<li>Mariano Tan, President, TeleTech Government Solutions</li>\n</ul><p><strong>Moderator</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Brian Moran, President, GW Tech Alumni Group; CEO, Nester Consulting; &amp; former Director of IT Services, U.S. International Trade Commission</li>\n</ul>","related_posts":[{"url":"/about/","title":"About"},{"url":"/contact/","title":"Contact"},{"url":"/donate/","title":"Donate"},{"url":"/fine-print/","title":"Fine Print"},{"url":"/resume/","title":"Resume"},{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"}]}
+{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"Removing the Barriers to Organizational Agility\n","excerpt":null,"layout":"post","category":["Technology"],"tags":["agile","cloud computing","federal","government","procurement"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility/","date":"2010-11-06 00:00:00 -0400","id":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility","categories":[["Technology"]],"next":"Everyone knows the old adage: \"If it's on the internet, it must be true free.[^1]\" It turns out despite the internet's [otherwise murky attribution waters][2], that's not quite the case.\n\n![Apple Pie Courtesy belochkavita][3]Last week writer Monica Gaudio [received an e-mail from a friend][4] congratulating her on getting an article published in the Northeast-regional cooking magazine [Cooks Source][5]. There was only one problem — she didn't. The article, a recipe for fourteen-century apple pie, was lifted, word-for-word, from [Gaudio's Web site][6]. After an e-mail back-and-forth in which Gaudio asked for an apology, a copy of the magazine, and a $130 donation to the Columbia Journalism School, Cooks [Source Editor Judith Griggs noted][4]:\n\n> \"…the web is considered \"public domain\" and you should be happy we just didn't \"lift\" your whole article and put someone else's name on it! It happens a lot, clearly more than you are aware of, especially on college campuses, and the workplace.\"\n\nA quick search on WestLaw reveals that the \"[\\[w\\]ell, it was on the Internet][7]\" defense is not recognized as a valid defense to copyright infringement in any American court of jurisprudence. It turns out, anything on the internet has the same copyright protections as its physical analog.[^2] So long as the work is fixed, original, and creative, it is subject to copyright protections.[^3] This remains true whether or not a conspicuous copyright notice is present or the work is registered with the copyright office [^4].\n\nAfter several [major][11] [blogs][12] got whiff of the story, and not long after, [Time][13], [CNN][14], [The New York Times][15], [The Washington Post][16], [Wired][17], [Mashable][18] and [MSNBC][19], faceless internet millions began scouring the Web for proof supporting the [accusations][20] that Cooks Source had previously done the same – [160 recipes, pictures, and stories][21] so far to be exact. The July 2010 issue alone, for example, had [Chicken Chopped Mediterranean Salad with Feta Vinaigrette][22], [Blackberry Lemonade][23], [Mixed Berry Soup][24], [Fresh Mozzarella BLT with Pesto][25], [Alton Brown's Best Burger][26], [Napa Valley Basil-Smoked Burgers][27], and [Jairs Burgers][28], all lifted with limited modification from the Food Network Web site.[^5]\n\nWhile it may be true that in a world where CTRL-C and CTRL-V (or Command for Mac users and \"[Open Apple][30]\" for really old Mac users) are literally right in front of us, attribution and proper citation may not be at the forefront of content producers (or copiers) minds, the Cooks Source blowback shows unequivocally that the Internet takes care of its own.\n\nThe unfortunate incident spawned the ever-venerable [meme][31]. Cooks Source has become the brunt of every [#ButHonestlyMonica][32] joke on Twitter, and they have even joined the exclusive ranks of those with satirical Twitter handles, @CooksSource and @JudithGriggs. Every few minutes yet another heckler chimes in on [the Cooks Source Facebook Page][33] and as inevitably is the case, one malcontent even went so far as to produce a YouTube video [comparing Cooks Source to Nazis][34].[^6]\n\nThe story, illustrating the true mob-power of the Internet, might be even more interesting if it turns out Cooks Source [isn't in the wrong][36] after all or that the e-mails were actually [made up][37]. So what if Cooks Source has [lost advertisers][38] and so what if Cooks Source Editor Judith Griggs name has been [forever digi-tarnished][39]. The important thing is that internet justice has been served.[^7] It is all too easy to forget that despite its incredible power to democratize and decentralize knowledge, the Web, at it's 3:00 am core, is an echo chamber in which rumors reverberate louder than they would in even the most gossip-centric high school cafeteria — and the worst part is, here, the AV club kids are the bullies. So foodies, aspiring journalists, and internet memesters, copy judiciously, cite liberally,[^8] and [hire a good lawyer][42].\n\n*Ed. Note: Journalism students, please make sure to pay attention in your media law class. Miss one lecture and this is what happens. On second thought, don't go. The legal economy [is][43] [bad][44] [enough][45] as it is — we need all the lawsuits we can get.*\n\n**Update (11/11):** Final score: Internet, 1, Cooks Source, 0. It appears the Internet has beaten Cooks Source into submission. Cooks Source has sworn to never \"be on Facebook again,\" canceling its Facebook account and [taking down its Web site][46], after [hackers gained access][47].[^9] Ironically, Cooks Source claims that their intellectual property rights were violated when [copies of their most-recent issue][49] were posted online.[^10] They have made the donation Gaudio requested to the Columbia School of Journalism, as well as a contribution to a local food bank, also in her name [11][51]. Moral of the story? Whatever you do, [don't post statements in Comic Sans.][52]\n\n*\\[Photo used under Creative Commons License courtesy **[belochkavita][53]**\\]*\n\n[^1]: *See generally [TechCrunch: If it's on the Internet, It Must Be True.][54]*\n[^2]: 17 USC § 102 (allowing for communication of works \"with the aid of a machine or device\").\n[^3]: *Feist Publications, Inc. vs. Rural Telephone Service Co.*, 499 U.S. 340 (1991) (establishing a three-part test for copyright protection).\n[^4]: [*Copyright Basics*][58]. U.S. Copyright Office (July 2008) (noting that for works created after the 1988 ratification of the [Berne Convention][59], copyright is assumed, thus neither notice nor registration is required to invoke protections).\n[^5]: Edward Champion, [The Cooks Source Scandal: How a Magazine Profits on Theft][7].\n[^6]: *See generally *[Goodwin's Law][62].\n[^7]: Internet Justice (*n.*) – a form of justice only slightly less barbaric than the [Thunderdome][64].\n[^8]: *See generally supra notes* 1-7.\n[^9]: [Cooks Source Web site][46] (*Last accessed: *November 11, 2010).\n[^10]: *Id.*\n[^11]: *Id.*\n\n [1]: \"See generally TechCrunch: If it's on the Internet, It Must Be True.\"\n [2]: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jay-rosen/the-uncharted-from-off-th_b_96575.html\n [3]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/244921874_44ec1cbfa9-292x300.jpg \"Apple Pie Courtesy belochkavita\"\n [4]: http://illadore.livejournal.com/30674.html\n [5]: http://cookssource.com\n [6]: http://godecookery.com/twotarts/twotarts.html\n [7]: http://www.edrants.com/the-cooks-source-scandal-how-a-magazine-profits-on-theft/\n [11]: http://gawker.com/5681770/magazine-editor-steals-article-tells-writer-you-should-compensate-me?skyline=true&s=i\n [12]: http://gizmodo.com/5681714/attention-the-web-is-not-public-domain\n [13]: http://newsfeed.time.com/2010/11/05/exclusive-cooks-source-writer-marvels-at-the-nerd-rage-keeps-waiting-for-that-apology/\n [14]: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-11-05/tech/cooks.source.plagiarism_1_internet-twitter-web?_s=PM:TECH\n [15]: http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/04/a-social-media-firestorm-about-apple-pies/\n [16]: http://voices.washingtonpost.com/blog-post/2010/11/cooks_source_magazine_an_onlin.html\n [17]: http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/11/web-decries-infringement/\n [18]: http://mashable.com/2010/11/06/cooks-source/\n [19]: http://technolog.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2010/11/05/5416008-exclusive-cooks-source-kicks-hornets-nest-wronged-writer-responds\n [20]: http://www.facebook.com/topic.php?uid=196994196748&topic=23238\n [21]: https://spreadsheets.google.com/ccc?key=0AmTaIPHPnkSedGFhbHo1d1FIR2oxNWJLaDZLeXhEVEE&hl=en#gid=0\n [22]: http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/chicken-chopped-mediterranean-salad-with-feta-vinaigrette-recipe/index.html\n [23]: http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/blackberry-lemonade-recipe/index.html\n [24]: http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/giada-de-laurentiis/mixed-berry-soup-with-gelato-recipe/index.html\n [25]: http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/tyler-florence/fresh-mozzarella-blt-with-pesto-recipe/index.html\n [26]: http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/alton-brown/best-burger-ever-recipe/index.html\n [27]: http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/napa-valley-basil-smoked-burgers-recipe/index.html\n [28]: http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/food-network-challenge/feta-sun-dried-tomato-stuffed-prosciutto-burgers-recipe/index.html\n [30]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Command_key\n [31]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meme\n [32]: http://twitter.com/search?q=%23ButHonestlyMonica\n [33]: http://www.facebook.com/pages/Cooks-Source-Magazine/196994196748\n [34]: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YC-tVHLM99w\n [36]: http://www.copyright.gov/fls/fl122.html\n [37]: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/you-20/201011/are-cooks-source-magazine-and-judith-griggs-innocent\n [38]: http://www.masslive.com/news/index.ssf/2010/11/sunderland-based_magazine_cook.html\n [39]: http://www.google.com/search?q=Judith+Griggs+Cooks+Source\n [42]: http://ben.balter.com/contact/\n [43]: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704866204575224350917718446.html\n [44]: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/30/AR2010103004638.html?nav=hcmoduletmv\n [45]: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/26/business/26lawyers.html?_r=1\n [46]: http://www.cookssource.com/\n [47]: http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=159332990768717&set=a.159072834128066.23501.159072764128073\n [49]: http://www.facebook.com/album.php?aid=23582&id=159072764128073\n [52]: http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=159300057438677&set=a.159072834128066.23501.159072764128073&pid=241073&id=159072764128073\n [53]: http://www.flickr.com/photos/belochkavita/244921874/\n [54]: http://techcrunch.com/2010/08/14/internet-must-be-true/\n [58]: http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ1.pdf\n [59]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berne_Convention_for_the_Protection_of_Literary_and_Artistic_Works\n [62]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godwin's_law\n [64]: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3hQC3nkftrk","previous":"<p><a href='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/4502026170_4bf31f04e6.jpg' />Today&#8217;s New York Times article <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/27/us/27wiretap.html?_r=1&amp;ref=technology' title='NYT: U.S. Tries to Make It Easier to Wiretap the Internet'>outlining law enforcement officials&#8217; attempts to expand their digital wiretapping authority</a>, offers interesting insight into the law enforcement world of tomorrow. In the not too distant future, TV&#8217;s crime-process dramas may take on a very different feel. Gone will be the days of <a href='http://www.hulu.com/watch/53368/swat-best-of-breaches' title='Hulu: Best of Swatch Breaches'>gun-toting detectives busting down doors, search warrant in hand</a>. Instead, as our lives become increasingly digital, investigations will be conducted by <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Z70BmmSkMY&amp;feature=related' title='CSI Miami IP Address Lookup'>keyboard-wielding lab techs submitting automated requests to service providers</a>. Don&#8217;t be surprised if the next CSI spinoff is CSI: Inbox Inspectors Division.</p><p>But why does this shift matter? Simply put, in <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing' title='Wikipedia: Cloud Computing'>the cloud</a>, there is no door for the police to kick in. While the law is clear in that your physical files and those computer files stored on your computer itself enjoy the protections of the fourth amendment, those stored in the cloud do not, and the standards of proof required differ dramatically.<sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup></p><p><img alt='' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/4502026170_4bf31f04e6.jpg' /></p><p>Consider this: you are the target of a criminal investigation and the police believe that six months ago you e-mailed an accomplice to discuss the crime. Depending on your e-mail settings and which service you use (e.g., if the &#8221;<a href='http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/outlook-help/leave-e-mail-messages-on-your-e-mail-server-HA001150793.aspx'>leave downloaded messages on server</a>&#8221; option is checked), the police may need only offer &#8220;specific and articulable facts&#8221; that they suspect the e-mail is related to the crime.<sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> That same e-mail stored on your computer (e.g., if the setting is not checked), would require a search warrant and showing of probable cause, and thus would be afforded significantly greater protections under the law.<sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup></p><p>However, the typical &#8221;<em>if you don&#8217;t want it public, don&#8217;t put it on the internet</em>&#8221; argument doesn&#8217;t apply here. While that may be true for <a href='http://youropenbook.org/' title='Your Open Book'>photos and updates posted to social networking sites</a>, as more and more of our lives (and <a href='http://www.google.com/apps/intl/en/business/customers.html' title='Google Business Customers'>commercial dealings</a>) are pushed to the cloud, we&#8217;re loosing our abilities to have a digital private sphere.<sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup></p><p>The good news is that it&#8217;s in service providers&#8217; interest to instill confidence in the integrity of your data by <a href='http://www.google.com/transparencyreport/governmentrequests/' title='Google Government Inqueries'>disclosing when information is shared with authorities</a> and by <a href='http://digitaldueprocess.org/index.cfm?objectid=37940370-2551-11DF-8E02000C296BA163' title='Digital Due Process'>pushing for legal reform</a>to better safeguard personal data stored in the cloud. The bad news, beyond more <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hkDD03yeLnU' title='YouTube: CSI Blog Search'>painfully tacky computer search scenes</a>, is that before we know it, our perception of privacy may be forced to evolve.</p><p>Thunderstorms occur when divergent forces collide in clouds. It is becoming increasingly clear that cloud computing is in our extended forecast, but whether the imminent <a href='http://digitaldueprocess.org/'>digital due process</a> storm the cloud foreshadows will contain a silver privacy lining remains to be seen.</p><p>Photo credit: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/garyhayes/4502026170/'>garyhayes</a></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p><em>Compare</em> Fed. R. Crim. P. 41(e)(2)(B) <em>with</em> 18 U.S.C.A. § 2703(d) (West).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>18 U.S.C.A. § 2703(d) (West).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p><em>See generall</em>y <a href='http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&amp;q=cache:IYzfdrim0owJ:www.fletc.gov/training/programs/legal-division/downloads-articles-and-faqs/downloads/other/obtaining_electronic.pdf/download+&amp;hl=en&amp;gl=us&amp;pid=bl&amp;srcid=ADGEESgpYeTPUFAijEyb4BnY4_wzFLwSJmRNv8yL2ZD8EkhQTjt7oXv9kELuYHG7A202xJ9_MGwvgVDwjviAEh0zW76gZQAbieBYwR6cnNUyD83txcScrGTU0qDUME590QPAMej6hmSy&amp;sig=AHIEtbTf4jZconLMbkMO_hVK8xQ92bqZNQ'>Obtaining Electronic Evidence</a>, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (July 2003).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>Take Google, as an example, who, to their credit, is a <a href='http://googlepublicpolicy.blogspot.com/2010/09/digital-due-process-time-is-now.html' title='Google Policy Blog: Digital Due Process the Time is Now'>front-runner in the push toward digital due process</a>, testifying on the Hill just last week. Without signing up for a Google account, through the use of cookies, Google can compile a relatively accurate profile of <a href='http://google.com' title='Google.com'>what Web sites you visit</a> and <a href='http://google.com/analytics' title='Google Analytics'>how often you visit them</a>, what <a href='http://checkout.google.com' title='Google Checkout'>products you purchase</a>, and <a href='http://maps.google.com' title='Google Maps'>where you go</a>. And if you sign-up for a near-ubiquitous Google account, you introduce the cloud to <a href='http://alerts.google.com' title='Google Alerts'>what others are saying about you</a>, <a href='http://books.google.com' title='Google Books'>what you read</a>, <a href='http://desktop.google.com' title='Google Desktop'>files stored on your computer</a>, and even <a href='http://google.com/health/' title='Google Health'>your medical history</a>, not to mention with <a href='http://google.com/talk' title='Google Talk'>whom</a> <a href='http://gmail.com' title='Gmail'>you</a> <a href='http://google.com/voice/' title='Google Voice'>communicate</a>, what <a href='http://google.com/calendar/' title='Google Calendar'>you&#8217;re doing</a>, and <a href='http://mobile.google.com' title='Google Mobile'>where you are right now</a>.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p><em>Recorded at the <a href='http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=154839957865223'>The George Washington University Tech Alumni Group</a> Federal Executive Roundtable, November 4, 2010.</em></p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/68153_493302469280_603259280_5451391_4928024_n-300x199.jpg' /> Panelists Steven Bucci, William Kirkendale, Brian Moran, Mark Rosenfeld, and Mariano Tan / Photo: GW Tech Alumni Group</p><p><strong>Introduction of Panelists<br /></strong>16m 10s | 14.8 MB | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3'>mp3</a> | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3?torrent'>torrent</a><br /><audio class='mejs-player ' controls='controls' data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}' id='wp\\_mep\\_1' preload='none'> <source src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3' type='audio/mp3' /> </audio></p><p><a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3?torrent' /><strong>Agile Systems Development versus Waterfall Systems Development<br /></strong>57m 07s | 52.3MB | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Agile-v-Waterfall-Systems-Development.mp3'>mp3</a> | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Agile-v-Waterfall-Systems-Development.mp3?torrent'>torrent</a><br /><audio class='mejs-player ' controls='controls' data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}' id='wp\\_mep\\_2' preload='none' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Agile-v-Waterfall-Systems-Development.mp3'> </audio><br /><strong>Cloud Computing versus FISMA, Acquisitions, and Budget<br /></strong>34m 58s | 32MB | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Cloud-Computing-v-FISMA.mp3'>mp3</a> | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Cloud-Computing-v-FISMA.mp3?torrent'>torrent</a><br /><audio class='mejs-player ' controls='controls' data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}' id='wp\\_mep\\_3' preload='none' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Cloud-Computing-v-FISMA.mp3'> </audio><br /><strong>Complete recording of all three<br /></strong>1h 48m | 99.3MB | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Removing-Barriers-to-Organizational-Agility.mp3'>mp3</a> | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Removing-Barriers-to-Organizational-Agility.mp3?torrent'>torrent</a><br /><audio class='mejs-player ' controls='controls' data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}' id='wp\\_mep\\_4' preload='none' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Removing-Barriers-to-Organizational-Agility.mp3'> </audio><br /><strong>Roundtable Participants</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Hamid Ouyachi, Chief Technology Officer, U.S. Department of Labor</li>\n\n<li>Steven Bucci, Cyber Security Lead, Global Leadership Initiative, at IBM &amp; former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense &amp; Defense Support of Civil Authorities</li>\n\n<li>William Kirkendale, Chief Information Officer, Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency</li>\n\n<li>Mark Bryan Rosenfeld, Associate Partner, Public Sector CRM Call Center Optimization, IBM Global Business Services</li>\n\n<li>Mariano Tan, President, TeleTech Government Solutions</li>\n</ul><p><strong>Moderator</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Brian Moran, President, GW Tech Alumni Group; CEO, Nester Consulting; &amp; former Director of IT Services, U.S. International Trade Commission</li>\n</ul>","related_posts":[{"url":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/","title":"WordPress Resume Plugin"},{"url":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party/","title":"New Media Flak: Megaphone vs. Cocktail Party"},{"url":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/","title":"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?"},{"url":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing/","title":"What Fourteen-Century Apple Pie Teaches Us About Sharing\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds/","title":"Will Federal Contracting Officers Soon Have Their Heads in the Clouds?\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it/","title":"Free Trade in China? Just Google it."},{"url":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/","title":"Twitter Mentions as Comments WordPress Plugin\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes/","title":"The Internet is Series of Tubes (oh, and Tollgates too)\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/","title":"Late-Night Infomercials: Guaranteed to Extend the 4th Amendment or Your Money Back"},{"url":"/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer/","title":"The Files \"in\" the Computer -- Zoolander and the California Supreme Court"}]}
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-{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"What Fourteen-Century Apple Pie Teaches Us About Sharing\n","excerpt":"Last week writer Monica Gaudio received an e-mail from a friend congratulating her on getting an article published in the Northeast-regional cooking magazine Cooks Source. There was only one problem -- she didn't. The article, a recipe for fourteen-century apple pie, was lifted, word-for-word, from Gaudio's Web site. ","layout":"post","category":["Law","Technology"],"tags":["citations","copyright","facebook","food","foodies","journalism","memes","online reputation","plagiarism","recipes","twitter","youtube"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing/","date":"2010-11-08 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing","categories":[["Law","Technology"]],"next":"## A Brief Look at the Imminent Cloud-Computing Storm Front\n\nAs one Hewlett-Packard chief executive recently put it, cloud computing \"is the next generation of the internet.\" [^1] Whether you realize it or not, if you use services like Facebook or Gmail, your personal data already lives in \"the cloud,\" and the same transformative power that connects long-lost classmates at the click of a mouse can be harnessed by federal agencies to approach modern governance in incredibly powerful ways.\n\n**What is Cloud Computing?**\n\nTraditionally, when one thinks of computing power, he or she thinks of an on-site datacenter — a room filled with blinking lights and whirling fans — hardware, software, and data storage all within feet of the users they serve. [^2] The traditional approach to computing generally entails complicated and expensive upgrade procedures scheduled on a semi-regular basis, as well as accommodating the increasing demand for backup and recovery redundancy necessary to reduce downtime should these system fails. [^3] Such datacenters are often managed by their own departments, staffed with the specialized, technical administrators needed to maintain and ensure the day-to-day operation of these increasingly complex and increasingly mission-critical business resources. [^4]\n\nSeen as a virtually unlimited hardware and communications infrastructure managed by a third party-provider, cloud computing, on the other hand, allows for rapid increases in capacity without the need to invest in additional hardware, personnel, or software licensing. [^5] \"As a customer, you don't know where the resources are, and for the most part, you don't care. What's really important is the capability to access your application anywhere, move it freely and easily, and inexpensively add resources.\" [^6] In simplest terms, the cloud uses an off-site service to store, transmit, and process information, and employs the Internet as the means to access that service. [^7]\n\n**How Cloud Computing Came About**\n\nSeveral innovations fueled the shift toward computing in the cloud. First, the rise and adoption of both broadband Internet access, which allowed for reduced load times, and a programming technique known as AJAX, which allowed Web sites to look and feel more like desktop programs through a constant push-and-pull of information, combined to usher in a greater reliance on remote applications. [^8] At the same time the growth of enterprise data centers, and the public's increasing comfort with Web 2.0 services like GMail and Facebook provided a technical and social infrastructure to support such a push. [^9]\n\nThe biggest breakthrough, however, the core and true power behind cloud computing, came from the consolidation of physical servers through system virtualization. Through virtualization, one physical server can become the host to many virtual servers. [^10] Because the resources are dynamically allocated across physical servers as the virtual servers require them, the physical resources are used more efficiently. [^11] If server *A*, say an e-mail server like one may see in most corporate or government offices sees a sudden spike in activity, rather than slowing, it can borrow resources from server *B*, a Web site hosted on the same physical server. The user, unaware that this shift has even occurred, sees the two servers as discrete and unconnected despite their physical location.\n\nThe biggest implication however, is that computing resources can be provisioned and released on demand and as needed. [^12] If agency *X* is a government agency that requires a great deal of information to be processed at the close of the stock market each day, it can pay for five servers up until 3:59 each day, be charged solely for the increased processing power and storage it requires from 4:00 to 4:05, and can return to five server for the remainder of the day. Under a traditional approach, all 100 servers, for example, it required at its peak, would have to be operational 24 hours a day, with the necessary personnel and infrastructure to support it.\n\n**Types of Cloud Computing**\n\nCloud computing exists in several forms today. The most basic, \"infrastructure as a service\" (IAAS), uses shared facilities, hardware, and networks to hold and move data. Customers, given virtual servers, may then install, configure, and utilize their own software freely. [^13] As indicated above, however, customers do not rent the physical servers (merely their equivalent processing power), and providers may move virtual servers between physical servers as necessary. [^14] Amazon's EC2, S3, and CloudFront are prime examples of cloud computing, storage, and delivery respectively.\n\nSecond, and slightly more advanced, \"platform as a service\" (PAAS) allows providers to serve customers with a shared computing platform and software environment. The customer can upload software code in a predetermined programming language (such as Java or PHP) and the provider executes that code and returns the result. [^15] Google Apps Engine is a prime example of such an arrangement.\n\nFinally, \"software as a service\" (SAAS) is most associated with Web-based consumer services such as Facebook or Flickr but can find application in business and government environments as well. The provider hosts software designed to perform a specific function, such as social networking or photo sharing, and the user interacts with that application being run on the provider's server. [^16]\n\nOne additional distinction among cloud services can be made. Each of the three approaches listed above can be hosted in either a public cloud, meaning one customer's virtual servers may be freely intermingled with another customer's among physical servers, or in a private cloud in which the physical servers, infrastructure, or datacenter may be entirely segregated from those used to provide services to other clients. [^17]\n\n**Implications of Cloud Computing**\n\nCloud computing has several implication for members of the government contracting community. First, inherent in the nature of cloud computing is the fact that one organization must trust a third party with its data, something which may have far-reaching ethical and legal implication depending on the type of data stored and the parties involved.\n\nMore broadly, when contracting for cloud services, organizations have several technical aspects to take into account. From a security standpoint, customers should evaluate data encryption (can others access my data?), physical security (can others access the datacenter?), and provider viability (will the service be around in ten years?). From a data integrity standpoint, those looking to enter the cloud should inquire as to data locality (is my data being hosted outside the United States?), data portability (what happens if I want to leave the service?), and redundancy (what happens if there is a natural disaster near their data center?). Finally, from a legal perspective, customers should evaluate terms of service, privacy policies, and service level (uptime) agreements. [^18]\n\n**How to Get Into the Cloud**\n\nSeveral avenues exist for organizations looking to experiment with the cloud. For federal agencies, the General Service Administration, through Apps.gov, will soon be rolling out a Federal private cloud. While the specifics have not yet been announced, this service is expected to provide federal agencies with storage, virtual machine, and Web hosting services at a relatively low cost. [^19] Some of this service's potential has already been hinted at by the recent launch of Apps.Gov NOW, a hosted service that provides federal agencies with out-of-the-box blogs (Web site publishing platforms), Wikis (Web sites editable by members of a community), and online bulletin boards (Web sites to facilitate online discussions), all at no cost. [^20]\n\nSecond, many federal Web sites such as the Federal Communications Commission and Recovery.Gov are in the process of seeking or have already sought third-party cloud hosting services likes Amazon Web Services (AWS) as mentioned above. [^21] Federal agencies opting for such a route must be sure to work closely with the appropriate parties to ensure, federal IT security standards are met, such as FISMA [^22] requirements, or that record retention standards are met, for example, where data stored in the cloud constitutes a system of records under the privacy act. [^23]\n\nFinally, earlier this summer, Google announced FISMA moderate certification of its Google Apps for Government data centers, providing mail, calendar, document, video, and Web hosting services to Federal agencies in a private cloud hosted entirely within the United States. [^24] Agencies wishing to contract their traditional IT infrastructure out to Google can do so for as low as $50 per user per year, however, such savings may come at a cost. Special attention must be paid to the risks associated with trusting a third-party with what may potentially be an agency's most sensitive data.\n\nWhether a federal contracting officer or a provider of IT services, just as the Internet has revolutionized countless aspects of every day life, it is clear that so too will the emerging cloud computing front forever shape the contours of Federal IT procurement in the years to come.\n\n*This article originally published in the [Federal Bar Association Government Contracts Section][25] [Fall 2010 Newsletter][26] (PDF, p. 6).</p> Notes:\n\n[^1]: Stephen Lawson, *Cloud is Internet's Next Generation, HP Executive Says*, InfoWorld, June 25, 2009, http://www.infoworld.com/d/cloud-computing/cloud-internets-next-generation-hp-executive-says-120 (quoting HP CTO Russ Daniels). [27]\n[^2]: *See Generally *Jack Newton, *Putting Your Practice in the Cloud a Pre-Flight Checklist*, 73 Tex. B.J. 632 (2010). [28]\n[^3]: *See* Mark H. Wittow, Daniel J. Buller, *Cloud Computing: Emerging Legal Issues for Access to Data, Anywhere, Anytime,* 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010). [29]\n[^4]: *Id.* [30]\n[^5]: Wittow, 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010). [31]\n[^6]: J. Nicholas Hoover, *Interop: Oracle Predicts Cloud Confusion to Continue*, InformationWeek, Sept. 17, 2008, http:// www.informationweek.com/news/services/hosted_apps/showArticle.jhtml? articlelD=210602225. [32]\n[^7]: Peter M. Lefkowitz, *Contracting in the Cloud: A Primer,* Boston B.J., Summer 2010, at 9. [33]\n[^8]: Dennis Kennedy, *Working in the Cloud Tips on Success with Online Software Services*, ABA J., August 2009, at 31. [34]\n[^9]: *Id.* [35]\n[^10]: Wittow, 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010). [36]\n[^11]: *Id.* [37]\n[^12]: Peter Mell and Tim Grance, *Definition of Cloud Computing*, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Information Technology Laboratory, October 7, 2009, http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/cloud-def-v15.doc. [38]\n[^13]: Lefkowitz, Boston B.J., Summer 2010, at 9. [39]\n[^14]: *Id.* [40]\n[^15]: *Id.* [41]\n[^16]: *Id.* [42]\n[^17]: *Id.* [43]\n[^18]: Newton, 73 Tex. B.J. 632. [44]\n[^19]: Cloud IT Services, Apps.Gov, https://www.apps.gov/cloud/advantage/cloud/category_home.do (last visited* *October 5, 2010). [45]\n[^20]: Apps.Gov Now, General Services Administration, <http://citizen.apps.gov/> (last visited October 12, 2015). [46]\n[^21]: Cloud Services, Federal Business Opportunities, https://www.fbo.gov/index?s=opportunity&mode=form&id=d63c725d5a3006919289698350e3d4b3&tab=core&_cview=1 (last visited October 5, 2010); J. Nicholas Hoover, *Recovert.Gov Moved to Amazon Cloud*, Information Week, May 12, 2010, http://www.informationweek.com/news/government/cloud-saas/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=224701861. [47]\n[^22]: Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002. [48]\n[^23]: 5 U.S.C.A. § 552a (West). [49]\n[^24]: Google Apps for Government, Official Google Enterprise Blog, July 26, 2010, http://googleenterprise.blogspot.com/2010/07/google-apps-for-government.html. [50]\n\n [1]: #note-2020-1 \"Stephen Lawson, Cloud is Internet's Next Generation, HP Executive Says, InfoWorld, June 25, 2009, http://www.infoworld.com/d/cloud-computing/cloud-internets-next-generation-hp-executive-says-120 (quoting HP CTO Russ Daniels).\"\n [2]: #note-2020-2 \"See Generally Jack Newton, Putting Your Practice in the Cloud a Pre-Flight Checklist, 73 Tex. B.J. 632 (2010).\"\n [3]: #note-2020-3 \"See Mark H. Wittow, Daniel J. Buller, Cloud Computing: Emerging Legal Issues for Access to Data, Anywhere, Anytime, 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010).\"\n [4]: #note-2020-4 \"Id.\"\n [5]: #note-2020-5 \"Wittow, 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010).\"\n [6]: #note-2020-6 \"J. Nicholas Hoover, Interop: Oracle Predicts Cloud Confusion to Continue, InformationWeek, Sept. 17, 2008, http:// www.informationweek.com/news/services/hosted_apps/showArticle.jhtml? articlelD=210602225.\"\n [7]: #note-2020-7 \"Peter M. Lefkowitz, Contracting in the Cloud: A Primer, Boston B.J., Summer 2010, at 9.\"\n [8]: #note-2020-8 \"Dennis Kennedy, Working in the Cloud Tips on Success with Online Software Services, ABA J., August 2009, at 31.\"\n [9]: #note-2020-9 \"Id.\"\n [10]: #note-2020-10 \"Wittow, 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010).\"\n [11]: #note-2020-11 \"Id.\"\n [12]: #note-2020-12 \"Peter Mell and Tim Grance, Definition of Cloud Computing, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Information Technology Laboratory, October 7, 2009, http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/cloud-def-v15.doc.\"\n [13]: #note-2020-13 \"Lefkowitz, Boston B.J., Summer 2010, at 9.\"\n [14]: #note-2020-14 \"Id.\"\n [15]: #note-2020-15 \"Id.\"\n [16]: #note-2020-16 \"Id.\"\n [17]: #note-2020-17 \"Id.\"\n [18]: #note-2020-18 \"Newton, 73 Tex. B.J. 632.\"\n [19]: #note-2020-19 \"Cloud IT Services, Apps.Gov, https://www.apps.gov/cloud/advantage/cloud/category_home.do (last visited October 5, 2010).\"\n [20]: #note-2020-20 \"Apps.Gov Now, General Services Administration, http://citizen.apps.gov/ (last visited October 12, 2015).\"\n [21]: #note-2020-21 \"Cloud Services, Federal Business Opportunities, https://www.fbo.gov/index?s=opportunity&mode=form&id=d63c725d5a3006919289698350e3d4b3&tab=core&_cview=1 (last visited October 5, 2010); J. Nicholas Hoover, Recovert.Gov Moved to Amazon Cloud, Information Week, May 12, 2010, http://www.informationweek.com/news/government/cloud-saas/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=224701861.\"\n [22]: #note-2020-22 \"Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002.\"\n [23]: #note-2020-23 \"5 U.S.C.A. § 552a (West).\"\n [24]: #note-2020-24 \"Google Apps for Government, Official Google Enterprise Blog, July 26, 2010, http://googleenterprise.blogspot.com/2010/07/google-apps-for-government.html.\"\n [25]: http://www.fedbar.org/Sections/Government-Contracts-Section/Newsletters.aspx\n [26]: http://www.fedbar.org/Sections/Government-Contracts-Section/Newsletters/Fall-2010.aspx?FT=.pdf","previous":"<p><em>Recorded at the <a href='http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=154839957865223'>The George Washington University Tech Alumni Group</a> Federal Executive Roundtable, November 4, 2010.</em></p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/68153_493302469280_603259280_5451391_4928024_n-300x199.jpg' /> Panelists Steven Bucci, William Kirkendale, Brian Moran, Mark Rosenfeld, and Mariano Tan / Photo: GW Tech Alumni Group</p><p><strong>Introduction of Panelists<br /></strong>16m 10s | 14.8 MB | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3'>mp3</a> | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3?torrent'>torrent</a><br /><audio class='mejs-player ' controls='controls' data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}' id='wp\\_mep\\_1' preload='none'> <source src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3' type='audio/mp3' /> </audio></p><p><a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3?torrent' /><strong>Agile Systems Development versus Waterfall Systems Development<br /></strong>57m 07s | 52.3MB | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Agile-v-Waterfall-Systems-Development.mp3'>mp3</a> | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Agile-v-Waterfall-Systems-Development.mp3?torrent'>torrent</a><br /><audio class='mejs-player ' controls='controls' data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}' id='wp\\_mep\\_2' preload='none' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Agile-v-Waterfall-Systems-Development.mp3'> </audio><br /><strong>Cloud Computing versus FISMA, Acquisitions, and Budget<br /></strong>34m 58s | 32MB | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Cloud-Computing-v-FISMA.mp3'>mp3</a> | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Cloud-Computing-v-FISMA.mp3?torrent'>torrent</a><br /><audio class='mejs-player ' controls='controls' data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}' id='wp\\_mep\\_3' preload='none' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Cloud-Computing-v-FISMA.mp3'> </audio><br /><strong>Complete recording of all three<br /></strong>1h 48m | 99.3MB | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Removing-Barriers-to-Organizational-Agility.mp3'>mp3</a> | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Removing-Barriers-to-Organizational-Agility.mp3?torrent'>torrent</a><br /><audio class='mejs-player ' controls='controls' data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}' id='wp\\_mep\\_4' preload='none' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Removing-Barriers-to-Organizational-Agility.mp3'> </audio><br /><strong>Roundtable Participants</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Hamid Ouyachi, Chief Technology Officer, U.S. Department of Labor</li>\n\n<li>Steven Bucci, Cyber Security Lead, Global Leadership Initiative, at IBM &amp; former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense &amp; Defense Support of Civil Authorities</li>\n\n<li>William Kirkendale, Chief Information Officer, Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency</li>\n\n<li>Mark Bryan Rosenfeld, Associate Partner, Public Sector CRM Call Center Optimization, IBM Global Business Services</li>\n\n<li>Mariano Tan, President, TeleTech Government Solutions</li>\n</ul><p><strong>Moderator</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Brian Moran, President, GW Tech Alumni Group; CEO, Nester Consulting; &amp; former Director of IT Services, U.S. International Trade Commission</li>\n</ul>","content":"<p><img alt='Apple Pie Courtesy belochkavita' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/244921874_44ec1cbfa9-292x300.jpg' />Last week writer Monica Gaudio <a href='http://illadore.livejournal.com/30674.html'>received an e-mail from a friend</a> congratulating her on getting an article published in the Northeast-regional cooking magazine <a href='http://cookssource.com'>Cooks Source</a>. There was only one problem — she didn&#8217;t. The article, a recipe for fourteen-century apple pie, was lifted, word-for-word, from <a href='http://godecookery.com/twotarts/twotarts.html'>Gaudio&#8217;s Web site</a>. After an e-mail back-and-forth in which Gaudio asked for an apology, a copy of the magazine, and a $130 donation to the Columbia Journalism School, Cooks <a href='http://illadore.livejournal.com/30674.html'>Source Editor Judith Griggs noted</a>:</p><blockquote>\n<p>&#8220;…the web is considered &#8220;public domain&#8221; and you should be happy we just didn&#8217;t &#8220;lift&#8221; your whole article and put someone else&#8217;s name on it! It happens a lot, clearly more than you are aware of, especially on college campuses, and the workplace.&#8221;</p>\n</blockquote><p>A quick search on WestLaw reveals that the &#8221;<a href='http://www.edrants.com/the-cooks-source-scandal-how-a-magazine-profits-on-theft/'>[w]ell, it was on the Internet</a>&#8221; defense is not recognized as a valid defense to copyright infringement in any American court of jurisprudence. It turns out, anything on the internet has the same copyright protections as its physical analog.<sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> So long as the work is fixed, original, and creative, it is subject to copyright protections.<sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> This remains true whether or not a conspicuous copyright notice is present or the work is registered with the copyright office <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup>.</p><p>After several <a href='http://gawker.com/5681770/magazine-editor-steals-article-tells-writer-you-should-compensate-me?skyline=true&amp;s=i'>major</a> <a href='http://gizmodo.com/5681714/attention-the-web-is-not-public-domain'>blogs</a> got whiff of the story, and not long after, <a href='http://newsfeed.time.com/2010/11/05/exclusive-cooks-source-writer-marvels-at-the-nerd-rage-keeps-waiting-for-that-apology/'>Time</a>, <a href='http://articles.cnn.com/2010-11-05/tech/cooks.source.plagiarism_1_internet-twitter-web?_s=PM:TECH'>CNN</a>, <a href='http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/04/a-social-media-firestorm-about-apple-pies/'>The New York Times</a>, <a href='http://voices.washingtonpost.com/blog-post/2010/11/cooks_source_magazine_an_onlin.html'>The Washington Post</a>, <a href='http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/11/web-decries-infringement/'>Wired</a>, <a href='http://mashable.com/2010/11/06/cooks-source/'>Mashable</a> and <a href='http://technolog.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2010/11/05/5416008-exclusive-cooks-source-kicks-hornets-nest-wronged-writer-responds'>MSNBC</a>, faceless internet millions began scouring the Web for proof supporting the <a href='http://www.facebook.com/topic.php?uid=196994196748&amp;topic=23238'>accusations</a> that Cooks Source had previously done the same – <a href='https://spreadsheets.google.com/ccc?key=0AmTaIPHPnkSedGFhbHo1d1FIR2oxNWJLaDZLeXhEVEE&amp;hl=en#gid=0'>160 recipes, pictures, and stories</a> so far to be exact. The July 2010 issue alone, for example, had <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/chicken-chopped-mediterranean-salad-with-feta-vinaigrette-recipe/index.html'>Chicken Chopped Mediterranean Salad with Feta Vinaigrette</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/blackberry-lemonade-recipe/index.html'>Blackberry Lemonade</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/giada-de-laurentiis/mixed-berry-soup-with-gelato-recipe/index.html'>Mixed Berry Soup</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/tyler-florence/fresh-mozzarella-blt-with-pesto-recipe/index.html'>Fresh Mozzarella BLT with Pesto</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/alton-brown/best-burger-ever-recipe/index.html'>Alton Brown&#8217;s Best Burger</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/napa-valley-basil-smoked-burgers-recipe/index.html'>Napa Valley Basil-Smoked Burgers</a>, and <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/food-network-challenge/feta-sun-dried-tomato-stuffed-prosciutto-burgers-recipe/index.html'>Jairs Burgers</a>, all lifted with limited modification from the Food Network Web site.<sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup></p><p>While it may be true that in a world where CTRL-C and CTRL-V (or Command for Mac users and &#8221;<a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Command_key'>Open Apple</a>&#8221; for really old Mac users) are literally right in front of us, attribution and proper citation may not be at the forefront of content producers (or copiers) minds, the Cooks Source blowback shows unequivocally that the Internet takes care of its own.</p><p>The unfortunate incident spawned the ever-venerable <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meme'>meme</a>. Cooks Source has become the brunt of every <a href='http://twitter.com/search?q=%23ButHonestlyMonica'>#ButHonestlyMonica</a> joke on Twitter, and they have even joined the exclusive ranks of those with satirical Twitter handles, @CooksSource and @JudithGriggs. Every few minutes yet another heckler chimes in on <a href='http://www.facebook.com/pages/Cooks-Source-Magazine/196994196748'>the Cooks Source Facebook Page</a> and as inevitably is the case, one malcontent even went so far as to produce a YouTube video <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YC-tVHLM99w'>comparing Cooks Source to Nazis</a>.<sup id='fnref:5'><a href='#fn:5' rel='footnote'>5</a></sup></p><p>The story, illustrating the true mob-power of the Internet, might be even more interesting if it turns out Cooks Source <a href='http://www.copyright.gov/fls/fl122.html'>isn&#8217;t in the wrong</a> after all or that the e-mails were actually <a href='http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/you-20/201011/are-cooks-source-magazine-and-judith-griggs-innocent'>made up</a>. So what if Cooks Source has <a href='http://www.masslive.com/news/index.ssf/2010/11/sunderland-based_magazine_cook.html'>lost advertisers</a> and so what if Cooks Source Editor Judith Griggs name has been <a href='http://www.google.com/search?q=Judith+Griggs+Cooks+Source'>forever digi-tarnished</a>. The important thing is that internet justice has been served.<sup id='fnref:6'><a href='#fn:6' rel='footnote'>6</a></sup> It is all too easy to forget that despite its incredible power to democratize and decentralize knowledge, the Web, at it&#8217;s 3:00 am core, is an echo chamber in which rumors reverberate louder than they would in even the most gossip-centric high school cafeteria — and the worst part is, here, the AV club kids are the bullies. So foodies, aspiring journalists, and internet memesters, copy judiciously, cite liberally,<sup id='fnref:7'><a href='#fn:7' rel='footnote'>7</a></sup> and <a href='http://ben.balter.com/contact/'>hire a good lawyer</a>.</p><p><em>Ed. Note: Journalism students, please make sure to pay attention in your media law class. Miss one lecture and this is what happens. On second thought, don&#8217;t go. The legal economy <a href='http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704866204575224350917718446.html'>is</a> <a href='http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/30/AR2010103004638.html?nav=hcmoduletmv'>bad</a> <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/26/business/26lawyers.html?_r=1'>enough</a> as it is — we need all the lawsuits we can get.</em></p><p><strong>Update (11/11):</strong> Final score: Internet, 1, Cooks Source, 0. It appears the Internet has beaten Cooks Source into submission. Cooks Source has sworn to never &#8220;be on Facebook again,&#8221; canceling its Facebook account and <a href='http://www.cookssource.com/'>taking down its Web site</a>, after <a href='http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=159332990768717&amp;set=a.159072834128066.23501.159072764128073'>hackers gained access</a>.<sup id='fnref:8'><a href='#fn:8' rel='footnote'>8</a></sup> Ironically, Cooks Source claims that their intellectual property rights were violated when <a href='http://www.facebook.com/album.php?aid=23582&amp;id=159072764128073'>copies of their most-recent issue</a> were posted online.<sup id='fnref:9'><a href='#fn:9' rel='footnote'>9</a></sup> They have made the donation Gaudio requested to the Columbia School of Journalism, as well as a contribution to a local food bank, also in her name <span>11</span>. Moral of the story? Whatever you do, <a href='http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=159300057438677&amp;set=a.159072834128066.23501.159072764128073&amp;pid=241073&amp;id=159072764128073'>don&#8217;t post statements in Comic Sans.</a></p><p><em>[Photo used under Creative Commons License courtesy</em><em><a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/belochkavita/244921874/'>belochkavita</a></em><em>]</em></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>17 USC § 102 (allowing for communication of works &#8220;with the aid of a machine or device&#8221;).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p><em>Feist Publications, Inc. vs. Rural Telephone Service Co.</em>, 499 U.S. 340 (1991) (establishing a three-part test for copyright protection).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p><a href='http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ1.pdf'><em>Copyright Basics</em></a>. U.S. Copyright Office (July 2008) (noting that for works created after the 1988 ratification of the <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berne_Convention_for_the_Protection_of_Literary_and_Artistic_Works'>Berne Convention</a>, copyright is assumed, thus neither notice nor registration is required to invoke protections).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>Edward Champion, <a href='http://www.edrants.com/the-cooks-source-scandal-how-a-magazine-profits-on-theft/'>The Cooks Source Scandal: How a Magazine Profits on Theft</a>.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:5'>\n<p><em>See generally</em><a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godwin&apos;s_law'>Goodwin&#8217;s Law</a>.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:5' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:6'>\n<p>Internet Justice (<em>n.</em>) – a form of justice only slightly less barbaric than the <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3hQC3nkftrk'>Thunderdome</a>.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:6' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:7'>\n<p><em>See generally supra notes</em> 1-7.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:7' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:8'>\n<p><a href='http://www.cookssource.com/'>Cooks Source Web site</a> (<em>Last accessed:</em>November 11, 2010).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:8' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:9'>\n<p><em>Id.</em></p>\n<a href='#fnref:9' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/about/","title":"About"},{"url":"/contact/","title":"Contact"},{"url":"/donate/","title":"Donate"},{"url":"/fine-print/","title":"Fine Print"},{"url":"/resume/","title":"Resume"},{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"}]}
+{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"What Fourteen-Century Apple Pie Teaches Us About Sharing\n","excerpt":"Last week writer Monica Gaudio received an e-mail from a friend congratulating her on getting an article published in the Northeast-regional cooking magazine Cooks Source. There was only one problem -- she didn't. The article, a recipe for fourteen-century apple pie, was lifted, word-for-word, from Gaudio's Web site. ","layout":"post","category":["Law","Technology"],"tags":["citations","copyright","facebook","food","foodies","journalism","memes","online reputation","plagiarism","recipes","twitter","youtube"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing/","date":"2010-11-08 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing","categories":[["Law","Technology"]],"next":"## A Brief Look at the Imminent Cloud-Computing Storm Front\n\nAs one Hewlett-Packard chief executive recently put it, cloud computing \"is the next generation of the internet.\" [^1] Whether you realize it or not, if you use services like Facebook or Gmail, your personal data already lives in \"the cloud,\" and the same transformative power that connects long-lost classmates at the click of a mouse can be harnessed by federal agencies to approach modern governance in incredibly powerful ways.\n\n**What is Cloud Computing?**\n\nTraditionally, when one thinks of computing power, he or she thinks of an on-site datacenter — a room filled with blinking lights and whirling fans — hardware, software, and data storage all within feet of the users they serve. [^2] The traditional approach to computing generally entails complicated and expensive upgrade procedures scheduled on a semi-regular basis, as well as accommodating the increasing demand for backup and recovery redundancy necessary to reduce downtime should these system fails. [^3] Such datacenters are often managed by their own departments, staffed with the specialized, technical administrators needed to maintain and ensure the day-to-day operation of these increasingly complex and increasingly mission-critical business resources. [^4]\n\nSeen as a virtually unlimited hardware and communications infrastructure managed by a third party-provider, cloud computing, on the other hand, allows for rapid increases in capacity without the need to invest in additional hardware, personnel, or software licensing. [^5] \"As a customer, you don't know where the resources are, and for the most part, you don't care. What's really important is the capability to access your application anywhere, move it freely and easily, and inexpensively add resources.\" [^6] In simplest terms, the cloud uses an off-site service to store, transmit, and process information, and employs the Internet as the means to access that service. [^7]\n\n**How Cloud Computing Came About**\n\nSeveral innovations fueled the shift toward computing in the cloud. First, the rise and adoption of both broadband Internet access, which allowed for reduced load times, and a programming technique known as AJAX, which allowed Web sites to look and feel more like desktop programs through a constant push-and-pull of information, combined to usher in a greater reliance on remote applications. [^8] At the same time the growth of enterprise data centers, and the public's increasing comfort with Web 2.0 services like GMail and Facebook provided a technical and social infrastructure to support such a push. [^9]\n\nThe biggest breakthrough, however, the core and true power behind cloud computing, came from the consolidation of physical servers through system virtualization. Through virtualization, one physical server can become the host to many virtual servers. [^10] Because the resources are dynamically allocated across physical servers as the virtual servers require them, the physical resources are used more efficiently. [^11] If server *A*, say an e-mail server like one may see in most corporate or government offices sees a sudden spike in activity, rather than slowing, it can borrow resources from server *B*, a Web site hosted on the same physical server. The user, unaware that this shift has even occurred, sees the two servers as discrete and unconnected despite their physical location.\n\nThe biggest implication however, is that computing resources can be provisioned and released on demand and as needed. [^12] If agency *X* is a government agency that requires a great deal of information to be processed at the close of the stock market each day, it can pay for five servers up until 3:59 each day, be charged solely for the increased processing power and storage it requires from 4:00 to 4:05, and can return to five server for the remainder of the day. Under a traditional approach, all 100 servers, for example, it required at its peak, would have to be operational 24 hours a day, with the necessary personnel and infrastructure to support it.\n\n**Types of Cloud Computing**\n\nCloud computing exists in several forms today. The most basic, \"infrastructure as a service\" (IAAS), uses shared facilities, hardware, and networks to hold and move data. Customers, given virtual servers, may then install, configure, and utilize their own software freely. [^13] As indicated above, however, customers do not rent the physical servers (merely their equivalent processing power), and providers may move virtual servers between physical servers as necessary. [^14] Amazon's EC2, S3, and CloudFront are prime examples of cloud computing, storage, and delivery respectively.\n\nSecond, and slightly more advanced, \"platform as a service\" (PAAS) allows providers to serve customers with a shared computing platform and software environment. The customer can upload software code in a predetermined programming language (such as Java or PHP) and the provider executes that code and returns the result. [^15] Google Apps Engine is a prime example of such an arrangement.\n\nFinally, \"software as a service\" (SAAS) is most associated with Web-based consumer services such as Facebook or Flickr but can find application in business and government environments as well. The provider hosts software designed to perform a specific function, such as social networking or photo sharing, and the user interacts with that application being run on the provider's server. [^16]\n\nOne additional distinction among cloud services can be made. Each of the three approaches listed above can be hosted in either a public cloud, meaning one customer's virtual servers may be freely intermingled with another customer's among physical servers, or in a private cloud in which the physical servers, infrastructure, or datacenter may be entirely segregated from those used to provide services to other clients. [^17]\n\n**Implications of Cloud Computing**\n\nCloud computing has several implication for members of the government contracting community. First, inherent in the nature of cloud computing is the fact that one organization must trust a third party with its data, something which may have far-reaching ethical and legal implication depending on the type of data stored and the parties involved.\n\nMore broadly, when contracting for cloud services, organizations have several technical aspects to take into account. From a security standpoint, customers should evaluate data encryption (can others access my data?), physical security (can others access the datacenter?), and provider viability (will the service be around in ten years?). From a data integrity standpoint, those looking to enter the cloud should inquire as to data locality (is my data being hosted outside the United States?), data portability (what happens if I want to leave the service?), and redundancy (what happens if there is a natural disaster near their data center?). Finally, from a legal perspective, customers should evaluate terms of service, privacy policies, and service level (uptime) agreements. [^18]\n\n**How to Get Into the Cloud**\n\nSeveral avenues exist for organizations looking to experiment with the cloud. For federal agencies, the General Service Administration, through Apps.gov, will soon be rolling out a Federal private cloud. While the specifics have not yet been announced, this service is expected to provide federal agencies with storage, virtual machine, and Web hosting services at a relatively low cost. [^19] Some of this service's potential has already been hinted at by the recent launch of Apps.Gov NOW, a hosted service that provides federal agencies with out-of-the-box blogs (Web site publishing platforms), Wikis (Web sites editable by members of a community), and online bulletin boards (Web sites to facilitate online discussions), all at no cost. [^20]\n\nSecond, many federal Web sites such as the Federal Communications Commission and Recovery.Gov are in the process of seeking or have already sought third-party cloud hosting services likes Amazon Web Services (AWS) as mentioned above. [^21] Federal agencies opting for such a route must be sure to work closely with the appropriate parties to ensure, federal IT security standards are met, such as FISMA [^22] requirements, or that record retention standards are met, for example, where data stored in the cloud constitutes a system of records under the privacy act. [^23]\n\nFinally, earlier this summer, Google announced FISMA moderate certification of its Google Apps for Government data centers, providing mail, calendar, document, video, and Web hosting services to Federal agencies in a private cloud hosted entirely within the United States. [^24] Agencies wishing to contract their traditional IT infrastructure out to Google can do so for as low as $50 per user per year, however, such savings may come at a cost. Special attention must be paid to the risks associated with trusting a third-party with what may potentially be an agency's most sensitive data.\n\nWhether a federal contracting officer or a provider of IT services, just as the Internet has revolutionized countless aspects of every day life, it is clear that so too will the emerging cloud computing front forever shape the contours of Federal IT procurement in the years to come.\n\n*This article originally published in the [Federal Bar Association Government Contracts Section][25] [Fall 2010 Newsletter][26] (PDF, p. 6).</p> Notes:\n\n[^1]: Stephen Lawson, *Cloud is Internet's Next Generation, HP Executive Says*, InfoWorld, June 25, 2009, http://www.infoworld.com/d/cloud-computing/cloud-internets-next-generation-hp-executive-says-120 (quoting HP CTO Russ Daniels). [27]\n[^2]: *See Generally *Jack Newton, *Putting Your Practice in the Cloud a Pre-Flight Checklist*, 73 Tex. B.J. 632 (2010). [28]\n[^3]: *See* Mark H. Wittow, Daniel J. Buller, *Cloud Computing: Emerging Legal Issues for Access to Data, Anywhere, Anytime,* 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010). [29]\n[^4]: *Id.* [30]\n[^5]: Wittow, 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010). [31]\n[^6]: J. Nicholas Hoover, *Interop: Oracle Predicts Cloud Confusion to Continue*, InformationWeek, Sept. 17, 2008, http:// www.informationweek.com/news/services/hosted_apps/showArticle.jhtml? articlelD=210602225. [32]\n[^7]: Peter M. Lefkowitz, *Contracting in the Cloud: A Primer,* Boston B.J., Summer 2010, at 9. [33]\n[^8]: Dennis Kennedy, *Working in the Cloud Tips on Success with Online Software Services*, ABA J., August 2009, at 31. [34]\n[^9]: *Id.* [35]\n[^10]: Wittow, 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010). [36]\n[^11]: *Id.* [37]\n[^12]: Peter Mell and Tim Grance, *Definition of Cloud Computing*, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Information Technology Laboratory, October 7, 2009, http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/cloud-def-v15.doc. [38]\n[^13]: Lefkowitz, Boston B.J., Summer 2010, at 9. [39]\n[^14]: *Id.* [40]\n[^15]: *Id.* [41]\n[^16]: *Id.* [42]\n[^17]: *Id.* [43]\n[^18]: Newton, 73 Tex. B.J. 632. [44]\n[^19]: Cloud IT Services, Apps.Gov, https://www.apps.gov/cloud/advantage/cloud/category_home.do (last visited* *October 5, 2010). [45]\n[^20]: Apps.Gov Now, General Services Administration, <http://citizen.apps.gov/> (last visited October 12, 2015). [46]\n[^21]: Cloud Services, Federal Business Opportunities, https://www.fbo.gov/index?s=opportunity&mode=form&id=d63c725d5a3006919289698350e3d4b3&tab=core&_cview=1 (last visited October 5, 2010); J. Nicholas Hoover, *Recovert.Gov Moved to Amazon Cloud*, Information Week, May 12, 2010, http://www.informationweek.com/news/government/cloud-saas/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=224701861. [47]\n[^22]: Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002. [48]\n[^23]: 5 U.S.C.A. § 552a (West). [49]\n[^24]: Google Apps for Government, Official Google Enterprise Blog, July 26, 2010, http://googleenterprise.blogspot.com/2010/07/google-apps-for-government.html. [50]\n\n [1]: #note-2020-1 \"Stephen Lawson, Cloud is Internet's Next Generation, HP Executive Says, InfoWorld, June 25, 2009, http://www.infoworld.com/d/cloud-computing/cloud-internets-next-generation-hp-executive-says-120 (quoting HP CTO Russ Daniels).\"\n [2]: #note-2020-2 \"See Generally Jack Newton, Putting Your Practice in the Cloud a Pre-Flight Checklist, 73 Tex. B.J. 632 (2010).\"\n [3]: #note-2020-3 \"See Mark H. Wittow, Daniel J. Buller, Cloud Computing: Emerging Legal Issues for Access to Data, Anywhere, Anytime, 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010).\"\n [4]: #note-2020-4 \"Id.\"\n [5]: #note-2020-5 \"Wittow, 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010).\"\n [6]: #note-2020-6 \"J. Nicholas Hoover, Interop: Oracle Predicts Cloud Confusion to Continue, InformationWeek, Sept. 17, 2008, http:// www.informationweek.com/news/services/hosted_apps/showArticle.jhtml? articlelD=210602225.\"\n [7]: #note-2020-7 \"Peter M. Lefkowitz, Contracting in the Cloud: A Primer, Boston B.J., Summer 2010, at 9.\"\n [8]: #note-2020-8 \"Dennis Kennedy, Working in the Cloud Tips on Success with Online Software Services, ABA J., August 2009, at 31.\"\n [9]: #note-2020-9 \"Id.\"\n [10]: #note-2020-10 \"Wittow, 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010).\"\n [11]: #note-2020-11 \"Id.\"\n [12]: #note-2020-12 \"Peter Mell and Tim Grance, Definition of Cloud Computing, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Information Technology Laboratory, October 7, 2009, http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/cloud-def-v15.doc.\"\n [13]: #note-2020-13 \"Lefkowitz, Boston B.J., Summer 2010, at 9.\"\n [14]: #note-2020-14 \"Id.\"\n [15]: #note-2020-15 \"Id.\"\n [16]: #note-2020-16 \"Id.\"\n [17]: #note-2020-17 \"Id.\"\n [18]: #note-2020-18 \"Newton, 73 Tex. B.J. 632.\"\n [19]: #note-2020-19 \"Cloud IT Services, Apps.Gov, https://www.apps.gov/cloud/advantage/cloud/category_home.do (last visited October 5, 2010).\"\n [20]: #note-2020-20 \"Apps.Gov Now, General Services Administration, http://citizen.apps.gov/ (last visited October 12, 2015).\"\n [21]: #note-2020-21 \"Cloud Services, Federal Business Opportunities, https://www.fbo.gov/index?s=opportunity&mode=form&id=d63c725d5a3006919289698350e3d4b3&tab=core&_cview=1 (last visited October 5, 2010); J. Nicholas Hoover, Recovert.Gov Moved to Amazon Cloud, Information Week, May 12, 2010, http://www.informationweek.com/news/government/cloud-saas/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=224701861.\"\n [22]: #note-2020-22 \"Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002.\"\n [23]: #note-2020-23 \"5 U.S.C.A. § 552a (West).\"\n [24]: #note-2020-24 \"Google Apps for Government, Official Google Enterprise Blog, July 26, 2010, http://googleenterprise.blogspot.com/2010/07/google-apps-for-government.html.\"\n [25]: http://www.fedbar.org/Sections/Government-Contracts-Section/Newsletters.aspx\n [26]: http://www.fedbar.org/Sections/Government-Contracts-Section/Newsletters/Fall-2010.aspx?FT=.pdf","previous":"<p><em>Recorded at the <a href='http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=154839957865223'>The George Washington University Tech Alumni Group</a> Federal Executive Roundtable, November 4, 2010.</em></p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/68153_493302469280_603259280_5451391_4928024_n-300x199.jpg' /> Panelists Steven Bucci, William Kirkendale, Brian Moran, Mark Rosenfeld, and Mariano Tan / Photo: GW Tech Alumni Group</p><p><strong>Introduction of Panelists<br /></strong>16m 10s | 14.8 MB | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3'>mp3</a> | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3?torrent'>torrent</a><br /><audio class='mejs-player ' controls='controls' data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}' id='wp\\_mep\\_1' preload='none'> <source src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3' type='audio/mp3' /> </audio></p><p><a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Introduction.mp3?torrent' /><strong>Agile Systems Development versus Waterfall Systems Development<br /></strong>57m 07s | 52.3MB | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Agile-v-Waterfall-Systems-Development.mp3'>mp3</a> | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Agile-v-Waterfall-Systems-Development.mp3?torrent'>torrent</a><br /><audio class='mejs-player ' controls='controls' data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}' id='wp\\_mep\\_2' preload='none' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Agile-v-Waterfall-Systems-Development.mp3'> </audio><br /><strong>Cloud Computing versus FISMA, Acquisitions, and Budget<br /></strong>34m 58s | 32MB | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Cloud-Computing-v-FISMA.mp3'>mp3</a> | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Cloud-Computing-v-FISMA.mp3?torrent'>torrent</a><br /><audio class='mejs-player ' controls='controls' data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}' id='wp\\_mep\\_3' preload='none' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Cloud-Computing-v-FISMA.mp3'> </audio><br /><strong>Complete recording of all three<br /></strong>1h 48m | 99.3MB | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Removing-Barriers-to-Organizational-Agility.mp3'>mp3</a> | <a href='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Removing-Barriers-to-Organizational-Agility.mp3?torrent'>torrent</a><br /><audio class='mejs-player ' controls='controls' data-mejsoptions='{\"features\":[\"playpause\",\"current\",\"progress\",\"duration\",\"volume\",\"tracks\",\"fullscreen\"],\"audioWidth\":250,\"audioHeight\":30}' id='wp\\_mep\\_4' preload='none' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Removing-Barriers-to-Organizational-Agility.mp3'> </audio><br /><strong>Roundtable Participants</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Hamid Ouyachi, Chief Technology Officer, U.S. Department of Labor</li>\n\n<li>Steven Bucci, Cyber Security Lead, Global Leadership Initiative, at IBM &amp; former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense &amp; Defense Support of Civil Authorities</li>\n\n<li>William Kirkendale, Chief Information Officer, Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency</li>\n\n<li>Mark Bryan Rosenfeld, Associate Partner, Public Sector CRM Call Center Optimization, IBM Global Business Services</li>\n\n<li>Mariano Tan, President, TeleTech Government Solutions</li>\n</ul><p><strong>Moderator</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Brian Moran, President, GW Tech Alumni Group; CEO, Nester Consulting; &amp; former Director of IT Services, U.S. International Trade Commission</li>\n</ul>","content":"<p><img alt='Apple Pie Courtesy belochkavita' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/244921874_44ec1cbfa9-292x300.jpg' />Last week writer Monica Gaudio <a href='http://illadore.livejournal.com/30674.html'>received an e-mail from a friend</a> congratulating her on getting an article published in the Northeast-regional cooking magazine <a href='http://cookssource.com'>Cooks Source</a>. There was only one problem — she didn&#8217;t. The article, a recipe for fourteen-century apple pie, was lifted, word-for-word, from <a href='http://godecookery.com/twotarts/twotarts.html'>Gaudio&#8217;s Web site</a>. After an e-mail back-and-forth in which Gaudio asked for an apology, a copy of the magazine, and a $130 donation to the Columbia Journalism School, Cooks <a href='http://illadore.livejournal.com/30674.html'>Source Editor Judith Griggs noted</a>:</p><blockquote>\n<p>&#8220;…the web is considered &#8220;public domain&#8221; and you should be happy we just didn&#8217;t &#8220;lift&#8221; your whole article and put someone else&#8217;s name on it! It happens a lot, clearly more than you are aware of, especially on college campuses, and the workplace.&#8221;</p>\n</blockquote><p>A quick search on WestLaw reveals that the &#8221;<a href='http://www.edrants.com/the-cooks-source-scandal-how-a-magazine-profits-on-theft/'>[w]ell, it was on the Internet</a>&#8221; defense is not recognized as a valid defense to copyright infringement in any American court of jurisprudence. It turns out, anything on the internet has the same copyright protections as its physical analog.<sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> So long as the work is fixed, original, and creative, it is subject to copyright protections.<sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> This remains true whether or not a conspicuous copyright notice is present or the work is registered with the copyright office <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup>.</p><p>After several <a href='http://gawker.com/5681770/magazine-editor-steals-article-tells-writer-you-should-compensate-me?skyline=true&amp;s=i'>major</a> <a href='http://gizmodo.com/5681714/attention-the-web-is-not-public-domain'>blogs</a> got whiff of the story, and not long after, <a href='http://newsfeed.time.com/2010/11/05/exclusive-cooks-source-writer-marvels-at-the-nerd-rage-keeps-waiting-for-that-apology/'>Time</a>, <a href='http://articles.cnn.com/2010-11-05/tech/cooks.source.plagiarism_1_internet-twitter-web?_s=PM:TECH'>CNN</a>, <a href='http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/04/a-social-media-firestorm-about-apple-pies/'>The New York Times</a>, <a href='http://voices.washingtonpost.com/blog-post/2010/11/cooks_source_magazine_an_onlin.html'>The Washington Post</a>, <a href='http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/11/web-decries-infringement/'>Wired</a>, <a href='http://mashable.com/2010/11/06/cooks-source/'>Mashable</a> and <a href='http://technolog.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2010/11/05/5416008-exclusive-cooks-source-kicks-hornets-nest-wronged-writer-responds'>MSNBC</a>, faceless internet millions began scouring the Web for proof supporting the <a href='http://www.facebook.com/topic.php?uid=196994196748&amp;topic=23238'>accusations</a> that Cooks Source had previously done the same – <a href='https://spreadsheets.google.com/ccc?key=0AmTaIPHPnkSedGFhbHo1d1FIR2oxNWJLaDZLeXhEVEE&amp;hl=en#gid=0'>160 recipes, pictures, and stories</a> so far to be exact. The July 2010 issue alone, for example, had <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/chicken-chopped-mediterranean-salad-with-feta-vinaigrette-recipe/index.html'>Chicken Chopped Mediterranean Salad with Feta Vinaigrette</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/blackberry-lemonade-recipe/index.html'>Blackberry Lemonade</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/giada-de-laurentiis/mixed-berry-soup-with-gelato-recipe/index.html'>Mixed Berry Soup</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/tyler-florence/fresh-mozzarella-blt-with-pesto-recipe/index.html'>Fresh Mozzarella BLT with Pesto</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/alton-brown/best-burger-ever-recipe/index.html'>Alton Brown&#8217;s Best Burger</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/napa-valley-basil-smoked-burgers-recipe/index.html'>Napa Valley Basil-Smoked Burgers</a>, and <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/food-network-challenge/feta-sun-dried-tomato-stuffed-prosciutto-burgers-recipe/index.html'>Jairs Burgers</a>, all lifted with limited modification from the Food Network Web site.<sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup></p><p>While it may be true that in a world where CTRL-C and CTRL-V (or Command for Mac users and &#8221;<a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Command_key'>Open Apple</a>&#8221; for really old Mac users) are literally right in front of us, attribution and proper citation may not be at the forefront of content producers (or copiers) minds, the Cooks Source blowback shows unequivocally that the Internet takes care of its own.</p><p>The unfortunate incident spawned the ever-venerable <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meme'>meme</a>. Cooks Source has become the brunt of every <a href='http://twitter.com/search?q=%23ButHonestlyMonica'>#ButHonestlyMonica</a> joke on Twitter, and they have even joined the exclusive ranks of those with satirical Twitter handles, @CooksSource and @JudithGriggs. Every few minutes yet another heckler chimes in on <a href='http://www.facebook.com/pages/Cooks-Source-Magazine/196994196748'>the Cooks Source Facebook Page</a> and as inevitably is the case, one malcontent even went so far as to produce a YouTube video <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YC-tVHLM99w'>comparing Cooks Source to Nazis</a>.<sup id='fnref:5'><a href='#fn:5' rel='footnote'>5</a></sup></p><p>The story, illustrating the true mob-power of the Internet, might be even more interesting if it turns out Cooks Source <a href='http://www.copyright.gov/fls/fl122.html'>isn&#8217;t in the wrong</a> after all or that the e-mails were actually <a href='http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/you-20/201011/are-cooks-source-magazine-and-judith-griggs-innocent'>made up</a>. So what if Cooks Source has <a href='http://www.masslive.com/news/index.ssf/2010/11/sunderland-based_magazine_cook.html'>lost advertisers</a> and so what if Cooks Source Editor Judith Griggs name has been <a href='http://www.google.com/search?q=Judith+Griggs+Cooks+Source'>forever digi-tarnished</a>. The important thing is that internet justice has been served.<sup id='fnref:6'><a href='#fn:6' rel='footnote'>6</a></sup> It is all too easy to forget that despite its incredible power to democratize and decentralize knowledge, the Web, at it&#8217;s 3:00 am core, is an echo chamber in which rumors reverberate louder than they would in even the most gossip-centric high school cafeteria — and the worst part is, here, the AV club kids are the bullies. So foodies, aspiring journalists, and internet memesters, copy judiciously, cite liberally,<sup id='fnref:7'><a href='#fn:7' rel='footnote'>7</a></sup> and <a href='http://ben.balter.com/contact/'>hire a good lawyer</a>.</p><p><em>Ed. Note: Journalism students, please make sure to pay attention in your media law class. Miss one lecture and this is what happens. On second thought, don&#8217;t go. The legal economy <a href='http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704866204575224350917718446.html'>is</a> <a href='http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/30/AR2010103004638.html?nav=hcmoduletmv'>bad</a> <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/26/business/26lawyers.html?_r=1'>enough</a> as it is — we need all the lawsuits we can get.</em></p><p><strong>Update (11/11):</strong> Final score: Internet, 1, Cooks Source, 0. It appears the Internet has beaten Cooks Source into submission. Cooks Source has sworn to never &#8220;be on Facebook again,&#8221; canceling its Facebook account and <a href='http://www.cookssource.com/'>taking down its Web site</a>, after <a href='http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=159332990768717&amp;set=a.159072834128066.23501.159072764128073'>hackers gained access</a>.<sup id='fnref:8'><a href='#fn:8' rel='footnote'>8</a></sup> Ironically, Cooks Source claims that their intellectual property rights were violated when <a href='http://www.facebook.com/album.php?aid=23582&amp;id=159072764128073'>copies of their most-recent issue</a> were posted online.<sup id='fnref:9'><a href='#fn:9' rel='footnote'>9</a></sup> They have made the donation Gaudio requested to the Columbia School of Journalism, as well as a contribution to a local food bank, also in her name <span>11</span>. Moral of the story? Whatever you do, <a href='http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=159300057438677&amp;set=a.159072834128066.23501.159072764128073&amp;pid=241073&amp;id=159072764128073'>don&#8217;t post statements in Comic Sans.</a></p><p><em>[Photo used under Creative Commons License courtesy</em><em><a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/belochkavita/244921874/'>belochkavita</a></em><em>]</em></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>17 USC § 102 (allowing for communication of works &#8220;with the aid of a machine or device&#8221;).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p><em>Feist Publications, Inc. vs. Rural Telephone Service Co.</em>, 499 U.S. 340 (1991) (establishing a three-part test for copyright protection).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p><a href='http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ1.pdf'><em>Copyright Basics</em></a>. U.S. Copyright Office (July 2008) (noting that for works created after the 1988 ratification of the <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berne_Convention_for_the_Protection_of_Literary_and_Artistic_Works'>Berne Convention</a>, copyright is assumed, thus neither notice nor registration is required to invoke protections).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>Edward Champion, <a href='http://www.edrants.com/the-cooks-source-scandal-how-a-magazine-profits-on-theft/'>The Cooks Source Scandal: How a Magazine Profits on Theft</a>.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:5'>\n<p><em>See generally</em><a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godwin&apos;s_law'>Goodwin&#8217;s Law</a>.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:5' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:6'>\n<p>Internet Justice (<em>n.</em>) – a form of justice only slightly less barbaric than the <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3hQC3nkftrk'>Thunderdome</a>.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:6' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:7'>\n<p><em>See generally supra notes</em> 1-7.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:7' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:8'>\n<p><a href='http://www.cookssource.com/'>Cooks Source Web site</a> (<em>Last accessed:</em>November 11, 2010).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:8' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:9'>\n<p><em>Id.</em></p>\n<a href='#fnref:9' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/","title":"WordPress Resume Plugin"},{"url":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party/","title":"New Media Flak: Megaphone vs. Cocktail Party"},{"url":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/","title":"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?"},{"url":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility/","title":"Removing the Barriers to Organizational Agility\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds/","title":"Will Federal Contracting Officers Soon Have Their Heads in the Clouds?\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it/","title":"Free Trade in China? Just Google it."},{"url":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/","title":"Twitter Mentions as Comments WordPress Plugin\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes/","title":"The Internet is Series of Tubes (oh, and Tollgates too)\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/","title":"Late-Night Infomercials: Guaranteed to Extend the 4th Amendment or Your Money Back"},{"url":"/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer/","title":"The Files \"in\" the Computer -- Zoolander and the California Supreme Court"}]}
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-{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"Will Federal Contracting Officers Soon Have Their Heads in the Clouds?\n","excerpt":"As one Hewlett Package Chief executive recently put it, cloud computing \"is the next generation of the internet.\" Whether you realize it or not, if you use services like Facebook or Gmail, your personal data already lives in \"the cloud,\" and the same transformative power that connects long-lost classmates at the click of a mouse can be harnessed by federal agencies to approach modern governance in incredibly powerful ways.\n","layout":"post","category":["Law","Technology"],"tags":["cloud computing","contracting","federal","government","procurement"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds/","date":"2010-11-15 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds","categories":[["Law","Technology"]],"next":"In 593 A.D., the first printing press quietly spun into operation in China. Exactly 120 years later, the first paper, *Kaiyuan Za Bao*, began production in Beijing. [^1] In 2010, however, China's information landscape is best characterized not by innovation, but rather by tightly controlled government restriction, and no American corporation is more acutely aware of this austere reality than Internet giant Google. The company [recently released][2] a [white paper][3] calling out China, among others for violating WTO commitments and urged law makers to break down barriers to free trade and global e-commerce.\n\n![][4]\n\nThe argument is simple: As the internet is increasingly becoming the dominant instrument of industry, blocking access to information is tantamount to blocking access to trade.\n\nThe white paper elaborates:\n\n> The tremendous spread of the Internet – faster than the spread of any previous technology – has also created new, rapidly expanding markets. Online traffic has increased at a compound annual growth rate of 66 percent over the past five years. [^2] Today more than one-quarter of the world's population (1.7 billion people) uses this technology to communicate, inform, create, and buy and sell across borders. [^3] These 1.7 billion Internet users are a massive new consumer base for both Internet services like email and the hard goods and services that are increasingly advertised, marketed, or sold online…\n> \n> Annual internet-based commerce worldwide is expected to soon reach $1 trillion. [^4]In the United States alone, online retail sales were over $132 billion in 2008. [^5] Globally, Internet and telecom services contributed 3.3 percent of GDP in 2004, compared with 1.8 percent in 1990, with virtually every single economy enjoying growth in the sector. [^6]\n\nThe commercialization of the internet and subsequent clash with government restriction is nothing new. US-based information technology companies have been doing business in China with relative success for quite some time. Yahoo!, Inc. was the first to enter the fray in 1998, launching a Chinese-language version of its popular search engine to compete with China's domestic Internet content providers, and not long after, Microsoft and Google followed suit. [^7] However, in 2000, China's Ministry of Public Service began the Golden Shield Project with the goal of \"adopt[ing]… advanced information and communication technology to strengthen central police control, responsiveness, and crime combating capacity to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of police work. [^8]\"\n\n![][12]A prime example of such restriction came in Fall 2002, as Google employees were booting up their Mountain View, California computers to angry emails informing them that the search engine was entirely unavailable to Chinese citizens. [^9] Even when users could access Google.com, the Web site was slow, often cases, inoperably so when compared to Google's censored competitors. [^10] As Google's Senior Policy Council, Andrew McLaughlin, noted, \"Google.com appears to be down around 10 percent of the time,\" adding, \"[e]ven when users can reach it, the website is slow, and sometimes produces results that… stall out the user's browser. [^11]\"\n\nSo why do we care if a handful of countries do not enjoy unfettered access to American e-commerce? According to the China Internet Network Information Center, the Chinese market represents some 123 million Internet users. [^12] The Internet far surpassed television, newspapers, magazines, and radio as the primary source for information among the Chinese people. [^13] As a result, today, the People's Republic represents the largest emerging Internet market in the world. Baidu.com, for example, the Chinese-based search engine, enjoyed only 2.5% of the search market in 2003, but boasted 46% by 2005, while during that same time, Google's market share in China dropped some 30% and continued to fall. [^14]\n\nThe implications are clear. The fastest, most powerful commercial vehicle the world has ever seen is unavailable to its largest emerging market. To put it another way, countries that censor internet traffic are blocking the 21st century's busiest trade ports. It would be as if merchant ships in the 1500′s, full of goods from the New World, made their way back to Europe only to be turned away. Even in a post-dot-com-bubble world, with nearly ubiquitous free shipping, cyber Mondays, and an app store for everything from your phone to your toaster, it is not hard to imagine that the internet will soon become the dominant mechanism of international trade, if it has not earned such a title already. Today, one thing is certain: As the domestic e-commerce market reaches saturation, American firms will continue to seek out opportunities abroad despite censorship and restrictions. [^15] Their level of success, however, and the level of access available to users in the countries cited in the white paper, if any, remains to be seen.\n\n[Photos courtesy [stuckincustoms][20] and [winterkanal][21]]\n\nNotes:\n\n[^1]: Gardels, Nathan, *Google vs. Confucius*, 27 New Perspective Quarterly 2 (May 2010), at 2. [22]\n[^2]: Fed. Commc'ns Comm'n [FCC], Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan ch. 4 (2010). [23]\n[^3]: Miniwatts, [Internet World Stats, ][24]*[Internet World Users by Language: Top Ten Languages][24] *(chart) (Sept. 30, 2009); Int'l Telecomm. Union [ITU], [*The World in 2009: ICT Facts and Figures *1][25] (2009). The total number of fixed broadband subscribers reached nearly 500 million by the end of 2009. *Id. *at 5. [26]\n[^4]: Brian Hindley & Hosuk Lee-Makiyama, *[*Protectionism Online: Internet Censorship and International Trade Law*][27] *3 (ECIPE, Working Paper No. 12/2009). [28]\n[^5]: U.S. Census Bureau, *[Estimated Quarterly U.S. Retail Sales (Adjusted): Total and E-commerce (chart)][29]* (May 15, 2009). [30]\n[^6]: Int'l Telecomm. Union [ITU], [*digital.life: ITU Internet Report 2006*][31] 73 (2006). [32]\n[^7]: Marc D. Nawyn, *Code Red: Responding to the Moral Hazards Facing U.S. Information Technology Companies in China*, 2007 Colum. Bus. L. Rev. 505 (2007). [33]\n[^8]: Greg Walton, *[China's Golden Shield: Corporations and the Development of Surveillance Technology in the People's Republic of China][34]*, Rights & Democracy, 2001; *See* Jennifer Shyu, *Speak No Evil: Circumventing Chinese Censorship*, 45 San Diego L. Rev. 211, 249 (2008). [35]\n[^9]: Testimony of Google, Inc. before the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, and the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Human Rights, and International Operations, Committee on International Relations, 207th Cong. (2006) (statement of Elliot Schrage, Vice President, Global Communications and Public Affairs, Google, Inc.). [36]\n[^10]: *Id.* [37]\n[^11]: [Google in China][38], Google Official Blog, January 27, 2006. [39]\n[^12]: Lindsay Eastwood, *\"Don't Be Evil\": Google Faces the Chinese Internet Market and the Global Online Freedom Act of 2007*, 9 Minn. J.L. Sci. & Tech. 287, 288 (2008) (citing China Internet Network Info. Ctr., [18th Statistical Survey Report on the Internet Development in China][40], 3 (2006). [41]\n[^13]: *Id.* at n. 30 (stating \"the main channel that obtain information are the Internet (82.6%), television (64.5%), papers (57.9%), magazines (18.8%), books (18.7%), radio (14.4%), and other (6.9%)\") (internal quotations omitted). [42]\n[^14]: *Id.* [43]\n[^15]: *E.g.,* Google's decision to enter China, and subsequently censor search results, was primarily based on the premise that it was the lesser of two evils. Google CEO Eric Schmidt commented, \"although we weren't wild about the restrictions, it was even worse to not try to serve those users at all,\" elaborating, \"we actually did an evil scale and decided not to serve at all was worse evil.\" Shyu, *Supra* note 8 at 213 (citing Danny Sullivan, *[Google Created EvilRank Scale To Decide On Chinese Censorship][44]*, Search Engine Watch, January 30, 2006. Accordingly, Google launched Google.cn under the belief that the \"benefits of increased access to information for people in China… outweighed [the] discomfort… [of] agreeing to censor some results,\" ([*A New Approach to China*][45], Official Google Blog, January 12, 2010) calling their service a \"a meaningful – though imperfect – contribution to the overall expansion of… information in China.\" Press Release, Google, Inc., [*Google to Open Research Center in China*][46] (July 19, 2005). [47]\n\n [1]: #note-2020-1 \"Gardels, Nathan, Google vs. Confucius, 27 New Perspective Quarterly 2 (May 2010), at 2.\"\n [2]: http://googlepublicpolicy.blogspot.com/2010/11/promoting-free-trade-for-internet.html\n [3]: http://www.google.com/googleblogs/pdfs/trade_free_flow_of_information.pdf\n [4]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/1194563275_664d6b15e2_b.jpg \"Great Wall of China\"\n [5]: #note-2020-2 \"Fed. Commc'ns Comm'n [FCC], Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan ch. 4 (2010).\"\n [6]: #note-2020-3 \"Miniwatts, Internet World Stats, Internet World Users by Language: Top Ten Languages (chart) (Sept. 30, 2009); Int'l Telecomm. Union [ITU], The World in 2009: ICT Facts and Figures 1 (2009). The total number of fixed broadband subscribers reached nearly 500 million by the end of 2009. Id. at 5.\"\n [7]: #note-2020-4 \"Brian Hindley & Hosuk Lee-Makiyama, Protectionism Online: Internet Censorship and International Trade Law 3 (ECIPE, Working Paper No. 12/2009).\"\n [8]: #note-2020-5 \"U.S. Census Bureau, Estimated Quarterly U.S. Retail Sales (Adjusted): Total and E-commerce (chart) (May 15, 2009).\"\n [9]: #note-2020-6 \"Int'l Telecomm. Union [ITU], digital.life: ITU Internet Report 2006 73 (2006).\"\n [10]: #note-2020-7 \"Marc D. Nawyn, Code Red: Responding to the Moral Hazards Facing U.S. Information Technology Companies in China, 2007 Colum. Bus. L. Rev. 505 (2007).\"\n [11]: #note-2020-8 \"Greg Walton, China's Golden Shield: Corporations and the Development of Surveillance Technology in the People's Republic of China, Rights & Democracy, 2001; See Jennifer Shyu, Speak No Evil: Circumventing Chinese Censorship, 45 San Diego L. Rev. 211, 249 (2008).\"\n [12]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/4273568581_3c4db9799d_z-300x238.jpg \"Google.cn by Candlelight\"\n [13]: #note-2020-9 \"Testimony of Google, Inc. before the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, and the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Human Rights, and International Operations, Committee on International Relations, 207th Cong. (2006) (statement of Elliot Schrage, Vice President, Global Communications and Public Affairs, Google, Inc.).\"\n [14]: #note-2020-10 \"Id.\"\n [15]: #note-2020-11 \"Google in China, Google Official Blog, January 27, 2006.\"\n [16]: #note-2020-12 \"Lindsay Eastwood, \"Don't Be Evil\": Google Faces the Chinese Internet Market and the Global Online Freedom Act of 2007, 9 Minn. J.L. Sci. & Tech. 287, 288 (2008) (citing China Internet Network Info. Ctr., 18th Statistical Survey Report on the Internet Development in China, 3 (2006).\"\n [17]: #note-2020-13 \"Id. at n. 30 (stating \"the main channel that obtain information are the Internet (82.6%), television (64.5%), papers (57.9%), magazines (18.8%), books (18.7%), radio (14.4%), and other (6.9%)\") (internal quotations omitted).\"\n [18]: #note-2020-14 \"Id.\"\n [19]: #note-2020-15 \"E.g., Google's decision to enter China, and subsequently censor search results, was primarily based on the premise that it was the lesser of two evils. Google CEO Eric Schmidt commented, \"although we weren't wild about the restrictions, it was even worse to not try to serve those users at all,\" elaborating, \"we actually did an evil scale and decided not to serve at all was worse evil.\" Shyu, Supra note 8 at 213 (citing Danny Sullivan, Google Created EvilRank Scale To Decide On Chinese Censorship, Search Engine Watch, January 30, 2006. Accordingly, Google launched Google.cn under the belief that the \"benefits of increased access to information for people in China… outweighed [the] discomfort… [of] agreeing to censor some results,\" (A New Approach to China, Official Google Blog, January 12, 2010) calling their service a \"a meaningful – though imperfect – contribution to the overall expansion of… information in China.\" Press Release, Google, Inc., Google to Open Research Center in China (July 19, 2005).\"\n [20]: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stuckincustoms/1194563275/\n [21]: http://www.flickr.com/photos/winterkanal/4273568581/\n \n \n [24]: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm\n [25]: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/material/Telecom09_flyer.pdf\n \n [27]: http://ecipe.org/publications/ecipe-working-papers/protectionism-online- internet-censorship-and-international-trade-law\n \n [29]: http://www.census.gov/mrts/www/data/html/09Q1table3.html\n \n [31]: http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/publications/digitalife/docs/digital-life-web.pdf\n \n \n [34]: http:// www.ichrdd.ca/english/commdoc/publications/globalization/goldenShieldEng.html\n \n \n \n [38]: http://Googleblog.blogspot.com/2006/01/Google-in-china.html\n \n [40]: http://cnnic.cn/download/2006/18threport-en.pdf\n \n \n \n [44]: http://blog.searchenginewatch.com/blog/060130-154414\n [45]: http://Googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/01/new-approach-to-china.html\n [46]: http://www.Google.com/press/pressrel/rd_china.html","previous":"<p><img alt='Apple Pie Courtesy belochkavita' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/244921874_44ec1cbfa9-292x300.jpg' />Last week writer Monica Gaudio <a href='http://illadore.livejournal.com/30674.html'>received an e-mail from a friend</a> congratulating her on getting an article published in the Northeast-regional cooking magazine <a href='http://cookssource.com'>Cooks Source</a>. There was only one problem — she didn&#8217;t. The article, a recipe for fourteen-century apple pie, was lifted, word-for-word, from <a href='http://godecookery.com/twotarts/twotarts.html'>Gaudio&#8217;s Web site</a>. After an e-mail back-and-forth in which Gaudio asked for an apology, a copy of the magazine, and a $130 donation to the Columbia Journalism School, Cooks <a href='http://illadore.livejournal.com/30674.html'>Source Editor Judith Griggs noted</a>:</p><blockquote>\n<p>&#8220;…the web is considered &#8220;public domain&#8221; and you should be happy we just didn&#8217;t &#8220;lift&#8221; your whole article and put someone else&#8217;s name on it! It happens a lot, clearly more than you are aware of, especially on college campuses, and the workplace.&#8221;</p>\n</blockquote><p>A quick search on WestLaw reveals that the &#8221;<a href='http://www.edrants.com/the-cooks-source-scandal-how-a-magazine-profits-on-theft/'>[w]ell, it was on the Internet</a>&#8221; defense is not recognized as a valid defense to copyright infringement in any American court of jurisprudence. It turns out, anything on the internet has the same copyright protections as its physical analog.<sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> So long as the work is fixed, original, and creative, it is subject to copyright protections.<sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> This remains true whether or not a conspicuous copyright notice is present or the work is registered with the copyright office <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup>.</p><p>After several <a href='http://gawker.com/5681770/magazine-editor-steals-article-tells-writer-you-should-compensate-me?skyline=true&amp;s=i'>major</a> <a href='http://gizmodo.com/5681714/attention-the-web-is-not-public-domain'>blogs</a> got whiff of the story, and not long after, <a href='http://newsfeed.time.com/2010/11/05/exclusive-cooks-source-writer-marvels-at-the-nerd-rage-keeps-waiting-for-that-apology/'>Time</a>, <a href='http://articles.cnn.com/2010-11-05/tech/cooks.source.plagiarism_1_internet-twitter-web?_s=PM:TECH'>CNN</a>, <a href='http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/04/a-social-media-firestorm-about-apple-pies/'>The New York Times</a>, <a href='http://voices.washingtonpost.com/blog-post/2010/11/cooks_source_magazine_an_onlin.html'>The Washington Post</a>, <a href='http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/11/web-decries-infringement/'>Wired</a>, <a href='http://mashable.com/2010/11/06/cooks-source/'>Mashable</a> and <a href='http://technolog.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2010/11/05/5416008-exclusive-cooks-source-kicks-hornets-nest-wronged-writer-responds'>MSNBC</a>, faceless internet millions began scouring the Web for proof supporting the <a href='http://www.facebook.com/topic.php?uid=196994196748&amp;topic=23238'>accusations</a> that Cooks Source had previously done the same – <a href='https://spreadsheets.google.com/ccc?key=0AmTaIPHPnkSedGFhbHo1d1FIR2oxNWJLaDZLeXhEVEE&amp;hl=en#gid=0'>160 recipes, pictures, and stories</a> so far to be exact. The July 2010 issue alone, for example, had <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/chicken-chopped-mediterranean-salad-with-feta-vinaigrette-recipe/index.html'>Chicken Chopped Mediterranean Salad with Feta Vinaigrette</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/blackberry-lemonade-recipe/index.html'>Blackberry Lemonade</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/giada-de-laurentiis/mixed-berry-soup-with-gelato-recipe/index.html'>Mixed Berry Soup</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/tyler-florence/fresh-mozzarella-blt-with-pesto-recipe/index.html'>Fresh Mozzarella BLT with Pesto</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/alton-brown/best-burger-ever-recipe/index.html'>Alton Brown&#8217;s Best Burger</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/napa-valley-basil-smoked-burgers-recipe/index.html'>Napa Valley Basil-Smoked Burgers</a>, and <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/food-network-challenge/feta-sun-dried-tomato-stuffed-prosciutto-burgers-recipe/index.html'>Jairs Burgers</a>, all lifted with limited modification from the Food Network Web site.<sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup></p><p>While it may be true that in a world where CTRL-C and CTRL-V (or Command for Mac users and &#8221;<a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Command_key'>Open Apple</a>&#8221; for really old Mac users) are literally right in front of us, attribution and proper citation may not be at the forefront of content producers (or copiers) minds, the Cooks Source blowback shows unequivocally that the Internet takes care of its own.</p><p>The unfortunate incident spawned the ever-venerable <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meme'>meme</a>. Cooks Source has become the brunt of every <a href='http://twitter.com/search?q=%23ButHonestlyMonica'>#ButHonestlyMonica</a> joke on Twitter, and they have even joined the exclusive ranks of those with satirical Twitter handles, @CooksSource and @JudithGriggs. Every few minutes yet another heckler chimes in on <a href='http://www.facebook.com/pages/Cooks-Source-Magazine/196994196748'>the Cooks Source Facebook Page</a> and as inevitably is the case, one malcontent even went so far as to produce a YouTube video <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YC-tVHLM99w'>comparing Cooks Source to Nazis</a>.<sup id='fnref:5'><a href='#fn:5' rel='footnote'>5</a></sup></p><p>The story, illustrating the true mob-power of the Internet, might be even more interesting if it turns out Cooks Source <a href='http://www.copyright.gov/fls/fl122.html'>isn&#8217;t in the wrong</a> after all or that the e-mails were actually <a href='http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/you-20/201011/are-cooks-source-magazine-and-judith-griggs-innocent'>made up</a>. So what if Cooks Source has <a href='http://www.masslive.com/news/index.ssf/2010/11/sunderland-based_magazine_cook.html'>lost advertisers</a> and so what if Cooks Source Editor Judith Griggs name has been <a href='http://www.google.com/search?q=Judith+Griggs+Cooks+Source'>forever digi-tarnished</a>. The important thing is that internet justice has been served.<sup id='fnref:6'><a href='#fn:6' rel='footnote'>6</a></sup> It is all too easy to forget that despite its incredible power to democratize and decentralize knowledge, the Web, at it&#8217;s 3:00 am core, is an echo chamber in which rumors reverberate louder than they would in even the most gossip-centric high school cafeteria — and the worst part is, here, the AV club kids are the bullies. So foodies, aspiring journalists, and internet memesters, copy judiciously, cite liberally,<sup id='fnref:7'><a href='#fn:7' rel='footnote'>7</a></sup> and <a href='http://ben.balter.com/contact/'>hire a good lawyer</a>.</p><p><em>Ed. Note: Journalism students, please make sure to pay attention in your media law class. Miss one lecture and this is what happens. On second thought, don&#8217;t go. The legal economy <a href='http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704866204575224350917718446.html'>is</a> <a href='http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/30/AR2010103004638.html?nav=hcmoduletmv'>bad</a> <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/26/business/26lawyers.html?_r=1'>enough</a> as it is — we need all the lawsuits we can get.</em></p><p><strong>Update (11/11):</strong> Final score: Internet, 1, Cooks Source, 0. It appears the Internet has beaten Cooks Source into submission. Cooks Source has sworn to never &#8220;be on Facebook again,&#8221; canceling its Facebook account and <a href='http://www.cookssource.com/'>taking down its Web site</a>, after <a href='http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=159332990768717&amp;set=a.159072834128066.23501.159072764128073'>hackers gained access</a>.<sup id='fnref:8'><a href='#fn:8' rel='footnote'>8</a></sup> Ironically, Cooks Source claims that their intellectual property rights were violated when <a href='http://www.facebook.com/album.php?aid=23582&amp;id=159072764128073'>copies of their most-recent issue</a> were posted online.<sup id='fnref:9'><a href='#fn:9' rel='footnote'>9</a></sup> They have made the donation Gaudio requested to the Columbia School of Journalism, as well as a contribution to a local food bank, also in her name <span>11</span>. Moral of the story? Whatever you do, <a href='http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=159300057438677&amp;set=a.159072834128066.23501.159072764128073&amp;pid=241073&amp;id=159072764128073'>don&#8217;t post statements in Comic Sans.</a></p><p><em>[Photo used under Creative Commons License courtesy</em><em><a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/belochkavita/244921874/'>belochkavita</a></em><em>]</em></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>17 USC § 102 (allowing for communication of works &#8220;with the aid of a machine or device&#8221;).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p><em>Feist Publications, Inc. vs. Rural Telephone Service Co.</em>, 499 U.S. 340 (1991) (establishing a three-part test for copyright protection).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p><a href='http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ1.pdf'><em>Copyright Basics</em></a>. U.S. Copyright Office (July 2008) (noting that for works created after the 1988 ratification of the <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berne_Convention_for_the_Protection_of_Literary_and_Artistic_Works'>Berne Convention</a>, copyright is assumed, thus neither notice nor registration is required to invoke protections).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>Edward Champion, <a href='http://www.edrants.com/the-cooks-source-scandal-how-a-magazine-profits-on-theft/'>The Cooks Source Scandal: How a Magazine Profits on Theft</a>.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:5'>\n<p><em>See generally</em><a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godwin&apos;s_law'>Goodwin&#8217;s Law</a>.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:5' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:6'>\n<p>Internet Justice (<em>n.</em>) – a form of justice only slightly less barbaric than the <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3hQC3nkftrk'>Thunderdome</a>.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:6' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:7'>\n<p><em>See generally supra notes</em> 1-7.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:7' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:8'>\n<p><a href='http://www.cookssource.com/'>Cooks Source Web site</a> (<em>Last accessed:</em>November 11, 2010).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:8' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:9'>\n<p><em>Id.</em></p>\n<a href='#fnref:9' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<h2 id='a_brief_look_at_the_imminent_cloudcomputing_storm_front'>A Brief Look at the Imminent Cloud-Computing Storm Front</h2><p>As one Hewlett-Packard chief executive recently put it, cloud computing &#8220;is the next generation of the internet.&#8221; <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> Whether you realize it or not, if you use services like Facebook or Gmail, your personal data already lives in &#8220;the cloud,&#8221; and the same transformative power that connects long-lost classmates at the click of a mouse can be harnessed by federal agencies to approach modern governance in incredibly powerful ways.</p><p><strong>What is Cloud Computing?</strong></p><p>Traditionally, when one thinks of computing power, he or she thinks of an on-site datacenter — a room filled with blinking lights and whirling fans — hardware, software, and data storage all within feet of the users they serve. <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> The traditional approach to computing generally entails complicated and expensive upgrade procedures scheduled on a semi-regular basis, as well as accommodating the increasing demand for backup and recovery redundancy necessary to reduce downtime should these system fails. <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> Such datacenters are often managed by their own departments, staffed with the specialized, technical administrators needed to maintain and ensure the day-to-day operation of these increasingly complex and increasingly mission-critical business resources. <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup></p><p>Seen as a virtually unlimited hardware and communications infrastructure managed by a third party-provider, cloud computing, on the other hand, allows for rapid increases in capacity without the need to invest in additional hardware, personnel, or software licensing. <sup id='fnref:5'><a href='#fn:5' rel='footnote'>5</a></sup> &#8220;As a customer, you don&#8217;t know where the resources are, and for the most part, you don&#8217;t care. What&#8217;s really important is the capability to access your application anywhere, move it freely and easily, and inexpensively add resources.&#8221; <sup id='fnref:6'><a href='#fn:6' rel='footnote'>6</a></sup> In simplest terms, the cloud uses an off-site service to store, transmit, and process information, and employs the Internet as the means to access that service. <sup id='fnref:7'><a href='#fn:7' rel='footnote'>7</a></sup></p><p><strong>How Cloud Computing Came About</strong></p><p>Several innovations fueled the shift toward computing in the cloud. First, the rise and adoption of both broadband Internet access, which allowed for reduced load times, and a programming technique known as AJAX, which allowed Web sites to look and feel more like desktop programs through a constant push-and-pull of information, combined to usher in a greater reliance on remote applications. <sup id='fnref:8'><a href='#fn:8' rel='footnote'>8</a></sup> At the same time the growth of enterprise data centers, and the public&#8217;s increasing comfort with Web 2.0 services like GMail and Facebook provided a technical and social infrastructure to support such a push. <sup id='fnref:9'><a href='#fn:9' rel='footnote'>9</a></sup></p><p>The biggest breakthrough, however, the core and true power behind cloud computing, came from the consolidation of physical servers through system virtualization. Through virtualization, one physical server can become the host to many virtual servers. <sup id='fnref:10'><a href='#fn:10' rel='footnote'>10</a></sup> Because the resources are dynamically allocated across physical servers as the virtual servers require them, the physical resources are used more efficiently. <sup id='fnref:11'><a href='#fn:11' rel='footnote'>11</a></sup> If server <em>A</em>, say an e-mail server like one may see in most corporate or government offices sees a sudden spike in activity, rather than slowing, it can borrow resources from server <em>B</em>, a Web site hosted on the same physical server. The user, unaware that this shift has even occurred, sees the two servers as discrete and unconnected despite their physical location.</p><p>The biggest implication however, is that computing resources can be provisioned and released on demand and as needed. <sup id='fnref:12'><a href='#fn:12' rel='footnote'>12</a></sup> If agency <em>X</em> is a government agency that requires a great deal of information to be processed at the close of the stock market each day, it can pay for five servers up until 3:59 each day, be charged solely for the increased processing power and storage it requires from 4:00 to 4:05, and can return to five server for the remainder of the day. Under a traditional approach, all 100 servers, for example, it required at its peak, would have to be operational 24 hours a day, with the necessary personnel and infrastructure to support it.</p><p><strong>Types of Cloud Computing</strong></p><p>Cloud computing exists in several forms today. The most basic, &#8220;infrastructure as a service&#8221; (IAAS), uses shared facilities, hardware, and networks to hold and move data. Customers, given virtual servers, may then install, configure, and utilize their own software freely. <sup id='fnref:13'><a href='#fn:13' rel='footnote'>13</a></sup> As indicated above, however, customers do not rent the physical servers (merely their equivalent processing power), and providers may move virtual servers between physical servers as necessary. <sup id='fnref:14'><a href='#fn:14' rel='footnote'>14</a></sup> Amazon&#8217;s EC2, S3, and CloudFront are prime examples of cloud computing, storage, and delivery respectively.</p><p>Second, and slightly more advanced, &#8220;platform as a service&#8221; (PAAS) allows providers to serve customers with a shared computing platform and software environment. The customer can upload software code in a predetermined programming language (such as Java or PHP) and the provider executes that code and returns the result. <sup id='fnref:15'><a href='#fn:15' rel='footnote'>15</a></sup> Google Apps Engine is a prime example of such an arrangement.</p><p>Finally, &#8220;software as a service&#8221; (SAAS) is most associated with Web-based consumer services such as Facebook or Flickr but can find application in business and government environments as well. The provider hosts software designed to perform a specific function, such as social networking or photo sharing, and the user interacts with that application being run on the provider&#8217;s server. <sup id='fnref:16'><a href='#fn:16' rel='footnote'>16</a></sup></p><p>One additional distinction among cloud services can be made. Each of the three approaches listed above can be hosted in either a public cloud, meaning one customer&#8217;s virtual servers may be freely intermingled with another customer&#8217;s among physical servers, or in a private cloud in which the physical servers, infrastructure, or datacenter may be entirely segregated from those used to provide services to other clients. <sup id='fnref:17'><a href='#fn:17' rel='footnote'>17</a></sup></p><p><strong>Implications of Cloud Computing</strong></p><p>Cloud computing has several implication for members of the government contracting community. First, inherent in the nature of cloud computing is the fact that one organization must trust a third party with its data, something which may have far-reaching ethical and legal implication depending on the type of data stored and the parties involved.</p><p>More broadly, when contracting for cloud services, organizations have several technical aspects to take into account. From a security standpoint, customers should evaluate data encryption (can others access my data?), physical security (can others access the datacenter?), and provider viability (will the service be around in ten years?). From a data integrity standpoint, those looking to enter the cloud should inquire as to data locality (is my data being hosted outside the United States?), data portability (what happens if I want to leave the service?), and redundancy (what happens if there is a natural disaster near their data center?). Finally, from a legal perspective, customers should evaluate terms of service, privacy policies, and service level (uptime) agreements. <sup id='fnref:18'><a href='#fn:18' rel='footnote'>18</a></sup></p><p><strong>How to Get Into the Cloud</strong></p><p>Several avenues exist for organizations looking to experiment with the cloud. For federal agencies, the General Service Administration, through Apps.gov, will soon be rolling out a Federal private cloud. While the specifics have not yet been announced, this service is expected to provide federal agencies with storage, virtual machine, and Web hosting services at a relatively low cost. <sup id='fnref:19'><a href='#fn:19' rel='footnote'>19</a></sup> Some of this service&#8217;s potential has already been hinted at by the recent launch of Apps.Gov NOW, a hosted service that provides federal agencies with out-of-the-box blogs (Web site publishing platforms), Wikis (Web sites editable by members of a community), and online bulletin boards (Web sites to facilitate online discussions), all at no cost. <sup id='fnref:20'><a href='#fn:20' rel='footnote'>20</a></sup></p><p>Second, many federal Web sites such as the Federal Communications Commission and Recovery.Gov are in the process of seeking or have already sought third-party cloud hosting services likes Amazon Web Services (AWS) as mentioned above. <sup id='fnref:21'><a href='#fn:21' rel='footnote'>21</a></sup> Federal agencies opting for such a route must be sure to work closely with the appropriate parties to ensure, federal IT security standards are met, such as FISMA <sup id='fnref:22'><a href='#fn:22' rel='footnote'>22</a></sup> requirements, or that record retention standards are met, for example, where data stored in the cloud constitutes a system of records under the privacy act. <sup id='fnref:23'><a href='#fn:23' rel='footnote'>23</a></sup></p><p>Finally, earlier this summer, Google announced FISMA moderate certification of its Google Apps for Government data centers, providing mail, calendar, document, video, and Web hosting services to Federal agencies in a private cloud hosted entirely within the United States. <sup id='fnref:24'><a href='#fn:24' rel='footnote'>24</a></sup> Agencies wishing to contract their traditional IT infrastructure out to Google can do so for as low as $50 per user per year, however, such savings may come at a cost. Special attention must be paid to the risks associated with trusting a third-party with what may potentially be an agency&#8217;s most sensitive data.</p><p>Whether a federal contracting officer or a provider of IT services, just as the Internet has revolutionized countless aspects of every day life, it is clear that so too will the emerging cloud computing front forever shape the contours of Federal IT procurement in the years to come.</p><p><em>This article originally published in the <a href='http://www.fedbar.org/Sections/Government-Contracts-Section/Newsletters.aspx'>Federal Bar Association Government Contracts Section</a> <a href='http://www.fedbar.org/Sections/Government-Contracts-Section/Newsletters/Fall-2010.aspx?FT=.pdf'>Fall 2010 Newsletter</a> (PDF, p. 6).&lt;/p&gt; Notes:</em></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>Stephen Lawson, <em>Cloud is Internet&#8217;s Next Generation, HP Executive Says</em>, InfoWorld, June 25, 2009, http://www.infoworld.com/d/cloud-computing/cloud-internets-next-generation-hp-executive-says-120 (quoting HP CTO Russ Daniels). <span>27</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p><em>See Generally</em>Jack Newton, <em>Putting Your Practice in the Cloud a Pre-Flight Checklist</em>, 73 Tex. B.J. 632 (2010). <span>28</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p><em>See</em> Mark H. Wittow, Daniel J. Buller, <em>Cloud Computing: Emerging Legal Issues for Access to Data, Anywhere, Anytime,</em> 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010). <span>29</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>30</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:5'>\n<p>Wittow, 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010). <span>31</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:5' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:6'>\n<p>J. Nicholas Hoover, <em>Interop: Oracle Predicts Cloud Confusion to Continue</em>, InformationWeek, Sept. 17, 2008, http:// www.informationweek.com/news/services/hosted_apps/showArticle.jhtml? articlelD=210602225. <span>32</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:6' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:7'>\n<p>Peter M. Lefkowitz, <em>Contracting in the Cloud: A Primer,</em> Boston B.J., Summer 2010, at 9. <span>33</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:7' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:8'>\n<p>Dennis Kennedy, <em>Working in the Cloud Tips on Success with Online Software Services</em>, ABA J., August 2009, at 31. <span>34</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:8' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:9'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>35</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:9' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:10'>\n<p>Wittow, 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010). <span>36</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:10' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:11'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>37</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:11' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:12'>\n<p>Peter Mell and Tim Grance, <em>Definition of Cloud Computing</em>, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Information Technology Laboratory, October 7, 2009, http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/cloud-def-v15.doc. <span>38</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:12' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:13'>\n<p>Lefkowitz, Boston B.J., Summer 2010, at 9. <span>39</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:13' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:14'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>40</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:14' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:15'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>41</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:15' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:16'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>42</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:16' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:17'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>43</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:17' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:18'>\n<p>Newton, 73 Tex. B.J. 632. <span>44</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:18' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:19'>\n<p>Cloud IT Services, Apps.Gov, https://www.apps.gov/cloud/advantage/cloud/category_home.do (last visited* <em>October 5, 2010). <span>45</span></em></p>\n<a href='#fnref:19' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:20'>\n<p>Apps.Gov Now, General Services Administration, <a href='http://citizen.apps.gov/'>http://citizen.apps.gov/</a> (last visited October 12, 2015). <span>46</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:20' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:21'>\n<p>Cloud Services, Federal Business Opportunities, https://www.fbo.gov/index?s=opportunity&amp;mode=form&amp;id=d63c725d5a3006919289698350e3d4b3&amp;tab=core&amp;_cview=1 (last visited October 5, 2010); J. Nicholas Hoover, <em>Recovert.Gov Moved to Amazon Cloud</em>, Information Week, May 12, 2010, http://www.informationweek.com/news/government/cloud-saas/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=224701861. <span>47</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:21' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:22'>\n<p>Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002. <span>48</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:22' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:23'>\n<p>5 U.S.C.A. § 552a (West). <span>49</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:23' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:24'>\n<p>Google Apps for Government, Official Google Enterprise Blog, July 26, 2010, http://googleenterprise.blogspot.com/2010/07/google-apps-for-government.html. <span>50</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:24' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/about/","title":"About"},{"url":"/contact/","title":"Contact"},{"url":"/donate/","title":"Donate"},{"url":"/fine-print/","title":"Fine Print"},{"url":"/resume/","title":"Resume"},{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"}]}
+{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"Will Federal Contracting Officers Soon Have Their Heads in the Clouds?\n","excerpt":"As one Hewlett Package Chief executive recently put it, cloud computing \"is the next generation of the internet.\" Whether you realize it or not, if you use services like Facebook or Gmail, your personal data already lives in \"the cloud,\" and the same transformative power that connects long-lost classmates at the click of a mouse can be harnessed by federal agencies to approach modern governance in incredibly powerful ways.\n","layout":"post","category":["Law","Technology"],"tags":["cloud computing","contracting","federal","government","procurement"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds/","date":"2010-11-15 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds","categories":[["Law","Technology"]],"next":"In 593 A.D., the first printing press quietly spun into operation in China. Exactly 120 years later, the first paper, *Kaiyuan Za Bao*, began production in Beijing. [^1] In 2010, however, China's information landscape is best characterized not by innovation, but rather by tightly controlled government restriction, and no American corporation is more acutely aware of this austere reality than Internet giant Google. The company [recently released][2] a [white paper][3] calling out China, among others for violating WTO commitments and urged law makers to break down barriers to free trade and global e-commerce.\n\n![][4]\n\nThe argument is simple: As the internet is increasingly becoming the dominant instrument of industry, blocking access to information is tantamount to blocking access to trade.\n\nThe white paper elaborates:\n\n> The tremendous spread of the Internet – faster than the spread of any previous technology – has also created new, rapidly expanding markets. Online traffic has increased at a compound annual growth rate of 66 percent over the past five years. [^2] Today more than one-quarter of the world's population (1.7 billion people) uses this technology to communicate, inform, create, and buy and sell across borders. [^3] These 1.7 billion Internet users are a massive new consumer base for both Internet services like email and the hard goods and services that are increasingly advertised, marketed, or sold online…\n> \n> Annual internet-based commerce worldwide is expected to soon reach $1 trillion. [^4]In the United States alone, online retail sales were over $132 billion in 2008. [^5] Globally, Internet and telecom services contributed 3.3 percent of GDP in 2004, compared with 1.8 percent in 1990, with virtually every single economy enjoying growth in the sector. [^6]\n\nThe commercialization of the internet and subsequent clash with government restriction is nothing new. US-based information technology companies have been doing business in China with relative success for quite some time. Yahoo!, Inc. was the first to enter the fray in 1998, launching a Chinese-language version of its popular search engine to compete with China's domestic Internet content providers, and not long after, Microsoft and Google followed suit. [^7] However, in 2000, China's Ministry of Public Service began the Golden Shield Project with the goal of \"adopt[ing]… advanced information and communication technology to strengthen central police control, responsiveness, and crime combating capacity to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of police work. [^8]\"\n\n![][12]A prime example of such restriction came in Fall 2002, as Google employees were booting up their Mountain View, California computers to angry emails informing them that the search engine was entirely unavailable to Chinese citizens. [^9] Even when users could access Google.com, the Web site was slow, often cases, inoperably so when compared to Google's censored competitors. [^10] As Google's Senior Policy Council, Andrew McLaughlin, noted, \"Google.com appears to be down around 10 percent of the time,\" adding, \"[e]ven when users can reach it, the website is slow, and sometimes produces results that… stall out the user's browser. [^11]\"\n\nSo why do we care if a handful of countries do not enjoy unfettered access to American e-commerce? According to the China Internet Network Information Center, the Chinese market represents some 123 million Internet users. [^12] The Internet far surpassed television, newspapers, magazines, and radio as the primary source for information among the Chinese people. [^13] As a result, today, the People's Republic represents the largest emerging Internet market in the world. Baidu.com, for example, the Chinese-based search engine, enjoyed only 2.5% of the search market in 2003, but boasted 46% by 2005, while during that same time, Google's market share in China dropped some 30% and continued to fall. [^14]\n\nThe implications are clear. The fastest, most powerful commercial vehicle the world has ever seen is unavailable to its largest emerging market. To put it another way, countries that censor internet traffic are blocking the 21st century's busiest trade ports. It would be as if merchant ships in the 1500′s, full of goods from the New World, made their way back to Europe only to be turned away. Even in a post-dot-com-bubble world, with nearly ubiquitous free shipping, cyber Mondays, and an app store for everything from your phone to your toaster, it is not hard to imagine that the internet will soon become the dominant mechanism of international trade, if it has not earned such a title already. Today, one thing is certain: As the domestic e-commerce market reaches saturation, American firms will continue to seek out opportunities abroad despite censorship and restrictions. [^15] Their level of success, however, and the level of access available to users in the countries cited in the white paper, if any, remains to be seen.\n\n[Photos courtesy [stuckincustoms][20] and [winterkanal][21]]\n\nNotes:\n\n[^1]: Gardels, Nathan, *Google vs. Confucius*, 27 New Perspective Quarterly 2 (May 2010), at 2. [22]\n[^2]: Fed. Commc'ns Comm'n [FCC], Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan ch. 4 (2010). [23]\n[^3]: Miniwatts, [Internet World Stats, ][24]*[Internet World Users by Language: Top Ten Languages][24] *(chart) (Sept. 30, 2009); Int'l Telecomm. Union [ITU], [*The World in 2009: ICT Facts and Figures *1][25] (2009). The total number of fixed broadband subscribers reached nearly 500 million by the end of 2009. *Id. *at 5. [26]\n[^4]: Brian Hindley & Hosuk Lee-Makiyama, *[*Protectionism Online: Internet Censorship and International Trade Law*][27] *3 (ECIPE, Working Paper No. 12/2009). [28]\n[^5]: U.S. Census Bureau, *[Estimated Quarterly U.S. Retail Sales (Adjusted): Total and E-commerce (chart)][29]* (May 15, 2009). [30]\n[^6]: Int'l Telecomm. Union [ITU], [*digital.life: ITU Internet Report 2006*][31] 73 (2006). [32]\n[^7]: Marc D. Nawyn, *Code Red: Responding to the Moral Hazards Facing U.S. Information Technology Companies in China*, 2007 Colum. Bus. L. Rev. 505 (2007). [33]\n[^8]: Greg Walton, *[China's Golden Shield: Corporations and the Development of Surveillance Technology in the People's Republic of China][34]*, Rights & Democracy, 2001; *See* Jennifer Shyu, *Speak No Evil: Circumventing Chinese Censorship*, 45 San Diego L. Rev. 211, 249 (2008). [35]\n[^9]: Testimony of Google, Inc. before the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, and the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Human Rights, and International Operations, Committee on International Relations, 207th Cong. (2006) (statement of Elliot Schrage, Vice President, Global Communications and Public Affairs, Google, Inc.). [36]\n[^10]: *Id.* [37]\n[^11]: [Google in China][38], Google Official Blog, January 27, 2006. [39]\n[^12]: Lindsay Eastwood, *\"Don't Be Evil\": Google Faces the Chinese Internet Market and the Global Online Freedom Act of 2007*, 9 Minn. J.L. Sci. & Tech. 287, 288 (2008) (citing China Internet Network Info. Ctr., [18th Statistical Survey Report on the Internet Development in China][40], 3 (2006). [41]\n[^13]: *Id.* at n. 30 (stating \"the main channel that obtain information are the Internet (82.6%), television (64.5%), papers (57.9%), magazines (18.8%), books (18.7%), radio (14.4%), and other (6.9%)\") (internal quotations omitted). [42]\n[^14]: *Id.* [43]\n[^15]: *E.g.,* Google's decision to enter China, and subsequently censor search results, was primarily based on the premise that it was the lesser of two evils. Google CEO Eric Schmidt commented, \"although we weren't wild about the restrictions, it was even worse to not try to serve those users at all,\" elaborating, \"we actually did an evil scale and decided not to serve at all was worse evil.\" Shyu, *Supra* note 8 at 213 (citing Danny Sullivan, *[Google Created EvilRank Scale To Decide On Chinese Censorship][44]*, Search Engine Watch, January 30, 2006. Accordingly, Google launched Google.cn under the belief that the \"benefits of increased access to information for people in China… outweighed [the] discomfort… [of] agreeing to censor some results,\" ([*A New Approach to China*][45], Official Google Blog, January 12, 2010) calling their service a \"a meaningful – though imperfect – contribution to the overall expansion of… information in China.\" Press Release, Google, Inc., [*Google to Open Research Center in China*][46] (July 19, 2005). [47]\n\n [1]: #note-2020-1 \"Gardels, Nathan, Google vs. Confucius, 27 New Perspective Quarterly 2 (May 2010), at 2.\"\n [2]: http://googlepublicpolicy.blogspot.com/2010/11/promoting-free-trade-for-internet.html\n [3]: http://www.google.com/googleblogs/pdfs/trade_free_flow_of_information.pdf\n [4]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/1194563275_664d6b15e2_b.jpg \"Great Wall of China\"\n [5]: #note-2020-2 \"Fed. Commc'ns Comm'n [FCC], Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan ch. 4 (2010).\"\n [6]: #note-2020-3 \"Miniwatts, Internet World Stats, Internet World Users by Language: Top Ten Languages (chart) (Sept. 30, 2009); Int'l Telecomm. Union [ITU], The World in 2009: ICT Facts and Figures 1 (2009). The total number of fixed broadband subscribers reached nearly 500 million by the end of 2009. Id. at 5.\"\n [7]: #note-2020-4 \"Brian Hindley & Hosuk Lee-Makiyama, Protectionism Online: Internet Censorship and International Trade Law 3 (ECIPE, Working Paper No. 12/2009).\"\n [8]: #note-2020-5 \"U.S. Census Bureau, Estimated Quarterly U.S. Retail Sales (Adjusted): Total and E-commerce (chart) (May 15, 2009).\"\n [9]: #note-2020-6 \"Int'l Telecomm. Union [ITU], digital.life: ITU Internet Report 2006 73 (2006).\"\n [10]: #note-2020-7 \"Marc D. Nawyn, Code Red: Responding to the Moral Hazards Facing U.S. Information Technology Companies in China, 2007 Colum. Bus. L. Rev. 505 (2007).\"\n [11]: #note-2020-8 \"Greg Walton, China's Golden Shield: Corporations and the Development of Surveillance Technology in the People's Republic of China, Rights & Democracy, 2001; See Jennifer Shyu, Speak No Evil: Circumventing Chinese Censorship, 45 San Diego L. Rev. 211, 249 (2008).\"\n [12]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/4273568581_3c4db9799d_z-300x238.jpg \"Google.cn by Candlelight\"\n [13]: #note-2020-9 \"Testimony of Google, Inc. before the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, and the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Human Rights, and International Operations, Committee on International Relations, 207th Cong. (2006) (statement of Elliot Schrage, Vice President, Global Communications and Public Affairs, Google, Inc.).\"\n [14]: #note-2020-10 \"Id.\"\n [15]: #note-2020-11 \"Google in China, Google Official Blog, January 27, 2006.\"\n [16]: #note-2020-12 \"Lindsay Eastwood, \"Don't Be Evil\": Google Faces the Chinese Internet Market and the Global Online Freedom Act of 2007, 9 Minn. J.L. Sci. & Tech. 287, 288 (2008) (citing China Internet Network Info. Ctr., 18th Statistical Survey Report on the Internet Development in China, 3 (2006).\"\n [17]: #note-2020-13 \"Id. at n. 30 (stating \"the main channel that obtain information are the Internet (82.6%), television (64.5%), papers (57.9%), magazines (18.8%), books (18.7%), radio (14.4%), and other (6.9%)\") (internal quotations omitted).\"\n [18]: #note-2020-14 \"Id.\"\n [19]: #note-2020-15 \"E.g., Google's decision to enter China, and subsequently censor search results, was primarily based on the premise that it was the lesser of two evils. Google CEO Eric Schmidt commented, \"although we weren't wild about the restrictions, it was even worse to not try to serve those users at all,\" elaborating, \"we actually did an evil scale and decided not to serve at all was worse evil.\" Shyu, Supra note 8 at 213 (citing Danny Sullivan, Google Created EvilRank Scale To Decide On Chinese Censorship, Search Engine Watch, January 30, 2006. Accordingly, Google launched Google.cn under the belief that the \"benefits of increased access to information for people in China… outweighed [the] discomfort… [of] agreeing to censor some results,\" (A New Approach to China, Official Google Blog, January 12, 2010) calling their service a \"a meaningful – though imperfect – contribution to the overall expansion of… information in China.\" Press Release, Google, Inc., Google to Open Research Center in China (July 19, 2005).\"\n [20]: http://www.flickr.com/photos/stuckincustoms/1194563275/\n [21]: http://www.flickr.com/photos/winterkanal/4273568581/\n \n \n [24]: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm\n [25]: http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/material/Telecom09_flyer.pdf\n \n [27]: http://ecipe.org/publications/ecipe-working-papers/protectionism-online- internet-censorship-and-international-trade-law\n \n [29]: http://www.census.gov/mrts/www/data/html/09Q1table3.html\n \n [31]: http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/publications/digitalife/docs/digital-life-web.pdf\n \n \n [34]: http:// www.ichrdd.ca/english/commdoc/publications/globalization/goldenShieldEng.html\n \n \n \n [38]: http://Googleblog.blogspot.com/2006/01/Google-in-china.html\n \n [40]: http://cnnic.cn/download/2006/18threport-en.pdf\n \n \n \n [44]: http://blog.searchenginewatch.com/blog/060130-154414\n [45]: http://Googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/01/new-approach-to-china.html\n [46]: http://www.Google.com/press/pressrel/rd_china.html","previous":"<p><img alt='Apple Pie Courtesy belochkavita' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/244921874_44ec1cbfa9-292x300.jpg' />Last week writer Monica Gaudio <a href='http://illadore.livejournal.com/30674.html'>received an e-mail from a friend</a> congratulating her on getting an article published in the Northeast-regional cooking magazine <a href='http://cookssource.com'>Cooks Source</a>. There was only one problem — she didn&#8217;t. The article, a recipe for fourteen-century apple pie, was lifted, word-for-word, from <a href='http://godecookery.com/twotarts/twotarts.html'>Gaudio&#8217;s Web site</a>. After an e-mail back-and-forth in which Gaudio asked for an apology, a copy of the magazine, and a $130 donation to the Columbia Journalism School, Cooks <a href='http://illadore.livejournal.com/30674.html'>Source Editor Judith Griggs noted</a>:</p><blockquote>\n<p>&#8220;…the web is considered &#8220;public domain&#8221; and you should be happy we just didn&#8217;t &#8220;lift&#8221; your whole article and put someone else&#8217;s name on it! It happens a lot, clearly more than you are aware of, especially on college campuses, and the workplace.&#8221;</p>\n</blockquote><p>A quick search on WestLaw reveals that the &#8221;<a href='http://www.edrants.com/the-cooks-source-scandal-how-a-magazine-profits-on-theft/'>[w]ell, it was on the Internet</a>&#8221; defense is not recognized as a valid defense to copyright infringement in any American court of jurisprudence. It turns out, anything on the internet has the same copyright protections as its physical analog.<sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> So long as the work is fixed, original, and creative, it is subject to copyright protections.<sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> This remains true whether or not a conspicuous copyright notice is present or the work is registered with the copyright office <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup>.</p><p>After several <a href='http://gawker.com/5681770/magazine-editor-steals-article-tells-writer-you-should-compensate-me?skyline=true&amp;s=i'>major</a> <a href='http://gizmodo.com/5681714/attention-the-web-is-not-public-domain'>blogs</a> got whiff of the story, and not long after, <a href='http://newsfeed.time.com/2010/11/05/exclusive-cooks-source-writer-marvels-at-the-nerd-rage-keeps-waiting-for-that-apology/'>Time</a>, <a href='http://articles.cnn.com/2010-11-05/tech/cooks.source.plagiarism_1_internet-twitter-web?_s=PM:TECH'>CNN</a>, <a href='http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/04/a-social-media-firestorm-about-apple-pies/'>The New York Times</a>, <a href='http://voices.washingtonpost.com/blog-post/2010/11/cooks_source_magazine_an_onlin.html'>The Washington Post</a>, <a href='http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/11/web-decries-infringement/'>Wired</a>, <a href='http://mashable.com/2010/11/06/cooks-source/'>Mashable</a> and <a href='http://technolog.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2010/11/05/5416008-exclusive-cooks-source-kicks-hornets-nest-wronged-writer-responds'>MSNBC</a>, faceless internet millions began scouring the Web for proof supporting the <a href='http://www.facebook.com/topic.php?uid=196994196748&amp;topic=23238'>accusations</a> that Cooks Source had previously done the same – <a href='https://spreadsheets.google.com/ccc?key=0AmTaIPHPnkSedGFhbHo1d1FIR2oxNWJLaDZLeXhEVEE&amp;hl=en#gid=0'>160 recipes, pictures, and stories</a> so far to be exact. The July 2010 issue alone, for example, had <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/chicken-chopped-mediterranean-salad-with-feta-vinaigrette-recipe/index.html'>Chicken Chopped Mediterranean Salad with Feta Vinaigrette</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/blackberry-lemonade-recipe/index.html'>Blackberry Lemonade</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/giada-de-laurentiis/mixed-berry-soup-with-gelato-recipe/index.html'>Mixed Berry Soup</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/tyler-florence/fresh-mozzarella-blt-with-pesto-recipe/index.html'>Fresh Mozzarella BLT with Pesto</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/alton-brown/best-burger-ever-recipe/index.html'>Alton Brown&#8217;s Best Burger</a>, <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/napa-valley-basil-smoked-burgers-recipe/index.html'>Napa Valley Basil-Smoked Burgers</a>, and <a href='http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/food-network-challenge/feta-sun-dried-tomato-stuffed-prosciutto-burgers-recipe/index.html'>Jairs Burgers</a>, all lifted with limited modification from the Food Network Web site.<sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup></p><p>While it may be true that in a world where CTRL-C and CTRL-V (or Command for Mac users and &#8221;<a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Command_key'>Open Apple</a>&#8221; for really old Mac users) are literally right in front of us, attribution and proper citation may not be at the forefront of content producers (or copiers) minds, the Cooks Source blowback shows unequivocally that the Internet takes care of its own.</p><p>The unfortunate incident spawned the ever-venerable <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meme'>meme</a>. Cooks Source has become the brunt of every <a href='http://twitter.com/search?q=%23ButHonestlyMonica'>#ButHonestlyMonica</a> joke on Twitter, and they have even joined the exclusive ranks of those with satirical Twitter handles, @CooksSource and @JudithGriggs. Every few minutes yet another heckler chimes in on <a href='http://www.facebook.com/pages/Cooks-Source-Magazine/196994196748'>the Cooks Source Facebook Page</a> and as inevitably is the case, one malcontent even went so far as to produce a YouTube video <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YC-tVHLM99w'>comparing Cooks Source to Nazis</a>.<sup id='fnref:5'><a href='#fn:5' rel='footnote'>5</a></sup></p><p>The story, illustrating the true mob-power of the Internet, might be even more interesting if it turns out Cooks Source <a href='http://www.copyright.gov/fls/fl122.html'>isn&#8217;t in the wrong</a> after all or that the e-mails were actually <a href='http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/you-20/201011/are-cooks-source-magazine-and-judith-griggs-innocent'>made up</a>. So what if Cooks Source has <a href='http://www.masslive.com/news/index.ssf/2010/11/sunderland-based_magazine_cook.html'>lost advertisers</a> and so what if Cooks Source Editor Judith Griggs name has been <a href='http://www.google.com/search?q=Judith+Griggs+Cooks+Source'>forever digi-tarnished</a>. The important thing is that internet justice has been served.<sup id='fnref:6'><a href='#fn:6' rel='footnote'>6</a></sup> It is all too easy to forget that despite its incredible power to democratize and decentralize knowledge, the Web, at it&#8217;s 3:00 am core, is an echo chamber in which rumors reverberate louder than they would in even the most gossip-centric high school cafeteria — and the worst part is, here, the AV club kids are the bullies. So foodies, aspiring journalists, and internet memesters, copy judiciously, cite liberally,<sup id='fnref:7'><a href='#fn:7' rel='footnote'>7</a></sup> and <a href='http://ben.balter.com/contact/'>hire a good lawyer</a>.</p><p><em>Ed. Note: Journalism students, please make sure to pay attention in your media law class. Miss one lecture and this is what happens. On second thought, don&#8217;t go. The legal economy <a href='http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704866204575224350917718446.html'>is</a> <a href='http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/30/AR2010103004638.html?nav=hcmoduletmv'>bad</a> <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/26/business/26lawyers.html?_r=1'>enough</a> as it is — we need all the lawsuits we can get.</em></p><p><strong>Update (11/11):</strong> Final score: Internet, 1, Cooks Source, 0. It appears the Internet has beaten Cooks Source into submission. Cooks Source has sworn to never &#8220;be on Facebook again,&#8221; canceling its Facebook account and <a href='http://www.cookssource.com/'>taking down its Web site</a>, after <a href='http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=159332990768717&amp;set=a.159072834128066.23501.159072764128073'>hackers gained access</a>.<sup id='fnref:8'><a href='#fn:8' rel='footnote'>8</a></sup> Ironically, Cooks Source claims that their intellectual property rights were violated when <a href='http://www.facebook.com/album.php?aid=23582&amp;id=159072764128073'>copies of their most-recent issue</a> were posted online.<sup id='fnref:9'><a href='#fn:9' rel='footnote'>9</a></sup> They have made the donation Gaudio requested to the Columbia School of Journalism, as well as a contribution to a local food bank, also in her name <span>11</span>. Moral of the story? Whatever you do, <a href='http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=159300057438677&amp;set=a.159072834128066.23501.159072764128073&amp;pid=241073&amp;id=159072764128073'>don&#8217;t post statements in Comic Sans.</a></p><p><em>[Photo used under Creative Commons License courtesy</em><em><a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/belochkavita/244921874/'>belochkavita</a></em><em>]</em></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>17 USC § 102 (allowing for communication of works &#8220;with the aid of a machine or device&#8221;).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p><em>Feist Publications, Inc. vs. Rural Telephone Service Co.</em>, 499 U.S. 340 (1991) (establishing a three-part test for copyright protection).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p><a href='http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ1.pdf'><em>Copyright Basics</em></a>. U.S. Copyright Office (July 2008) (noting that for works created after the 1988 ratification of the <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berne_Convention_for_the_Protection_of_Literary_and_Artistic_Works'>Berne Convention</a>, copyright is assumed, thus neither notice nor registration is required to invoke protections).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>Edward Champion, <a href='http://www.edrants.com/the-cooks-source-scandal-how-a-magazine-profits-on-theft/'>The Cooks Source Scandal: How a Magazine Profits on Theft</a>.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:5'>\n<p><em>See generally</em><a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godwin&apos;s_law'>Goodwin&#8217;s Law</a>.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:5' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:6'>\n<p>Internet Justice (<em>n.</em>) – a form of justice only slightly less barbaric than the <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3hQC3nkftrk'>Thunderdome</a>.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:6' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:7'>\n<p><em>See generally supra notes</em> 1-7.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:7' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:8'>\n<p><a href='http://www.cookssource.com/'>Cooks Source Web site</a> (<em>Last accessed:</em>November 11, 2010).</p>\n<a href='#fnref:8' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:9'>\n<p><em>Id.</em></p>\n<a href='#fnref:9' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<h2 id='a_brief_look_at_the_imminent_cloudcomputing_storm_front'>A Brief Look at the Imminent Cloud-Computing Storm Front</h2><p>As one Hewlett-Packard chief executive recently put it, cloud computing &#8220;is the next generation of the internet.&#8221; <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> Whether you realize it or not, if you use services like Facebook or Gmail, your personal data already lives in &#8220;the cloud,&#8221; and the same transformative power that connects long-lost classmates at the click of a mouse can be harnessed by federal agencies to approach modern governance in incredibly powerful ways.</p><p><strong>What is Cloud Computing?</strong></p><p>Traditionally, when one thinks of computing power, he or she thinks of an on-site datacenter — a room filled with blinking lights and whirling fans — hardware, software, and data storage all within feet of the users they serve. <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> The traditional approach to computing generally entails complicated and expensive upgrade procedures scheduled on a semi-regular basis, as well as accommodating the increasing demand for backup and recovery redundancy necessary to reduce downtime should these system fails. <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> Such datacenters are often managed by their own departments, staffed with the specialized, technical administrators needed to maintain and ensure the day-to-day operation of these increasingly complex and increasingly mission-critical business resources. <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup></p><p>Seen as a virtually unlimited hardware and communications infrastructure managed by a third party-provider, cloud computing, on the other hand, allows for rapid increases in capacity without the need to invest in additional hardware, personnel, or software licensing. <sup id='fnref:5'><a href='#fn:5' rel='footnote'>5</a></sup> &#8220;As a customer, you don&#8217;t know where the resources are, and for the most part, you don&#8217;t care. What&#8217;s really important is the capability to access your application anywhere, move it freely and easily, and inexpensively add resources.&#8221; <sup id='fnref:6'><a href='#fn:6' rel='footnote'>6</a></sup> In simplest terms, the cloud uses an off-site service to store, transmit, and process information, and employs the Internet as the means to access that service. <sup id='fnref:7'><a href='#fn:7' rel='footnote'>7</a></sup></p><p><strong>How Cloud Computing Came About</strong></p><p>Several innovations fueled the shift toward computing in the cloud. First, the rise and adoption of both broadband Internet access, which allowed for reduced load times, and a programming technique known as AJAX, which allowed Web sites to look and feel more like desktop programs through a constant push-and-pull of information, combined to usher in a greater reliance on remote applications. <sup id='fnref:8'><a href='#fn:8' rel='footnote'>8</a></sup> At the same time the growth of enterprise data centers, and the public&#8217;s increasing comfort with Web 2.0 services like GMail and Facebook provided a technical and social infrastructure to support such a push. <sup id='fnref:9'><a href='#fn:9' rel='footnote'>9</a></sup></p><p>The biggest breakthrough, however, the core and true power behind cloud computing, came from the consolidation of physical servers through system virtualization. Through virtualization, one physical server can become the host to many virtual servers. <sup id='fnref:10'><a href='#fn:10' rel='footnote'>10</a></sup> Because the resources are dynamically allocated across physical servers as the virtual servers require them, the physical resources are used more efficiently. <sup id='fnref:11'><a href='#fn:11' rel='footnote'>11</a></sup> If server <em>A</em>, say an e-mail server like one may see in most corporate or government offices sees a sudden spike in activity, rather than slowing, it can borrow resources from server <em>B</em>, a Web site hosted on the same physical server. The user, unaware that this shift has even occurred, sees the two servers as discrete and unconnected despite their physical location.</p><p>The biggest implication however, is that computing resources can be provisioned and released on demand and as needed. <sup id='fnref:12'><a href='#fn:12' rel='footnote'>12</a></sup> If agency <em>X</em> is a government agency that requires a great deal of information to be processed at the close of the stock market each day, it can pay for five servers up until 3:59 each day, be charged solely for the increased processing power and storage it requires from 4:00 to 4:05, and can return to five server for the remainder of the day. Under a traditional approach, all 100 servers, for example, it required at its peak, would have to be operational 24 hours a day, with the necessary personnel and infrastructure to support it.</p><p><strong>Types of Cloud Computing</strong></p><p>Cloud computing exists in several forms today. The most basic, &#8220;infrastructure as a service&#8221; (IAAS), uses shared facilities, hardware, and networks to hold and move data. Customers, given virtual servers, may then install, configure, and utilize their own software freely. <sup id='fnref:13'><a href='#fn:13' rel='footnote'>13</a></sup> As indicated above, however, customers do not rent the physical servers (merely their equivalent processing power), and providers may move virtual servers between physical servers as necessary. <sup id='fnref:14'><a href='#fn:14' rel='footnote'>14</a></sup> Amazon&#8217;s EC2, S3, and CloudFront are prime examples of cloud computing, storage, and delivery respectively.</p><p>Second, and slightly more advanced, &#8220;platform as a service&#8221; (PAAS) allows providers to serve customers with a shared computing platform and software environment. The customer can upload software code in a predetermined programming language (such as Java or PHP) and the provider executes that code and returns the result. <sup id='fnref:15'><a href='#fn:15' rel='footnote'>15</a></sup> Google Apps Engine is a prime example of such an arrangement.</p><p>Finally, &#8220;software as a service&#8221; (SAAS) is most associated with Web-based consumer services such as Facebook or Flickr but can find application in business and government environments as well. The provider hosts software designed to perform a specific function, such as social networking or photo sharing, and the user interacts with that application being run on the provider&#8217;s server. <sup id='fnref:16'><a href='#fn:16' rel='footnote'>16</a></sup></p><p>One additional distinction among cloud services can be made. Each of the three approaches listed above can be hosted in either a public cloud, meaning one customer&#8217;s virtual servers may be freely intermingled with another customer&#8217;s among physical servers, or in a private cloud in which the physical servers, infrastructure, or datacenter may be entirely segregated from those used to provide services to other clients. <sup id='fnref:17'><a href='#fn:17' rel='footnote'>17</a></sup></p><p><strong>Implications of Cloud Computing</strong></p><p>Cloud computing has several implication for members of the government contracting community. First, inherent in the nature of cloud computing is the fact that one organization must trust a third party with its data, something which may have far-reaching ethical and legal implication depending on the type of data stored and the parties involved.</p><p>More broadly, when contracting for cloud services, organizations have several technical aspects to take into account. From a security standpoint, customers should evaluate data encryption (can others access my data?), physical security (can others access the datacenter?), and provider viability (will the service be around in ten years?). From a data integrity standpoint, those looking to enter the cloud should inquire as to data locality (is my data being hosted outside the United States?), data portability (what happens if I want to leave the service?), and redundancy (what happens if there is a natural disaster near their data center?). Finally, from a legal perspective, customers should evaluate terms of service, privacy policies, and service level (uptime) agreements. <sup id='fnref:18'><a href='#fn:18' rel='footnote'>18</a></sup></p><p><strong>How to Get Into the Cloud</strong></p><p>Several avenues exist for organizations looking to experiment with the cloud. For federal agencies, the General Service Administration, through Apps.gov, will soon be rolling out a Federal private cloud. While the specifics have not yet been announced, this service is expected to provide federal agencies with storage, virtual machine, and Web hosting services at a relatively low cost. <sup id='fnref:19'><a href='#fn:19' rel='footnote'>19</a></sup> Some of this service&#8217;s potential has already been hinted at by the recent launch of Apps.Gov NOW, a hosted service that provides federal agencies with out-of-the-box blogs (Web site publishing platforms), Wikis (Web sites editable by members of a community), and online bulletin boards (Web sites to facilitate online discussions), all at no cost. <sup id='fnref:20'><a href='#fn:20' rel='footnote'>20</a></sup></p><p>Second, many federal Web sites such as the Federal Communications Commission and Recovery.Gov are in the process of seeking or have already sought third-party cloud hosting services likes Amazon Web Services (AWS) as mentioned above. <sup id='fnref:21'><a href='#fn:21' rel='footnote'>21</a></sup> Federal agencies opting for such a route must be sure to work closely with the appropriate parties to ensure, federal IT security standards are met, such as FISMA <sup id='fnref:22'><a href='#fn:22' rel='footnote'>22</a></sup> requirements, or that record retention standards are met, for example, where data stored in the cloud constitutes a system of records under the privacy act. <sup id='fnref:23'><a href='#fn:23' rel='footnote'>23</a></sup></p><p>Finally, earlier this summer, Google announced FISMA moderate certification of its Google Apps for Government data centers, providing mail, calendar, document, video, and Web hosting services to Federal agencies in a private cloud hosted entirely within the United States. <sup id='fnref:24'><a href='#fn:24' rel='footnote'>24</a></sup> Agencies wishing to contract their traditional IT infrastructure out to Google can do so for as low as $50 per user per year, however, such savings may come at a cost. Special attention must be paid to the risks associated with trusting a third-party with what may potentially be an agency&#8217;s most sensitive data.</p><p>Whether a federal contracting officer or a provider of IT services, just as the Internet has revolutionized countless aspects of every day life, it is clear that so too will the emerging cloud computing front forever shape the contours of Federal IT procurement in the years to come.</p><p><em>This article originally published in the <a href='http://www.fedbar.org/Sections/Government-Contracts-Section/Newsletters.aspx'>Federal Bar Association Government Contracts Section</a> <a href='http://www.fedbar.org/Sections/Government-Contracts-Section/Newsletters/Fall-2010.aspx?FT=.pdf'>Fall 2010 Newsletter</a> (PDF, p. 6).&lt;/p&gt; Notes:</em></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>Stephen Lawson, <em>Cloud is Internet&#8217;s Next Generation, HP Executive Says</em>, InfoWorld, June 25, 2009, http://www.infoworld.com/d/cloud-computing/cloud-internets-next-generation-hp-executive-says-120 (quoting HP CTO Russ Daniels). <span>27</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p><em>See Generally</em>Jack Newton, <em>Putting Your Practice in the Cloud a Pre-Flight Checklist</em>, 73 Tex. B.J. 632 (2010). <span>28</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p><em>See</em> Mark H. Wittow, Daniel J. Buller, <em>Cloud Computing: Emerging Legal Issues for Access to Data, Anywhere, Anytime,</em> 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010). <span>29</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>30</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:5'>\n<p>Wittow, 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010). <span>31</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:5' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:6'>\n<p>J. Nicholas Hoover, <em>Interop: Oracle Predicts Cloud Confusion to Continue</em>, InformationWeek, Sept. 17, 2008, http:// www.informationweek.com/news/services/hosted_apps/showArticle.jhtml? articlelD=210602225. <span>32</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:6' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:7'>\n<p>Peter M. Lefkowitz, <em>Contracting in the Cloud: A Primer,</em> Boston B.J., Summer 2010, at 9. <span>33</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:7' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:8'>\n<p>Dennis Kennedy, <em>Working in the Cloud Tips on Success with Online Software Services</em>, ABA J., August 2009, at 31. <span>34</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:8' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:9'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>35</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:9' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:10'>\n<p>Wittow, 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010). <span>36</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:10' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:11'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>37</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:11' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:12'>\n<p>Peter Mell and Tim Grance, <em>Definition of Cloud Computing</em>, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Information Technology Laboratory, October 7, 2009, http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/cloud-def-v15.doc. <span>38</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:12' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:13'>\n<p>Lefkowitz, Boston B.J., Summer 2010, at 9. <span>39</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:13' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:14'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>40</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:14' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:15'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>41</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:15' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:16'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>42</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:16' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:17'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>43</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:17' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:18'>\n<p>Newton, 73 Tex. B.J. 632. <span>44</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:18' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:19'>\n<p>Cloud IT Services, Apps.Gov, https://www.apps.gov/cloud/advantage/cloud/category_home.do (last visited* <em>October 5, 2010). <span>45</span></em></p>\n<a href='#fnref:19' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:20'>\n<p>Apps.Gov Now, General Services Administration, <a href='http://citizen.apps.gov/'>http://citizen.apps.gov/</a> (last visited October 12, 2015). <span>46</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:20' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:21'>\n<p>Cloud Services, Federal Business Opportunities, https://www.fbo.gov/index?s=opportunity&amp;mode=form&amp;id=d63c725d5a3006919289698350e3d4b3&amp;tab=core&amp;_cview=1 (last visited October 5, 2010); J. Nicholas Hoover, <em>Recovert.Gov Moved to Amazon Cloud</em>, Information Week, May 12, 2010, http://www.informationweek.com/news/government/cloud-saas/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=224701861. <span>47</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:21' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:22'>\n<p>Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002. <span>48</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:22' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:23'>\n<p>5 U.S.C.A. § 552a (West). <span>49</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:23' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:24'>\n<p>Google Apps for Government, Official Google Enterprise Blog, July 26, 2010, http://googleenterprise.blogspot.com/2010/07/google-apps-for-government.html. <span>50</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:24' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/","title":"WordPress Resume Plugin"},{"url":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party/","title":"New Media Flak: Megaphone vs. Cocktail Party"},{"url":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/","title":"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?"},{"url":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility/","title":"Removing the Barriers to Organizational Agility\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing/","title":"What Fourteen-Century Apple Pie Teaches Us About Sharing\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it/","title":"Free Trade in China? Just Google it."},{"url":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/","title":"Twitter Mentions as Comments WordPress Plugin\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes/","title":"The Internet is Series of Tubes (oh, and Tollgates too)\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/","title":"Late-Night Infomercials: Guaranteed to Extend the 4th Amendment or Your Money Back"},{"url":"/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer/","title":"The Files \"in\" the Computer -- Zoolander and the California Supreme Court"}]}
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-{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"Free Trade in China? Just Google it.","excerpt":"As the internet is increasingly becoming the dominant instrument of commerce, blocking access to information is tantamount to blocking access to trade, as Google argues in their recently released white paper calling out China, among others for violating WTO commitments.\n","layout":"post","category":["Business","Technology"],"tags":["censorship","china","e-commerce","google"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it/","date":"2010-11-29 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it","categories":[["Business","Technology"]],"next":"Twitter Mentions as Comments does exactly what it promises to do – scours Twitter for people talking about your blog posts and silently inserts their Tweets alongside your existing comments. The plugin leverages the power of WordPress's built-in commenting system – notification, comment moderation, author white/black listing – making Twitter an extension of your blog.\n\n**Features**\n\n* Searches for Tweets linking to your blog posts, regardless of the URL shortener used (using Twitter's Search API)\n* Pushes Tweets into WordPress's existing comment workflow – notifications, comment moderation, and author whitelists/blacklists work just like any other comment\n* Fetches user's real name and profile picture and links directly to the original Tweet\n* Checks automatically – no need to do a thing\n* Option to automatically exclude ReTweets\n* Option to store tweets as trackbacks/B\n* Option to specify which posts to check (e.g., 10 most recent posts, all posts, front page only)\n* Smart Caching of Tweets and user data – retrieves only what it needs to save on API calls and server load\n\n**Planned Features**\n\n* Dynamic resizing of Twitter profile images to fit WordPress theme\n* Prioritization of newer posts\n* Oauth Authentication to raise API limit (currently unlimited Tweets, but limited to 150 *new* comment authors per hour)\n* Smarter API throttling\n\nThe plugin is available in the [WordPress plugin repository][1], and you can see it in action [below][2] or on the [WP Resume plugin page][3].\n\n**Looking to filter out a particular user or keyword? ** Because Tweets go through the normal comment filter, you can just [blacklist them as described below][4].\n\n*Enjoy using Twitter Mentions as Comments? Feel free to [make a small donation][5] to support the software's continued development.*\n\n**Update (7/8): Comments have been closed in favor of [expanded support and discussion options][6]. Additional documentation about the project can now be found in the [Project Wiki][7]. If you are interested in joining the project at any level of technical expertise, please see [How to Contribute][8].**\n\n [1]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/twitter-mentions-as-comments/\n [2]: #comments\n [3]: http://ben.balter.com/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/#comment-168\n [4]: http://ben.balter.com/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/#comment-246\n [5]: http://ben.balter.com/donate/ \"Donate\"\n [6]: https://github.com/benbalter/Twitter-Mentions-as-Comments/wiki/Where-to-get-Support-or-Report-an-Issue\n [7]: https://github.com/benbalter/Twitter-Mentions-as-Comments/wiki\n [8]: https://github.com/benbalter/Twitter-Mentions-as-Comments/wiki/How-to-Contribute","previous":"<h2 id='a_brief_look_at_the_imminent_cloudcomputing_storm_front'>A Brief Look at the Imminent Cloud-Computing Storm Front</h2><p>As one Hewlett-Packard chief executive recently put it, cloud computing &#8220;is the next generation of the internet.&#8221; <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> Whether you realize it or not, if you use services like Facebook or Gmail, your personal data already lives in &#8220;the cloud,&#8221; and the same transformative power that connects long-lost classmates at the click of a mouse can be harnessed by federal agencies to approach modern governance in incredibly powerful ways.</p><p><strong>What is Cloud Computing?</strong></p><p>Traditionally, when one thinks of computing power, he or she thinks of an on-site datacenter — a room filled with blinking lights and whirling fans — hardware, software, and data storage all within feet of the users they serve. <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> The traditional approach to computing generally entails complicated and expensive upgrade procedures scheduled on a semi-regular basis, as well as accommodating the increasing demand for backup and recovery redundancy necessary to reduce downtime should these system fails. <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> Such datacenters are often managed by their own departments, staffed with the specialized, technical administrators needed to maintain and ensure the day-to-day operation of these increasingly complex and increasingly mission-critical business resources. <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup></p><p>Seen as a virtually unlimited hardware and communications infrastructure managed by a third party-provider, cloud computing, on the other hand, allows for rapid increases in capacity without the need to invest in additional hardware, personnel, or software licensing. <sup id='fnref:5'><a href='#fn:5' rel='footnote'>5</a></sup> &#8220;As a customer, you don&#8217;t know where the resources are, and for the most part, you don&#8217;t care. What&#8217;s really important is the capability to access your application anywhere, move it freely and easily, and inexpensively add resources.&#8221; <sup id='fnref:6'><a href='#fn:6' rel='footnote'>6</a></sup> In simplest terms, the cloud uses an off-site service to store, transmit, and process information, and employs the Internet as the means to access that service. <sup id='fnref:7'><a href='#fn:7' rel='footnote'>7</a></sup></p><p><strong>How Cloud Computing Came About</strong></p><p>Several innovations fueled the shift toward computing in the cloud. First, the rise and adoption of both broadband Internet access, which allowed for reduced load times, and a programming technique known as AJAX, which allowed Web sites to look and feel more like desktop programs through a constant push-and-pull of information, combined to usher in a greater reliance on remote applications. <sup id='fnref:8'><a href='#fn:8' rel='footnote'>8</a></sup> At the same time the growth of enterprise data centers, and the public&#8217;s increasing comfort with Web 2.0 services like GMail and Facebook provided a technical and social infrastructure to support such a push. <sup id='fnref:9'><a href='#fn:9' rel='footnote'>9</a></sup></p><p>The biggest breakthrough, however, the core and true power behind cloud computing, came from the consolidation of physical servers through system virtualization. Through virtualization, one physical server can become the host to many virtual servers. <sup id='fnref:10'><a href='#fn:10' rel='footnote'>10</a></sup> Because the resources are dynamically allocated across physical servers as the virtual servers require them, the physical resources are used more efficiently. <sup id='fnref:11'><a href='#fn:11' rel='footnote'>11</a></sup> If server <em>A</em>, say an e-mail server like one may see in most corporate or government offices sees a sudden spike in activity, rather than slowing, it can borrow resources from server <em>B</em>, a Web site hosted on the same physical server. The user, unaware that this shift has even occurred, sees the two servers as discrete and unconnected despite their physical location.</p><p>The biggest implication however, is that computing resources can be provisioned and released on demand and as needed. <sup id='fnref:12'><a href='#fn:12' rel='footnote'>12</a></sup> If agency <em>X</em> is a government agency that requires a great deal of information to be processed at the close of the stock market each day, it can pay for five servers up until 3:59 each day, be charged solely for the increased processing power and storage it requires from 4:00 to 4:05, and can return to five server for the remainder of the day. Under a traditional approach, all 100 servers, for example, it required at its peak, would have to be operational 24 hours a day, with the necessary personnel and infrastructure to support it.</p><p><strong>Types of Cloud Computing</strong></p><p>Cloud computing exists in several forms today. The most basic, &#8220;infrastructure as a service&#8221; (IAAS), uses shared facilities, hardware, and networks to hold and move data. Customers, given virtual servers, may then install, configure, and utilize their own software freely. <sup id='fnref:13'><a href='#fn:13' rel='footnote'>13</a></sup> As indicated above, however, customers do not rent the physical servers (merely their equivalent processing power), and providers may move virtual servers between physical servers as necessary. <sup id='fnref:14'><a href='#fn:14' rel='footnote'>14</a></sup> Amazon&#8217;s EC2, S3, and CloudFront are prime examples of cloud computing, storage, and delivery respectively.</p><p>Second, and slightly more advanced, &#8220;platform as a service&#8221; (PAAS) allows providers to serve customers with a shared computing platform and software environment. The customer can upload software code in a predetermined programming language (such as Java or PHP) and the provider executes that code and returns the result. <sup id='fnref:15'><a href='#fn:15' rel='footnote'>15</a></sup> Google Apps Engine is a prime example of such an arrangement.</p><p>Finally, &#8220;software as a service&#8221; (SAAS) is most associated with Web-based consumer services such as Facebook or Flickr but can find application in business and government environments as well. The provider hosts software designed to perform a specific function, such as social networking or photo sharing, and the user interacts with that application being run on the provider&#8217;s server. <sup id='fnref:16'><a href='#fn:16' rel='footnote'>16</a></sup></p><p>One additional distinction among cloud services can be made. Each of the three approaches listed above can be hosted in either a public cloud, meaning one customer&#8217;s virtual servers may be freely intermingled with another customer&#8217;s among physical servers, or in a private cloud in which the physical servers, infrastructure, or datacenter may be entirely segregated from those used to provide services to other clients. <sup id='fnref:17'><a href='#fn:17' rel='footnote'>17</a></sup></p><p><strong>Implications of Cloud Computing</strong></p><p>Cloud computing has several implication for members of the government contracting community. First, inherent in the nature of cloud computing is the fact that one organization must trust a third party with its data, something which may have far-reaching ethical and legal implication depending on the type of data stored and the parties involved.</p><p>More broadly, when contracting for cloud services, organizations have several technical aspects to take into account. From a security standpoint, customers should evaluate data encryption (can others access my data?), physical security (can others access the datacenter?), and provider viability (will the service be around in ten years?). From a data integrity standpoint, those looking to enter the cloud should inquire as to data locality (is my data being hosted outside the United States?), data portability (what happens if I want to leave the service?), and redundancy (what happens if there is a natural disaster near their data center?). Finally, from a legal perspective, customers should evaluate terms of service, privacy policies, and service level (uptime) agreements. <sup id='fnref:18'><a href='#fn:18' rel='footnote'>18</a></sup></p><p><strong>How to Get Into the Cloud</strong></p><p>Several avenues exist for organizations looking to experiment with the cloud. For federal agencies, the General Service Administration, through Apps.gov, will soon be rolling out a Federal private cloud. While the specifics have not yet been announced, this service is expected to provide federal agencies with storage, virtual machine, and Web hosting services at a relatively low cost. <sup id='fnref:19'><a href='#fn:19' rel='footnote'>19</a></sup> Some of this service&#8217;s potential has already been hinted at by the recent launch of Apps.Gov NOW, a hosted service that provides federal agencies with out-of-the-box blogs (Web site publishing platforms), Wikis (Web sites editable by members of a community), and online bulletin boards (Web sites to facilitate online discussions), all at no cost. <sup id='fnref:20'><a href='#fn:20' rel='footnote'>20</a></sup></p><p>Second, many federal Web sites such as the Federal Communications Commission and Recovery.Gov are in the process of seeking or have already sought third-party cloud hosting services likes Amazon Web Services (AWS) as mentioned above. <sup id='fnref:21'><a href='#fn:21' rel='footnote'>21</a></sup> Federal agencies opting for such a route must be sure to work closely with the appropriate parties to ensure, federal IT security standards are met, such as FISMA <sup id='fnref:22'><a href='#fn:22' rel='footnote'>22</a></sup> requirements, or that record retention standards are met, for example, where data stored in the cloud constitutes a system of records under the privacy act. <sup id='fnref:23'><a href='#fn:23' rel='footnote'>23</a></sup></p><p>Finally, earlier this summer, Google announced FISMA moderate certification of its Google Apps for Government data centers, providing mail, calendar, document, video, and Web hosting services to Federal agencies in a private cloud hosted entirely within the United States. <sup id='fnref:24'><a href='#fn:24' rel='footnote'>24</a></sup> Agencies wishing to contract their traditional IT infrastructure out to Google can do so for as low as $50 per user per year, however, such savings may come at a cost. Special attention must be paid to the risks associated with trusting a third-party with what may potentially be an agency&#8217;s most sensitive data.</p><p>Whether a federal contracting officer or a provider of IT services, just as the Internet has revolutionized countless aspects of every day life, it is clear that so too will the emerging cloud computing front forever shape the contours of Federal IT procurement in the years to come.</p><p><em>This article originally published in the <a href='http://www.fedbar.org/Sections/Government-Contracts-Section/Newsletters.aspx'>Federal Bar Association Government Contracts Section</a> <a href='http://www.fedbar.org/Sections/Government-Contracts-Section/Newsletters/Fall-2010.aspx?FT=.pdf'>Fall 2010 Newsletter</a> (PDF, p. 6).&lt;/p&gt; Notes:</em></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>Stephen Lawson, <em>Cloud is Internet&#8217;s Next Generation, HP Executive Says</em>, InfoWorld, June 25, 2009, http://www.infoworld.com/d/cloud-computing/cloud-internets-next-generation-hp-executive-says-120 (quoting HP CTO Russ Daniels). <span>27</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p><em>See Generally</em>Jack Newton, <em>Putting Your Practice in the Cloud a Pre-Flight Checklist</em>, 73 Tex. B.J. 632 (2010). <span>28</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p><em>See</em> Mark H. Wittow, Daniel J. Buller, <em>Cloud Computing: Emerging Legal Issues for Access to Data, Anywhere, Anytime,</em> 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010). <span>29</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>30</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:5'>\n<p>Wittow, 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010). <span>31</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:5' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:6'>\n<p>J. Nicholas Hoover, <em>Interop: Oracle Predicts Cloud Confusion to Continue</em>, InformationWeek, Sept. 17, 2008, http:// www.informationweek.com/news/services/hosted_apps/showArticle.jhtml? articlelD=210602225. <span>32</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:6' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:7'>\n<p>Peter M. Lefkowitz, <em>Contracting in the Cloud: A Primer,</em> Boston B.J., Summer 2010, at 9. <span>33</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:7' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:8'>\n<p>Dennis Kennedy, <em>Working in the Cloud Tips on Success with Online Software Services</em>, ABA J., August 2009, at 31. <span>34</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:8' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:9'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>35</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:9' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:10'>\n<p>Wittow, 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010). <span>36</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:10' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:11'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>37</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:11' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:12'>\n<p>Peter Mell and Tim Grance, <em>Definition of Cloud Computing</em>, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Information Technology Laboratory, October 7, 2009, http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/cloud-def-v15.doc. <span>38</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:12' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:13'>\n<p>Lefkowitz, Boston B.J., Summer 2010, at 9. <span>39</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:13' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:14'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>40</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:14' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:15'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>41</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:15' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:16'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>42</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:16' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:17'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>43</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:17' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:18'>\n<p>Newton, 73 Tex. B.J. 632. <span>44</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:18' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:19'>\n<p>Cloud IT Services, Apps.Gov, https://www.apps.gov/cloud/advantage/cloud/category_home.do (last visited* <em>October 5, 2010). <span>45</span></em></p>\n<a href='#fnref:19' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:20'>\n<p>Apps.Gov Now, General Services Administration, <a href='http://citizen.apps.gov/'>http://citizen.apps.gov/</a> (last visited October 12, 2015). <span>46</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:20' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:21'>\n<p>Cloud Services, Federal Business Opportunities, https://www.fbo.gov/index?s=opportunity&amp;mode=form&amp;id=d63c725d5a3006919289698350e3d4b3&amp;tab=core&amp;_cview=1 (last visited October 5, 2010); J. Nicholas Hoover, <em>Recovert.Gov Moved to Amazon Cloud</em>, Information Week, May 12, 2010, http://www.informationweek.com/news/government/cloud-saas/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=224701861. <span>47</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:21' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:22'>\n<p>Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002. <span>48</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:22' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:23'>\n<p>5 U.S.C.A. § 552a (West). <span>49</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:23' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:24'>\n<p>Google Apps for Government, Official Google Enterprise Blog, July 26, 2010, http://googleenterprise.blogspot.com/2010/07/google-apps-for-government.html. <span>50</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:24' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p>In 593 A.D., the first printing press quietly spun into operation in China. Exactly 120 years later, the first paper, <em>Kaiyuan Za Bao</em>, began production in Beijing. <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> In 2010, however, China&#8217;s information landscape is best characterized not by innovation, but rather by tightly controlled government restriction, and no American corporation is more acutely aware of this austere reality than Internet giant Google. The company <a href='http://googlepublicpolicy.blogspot.com/2010/11/promoting-free-trade-for-internet.html'>recently released</a> a <a href='http://www.google.com/googleblogs/pdfs/trade_free_flow_of_information.pdf'>white paper</a> calling out China, among others for violating WTO commitments and urged law makers to break down barriers to free trade and global e-commerce.</p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/1194563275_664d6b15e2_b.jpg' /></p><p>The argument is simple: As the internet is increasingly becoming the dominant instrument of industry, blocking access to information is tantamount to blocking access to trade.</p><p>The white paper elaborates:</p><blockquote>\n<p>The tremendous spread of the Internet – faster than the spread of any previous technology – has also created new, rapidly expanding markets. Online traffic has increased at a compound annual growth rate of 66 percent over the past five years. <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> Today more than one-quarter of the world&#8217;s population (1.7 billion people) uses this technology to communicate, inform, create, and buy and sell across borders. <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> These 1.7 billion Internet users are a massive new consumer base for both Internet services like email and the hard goods and services that are increasingly advertised, marketed, or sold online…</p>\n\n<p>Annual internet-based commerce worldwide is expected to soon reach $1 trillion. <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup>In the United States alone, online retail sales were over $132 billion in 2008. <sup id='fnref:5'><a href='#fn:5' rel='footnote'>5</a></sup> Globally, Internet and telecom services contributed 3.3 percent of GDP in 2004, compared with 1.8 percent in 1990, with virtually every single economy enjoying growth in the sector. <sup id='fnref:6'><a href='#fn:6' rel='footnote'>6</a></sup></p>\n</blockquote><p>The commercialization of the internet and subsequent clash with government restriction is nothing new. US-based information technology companies have been doing business in China with relative success for quite some time. Yahoo!, Inc. was the first to enter the fray in 1998, launching a Chinese-language version of its popular search engine to compete with China&#8217;s domestic Internet content providers, and not long after, Microsoft and Google followed suit. <sup id='fnref:7'><a href='#fn:7' rel='footnote'>7</a></sup> However, in 2000, China&#8217;s Ministry of Public Service began the Golden Shield Project with the goal of &#8220;adopt<span>ing</span>… advanced information and communication technology to strengthen central police control, responsiveness, and crime combating capacity to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of police work. <sup id='fnref:8'><a href='#fn:8' rel='footnote'>8</a></sup>&#8221;</p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/4273568581_3c4db9799d_z-300x238.jpg' />A prime example of such restriction came in Fall 2002, as Google employees were booting up their Mountain View, California computers to angry emails informing them that the search engine was entirely unavailable to Chinese citizens. <sup id='fnref:9'><a href='#fn:9' rel='footnote'>9</a></sup> Even when users could access Google.com, the Web site was slow, often cases, inoperably so when compared to Google&#8217;s censored competitors. <sup id='fnref:10'><a href='#fn:10' rel='footnote'>10</a></sup> As Google&#8217;s Senior Policy Council, Andrew McLaughlin, noted, &#8220;Google.com appears to be down around 10 percent of the time,&#8221; adding, &#8221;<span>e</span>ven when users can reach it, the website is slow, and sometimes produces results that… stall out the user&#8217;s browser. <sup id='fnref:11'><a href='#fn:11' rel='footnote'>11</a></sup>&#8221;</p><p>So why do we care if a handful of countries do not enjoy unfettered access to American e-commerce? According to the China Internet Network Information Center, the Chinese market represents some 123 million Internet users. <sup id='fnref:12'><a href='#fn:12' rel='footnote'>12</a></sup> The Internet far surpassed television, newspapers, magazines, and radio as the primary source for information among the Chinese people. <sup id='fnref:13'><a href='#fn:13' rel='footnote'>13</a></sup> As a result, today, the People&#8217;s Republic represents the largest emerging Internet market in the world. Baidu.com, for example, the Chinese-based search engine, enjoyed only 2.5% of the search market in 2003, but boasted 46% by 2005, while during that same time, Google&#8217;s market share in China dropped some 30% and continued to fall. <sup id='fnref:14'><a href='#fn:14' rel='footnote'>14</a></sup></p><p>The implications are clear. The fastest, most powerful commercial vehicle the world has ever seen is unavailable to its largest emerging market. To put it another way, countries that censor internet traffic are blocking the 21st century&#8217;s busiest trade ports. It would be as if merchant ships in the 1500′s, full of goods from the New World, made their way back to Europe only to be turned away. Even in a post-dot-com-bubble world, with nearly ubiquitous free shipping, cyber Mondays, and an app store for everything from your phone to your toaster, it is not hard to imagine that the internet will soon become the dominant mechanism of international trade, if it has not earned such a title already. Today, one thing is certain: As the domestic e-commerce market reaches saturation, American firms will continue to seek out opportunities abroad despite censorship and restrictions. <sup id='fnref:15'><a href='#fn:15' rel='footnote'>15</a></sup> Their level of success, however, and the level of access available to users in the countries cited in the white paper, if any, remains to be seen.</p><p><span>Photos courtesy <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/stuckincustoms/1194563275/'>stuckincustoms</a> and <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/winterkanal/4273568581/'>winterkanal</a></span></p><p>Notes:</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>Gardels, Nathan, <em>Google vs. Confucius</em>, 27 New Perspective Quarterly 2 (May 2010), at 2. <span>22</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>Fed. Commc&#8217;ns Comm&#8217;n <span>FCC</span>, Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan ch. 4 (2010). <span>23</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>Miniwatts, <a href='http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm'>Internet World Stats,</a><em><a href='http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm'>Internet World Users by Language: Top Ten Languages</a></em>(chart) (Sept. 30, 2009); Int&#8217;l Telecomm. Union <span>ITU</span>, <a href='http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/material/Telecom09_flyer.pdf'><em>The World in 2009: ICT Facts and Figures</em>1</a> (2009). The total number of fixed broadband subscribers reached nearly 500 million by the end of 2009. <em>Id.</em>at 5. <span>26</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>Brian Hindley &amp; Hosuk Lee-Makiyama, <em><a href='http://ecipe.org/publications/ecipe-working-papers/protectionism-online-'><em>Protectionism Online: Internet Censorship and International Trade Law</em></a></em>3 (ECIPE, Working Paper No. 12/2009). <span>28</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:5'>\n<p>U.S. Census Bureau, <em><a href='http://www.census.gov/mrts/www/data/html/09Q1table3.html'>Estimated Quarterly U.S. Retail Sales (Adjusted): Total and E-commerce (chart)</a></em> (May 15, 2009). <span>30</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:5' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:6'>\n<p>Int&#8217;l Telecomm. Union <span>ITU</span>, <a href='http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/publications/digitalife/docs/digital-life-web.pdf'><em>digital.life: ITU Internet Report 2006</em></a> 73 (2006). <span>32</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:6' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:7'>\n<p>Marc D. Nawyn, <em>Code Red: Responding to the Moral Hazards Facing U.S. Information Technology Companies in China</em>, 2007 Colum. Bus. L. Rev. 505 (2007). <span>33</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:7' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:8'>\n<p>Greg Walton, <em><a href='http://'>China&#8217;s Golden Shield: Corporations and the Development of Surveillance Technology in the People&#8217;s Republic of China</a></em>, Rights &amp; Democracy, 2001; <em>See</em> Jennifer Shyu, <em>Speak No Evil: Circumventing Chinese Censorship</em>, 45 San Diego L. Rev. 211, 249 (2008). <span>35</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:8' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:9'>\n<p>Testimony of Google, Inc. before the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, and the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Human Rights, and International Operations, Committee on International Relations, 207th Cong. (2006) (statement of Elliot Schrage, Vice President, Global Communications and Public Affairs, Google, Inc.). <span>36</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:9' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:10'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>37</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:10' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:11'>\n<p><a href='http://Googleblog.blogspot.com/2006/01/Google-in-china.html'>Google in China</a>, Google Official Blog, January 27, 2006. <span>39</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:11' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:12'>\n<p>Lindsay Eastwood, <em>&#8220;Don&#8217;t Be Evil&#8221;: Google Faces the Chinese Internet Market and the Global Online Freedom Act of 2007</em>, 9 Minn. J.L. Sci. &amp; Tech. 287, 288 (2008) (citing China Internet Network Info. Ctr., <a href='http://cnnic.cn/download/2006/18threport-en.pdf'>18th Statistical Survey Report on the Internet Development in China</a>, 3 (2006). <span>41</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:12' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:13'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> at n. 30 (stating &#8220;the main channel that obtain information are the Internet (82.6%), television (64.5%), papers (57.9%), magazines (18.8%), books (18.7%), radio (14.4%), and other (6.9%)&#8221;) (internal quotations omitted). <span>42</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:13' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:14'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>43</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:14' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:15'>\n<p><em>E.g.,</em> Google&#8217;s decision to enter China, and subsequently censor search results, was primarily based on the premise that it was the lesser of two evils. Google CEO Eric Schmidt commented, &#8220;although we weren&#8217;t wild about the restrictions, it was even worse to not try to serve those users at all,&#8221; elaborating, &#8220;we actually did an evil scale and decided not to serve at all was worse evil.&#8221; Shyu, <em>Supra</em> note 8 at 213 (citing Danny Sullivan, <em><a href='http://blog.searchenginewatch.com/blog/060130-154414'>Google Created EvilRank Scale To Decide On Chinese Censorship</a></em>, Search Engine Watch, January 30, 2006. Accordingly, Google launched Google.cn under the belief that the &#8220;benefits of increased access to information for people in China… outweighed <span>the</span> discomfort… <span>of</span> agreeing to censor some results,&#8221; (<a href='http://Googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/01/new-approach-to-china.html'><em>A New Approach to China</em></a>, Official Google Blog, January 12, 2010) calling their service a &#8220;a meaningful – though imperfect – contribution to the overall expansion of… information in China.&#8221; Press Release, Google, Inc., <a href='http://www.Google.com/press/pressrel/rd_china.html'><em>Google to Open Research Center in China</em></a> (July 19, 2005). <span>47</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:15' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/about/","title":"About"},{"url":"/contact/","title":"Contact"},{"url":"/donate/","title":"Donate"},{"url":"/fine-print/","title":"Fine Print"},{"url":"/resume/","title":"Resume"},{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"}]}
+{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"Free Trade in China? Just Google it.","excerpt":"As the internet is increasingly becoming the dominant instrument of commerce, blocking access to information is tantamount to blocking access to trade, as Google argues in their recently released white paper calling out China, among others for violating WTO commitments.\n","layout":"post","category":["Business","Technology"],"tags":["censorship","china","e-commerce","google"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it/","date":"2010-11-29 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it","categories":[["Business","Technology"]],"next":"Twitter Mentions as Comments does exactly what it promises to do – scours Twitter for people talking about your blog posts and silently inserts their Tweets alongside your existing comments. The plugin leverages the power of WordPress's built-in commenting system – notification, comment moderation, author white/black listing – making Twitter an extension of your blog.\n\n**Features**\n\n* Searches for Tweets linking to your blog posts, regardless of the URL shortener used (using Twitter's Search API)\n* Pushes Tweets into WordPress's existing comment workflow – notifications, comment moderation, and author whitelists/blacklists work just like any other comment\n* Fetches user's real name and profile picture and links directly to the original Tweet\n* Checks automatically – no need to do a thing\n* Option to automatically exclude ReTweets\n* Option to store tweets as trackbacks/B\n* Option to specify which posts to check (e.g., 10 most recent posts, all posts, front page only)\n* Smart Caching of Tweets and user data – retrieves only what it needs to save on API calls and server load\n\n**Planned Features**\n\n* Dynamic resizing of Twitter profile images to fit WordPress theme\n* Prioritization of newer posts\n* Oauth Authentication to raise API limit (currently unlimited Tweets, but limited to 150 *new* comment authors per hour)\n* Smarter API throttling\n\nThe plugin is available in the [WordPress plugin repository][1], and you can see it in action [below][2] or on the [WP Resume plugin page][3].\n\n**Looking to filter out a particular user or keyword? ** Because Tweets go through the normal comment filter, you can just [blacklist them as described below][4].\n\n*Enjoy using Twitter Mentions as Comments? Feel free to [make a small donation][5] to support the software's continued development.*\n\n**Update (7/8): Comments have been closed in favor of [expanded support and discussion options][6]. Additional documentation about the project can now be found in the [Project Wiki][7]. If you are interested in joining the project at any level of technical expertise, please see [How to Contribute][8].**\n\n [1]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/twitter-mentions-as-comments/\n [2]: #comments\n [3]: http://ben.balter.com/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/#comment-168\n [4]: http://ben.balter.com/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/#comment-246\n [5]: http://ben.balter.com/donate/ \"Donate\"\n [6]: https://github.com/benbalter/Twitter-Mentions-as-Comments/wiki/Where-to-get-Support-or-Report-an-Issue\n [7]: https://github.com/benbalter/Twitter-Mentions-as-Comments/wiki\n [8]: https://github.com/benbalter/Twitter-Mentions-as-Comments/wiki/How-to-Contribute","previous":"<h2 id='a_brief_look_at_the_imminent_cloudcomputing_storm_front'>A Brief Look at the Imminent Cloud-Computing Storm Front</h2><p>As one Hewlett-Packard chief executive recently put it, cloud computing &#8220;is the next generation of the internet.&#8221; <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> Whether you realize it or not, if you use services like Facebook or Gmail, your personal data already lives in &#8220;the cloud,&#8221; and the same transformative power that connects long-lost classmates at the click of a mouse can be harnessed by federal agencies to approach modern governance in incredibly powerful ways.</p><p><strong>What is Cloud Computing?</strong></p><p>Traditionally, when one thinks of computing power, he or she thinks of an on-site datacenter — a room filled with blinking lights and whirling fans — hardware, software, and data storage all within feet of the users they serve. <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> The traditional approach to computing generally entails complicated and expensive upgrade procedures scheduled on a semi-regular basis, as well as accommodating the increasing demand for backup and recovery redundancy necessary to reduce downtime should these system fails. <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> Such datacenters are often managed by their own departments, staffed with the specialized, technical administrators needed to maintain and ensure the day-to-day operation of these increasingly complex and increasingly mission-critical business resources. <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup></p><p>Seen as a virtually unlimited hardware and communications infrastructure managed by a third party-provider, cloud computing, on the other hand, allows for rapid increases in capacity without the need to invest in additional hardware, personnel, or software licensing. <sup id='fnref:5'><a href='#fn:5' rel='footnote'>5</a></sup> &#8220;As a customer, you don&#8217;t know where the resources are, and for the most part, you don&#8217;t care. What&#8217;s really important is the capability to access your application anywhere, move it freely and easily, and inexpensively add resources.&#8221; <sup id='fnref:6'><a href='#fn:6' rel='footnote'>6</a></sup> In simplest terms, the cloud uses an off-site service to store, transmit, and process information, and employs the Internet as the means to access that service. <sup id='fnref:7'><a href='#fn:7' rel='footnote'>7</a></sup></p><p><strong>How Cloud Computing Came About</strong></p><p>Several innovations fueled the shift toward computing in the cloud. First, the rise and adoption of both broadband Internet access, which allowed for reduced load times, and a programming technique known as AJAX, which allowed Web sites to look and feel more like desktop programs through a constant push-and-pull of information, combined to usher in a greater reliance on remote applications. <sup id='fnref:8'><a href='#fn:8' rel='footnote'>8</a></sup> At the same time the growth of enterprise data centers, and the public&#8217;s increasing comfort with Web 2.0 services like GMail and Facebook provided a technical and social infrastructure to support such a push. <sup id='fnref:9'><a href='#fn:9' rel='footnote'>9</a></sup></p><p>The biggest breakthrough, however, the core and true power behind cloud computing, came from the consolidation of physical servers through system virtualization. Through virtualization, one physical server can become the host to many virtual servers. <sup id='fnref:10'><a href='#fn:10' rel='footnote'>10</a></sup> Because the resources are dynamically allocated across physical servers as the virtual servers require them, the physical resources are used more efficiently. <sup id='fnref:11'><a href='#fn:11' rel='footnote'>11</a></sup> If server <em>A</em>, say an e-mail server like one may see in most corporate or government offices sees a sudden spike in activity, rather than slowing, it can borrow resources from server <em>B</em>, a Web site hosted on the same physical server. The user, unaware that this shift has even occurred, sees the two servers as discrete and unconnected despite their physical location.</p><p>The biggest implication however, is that computing resources can be provisioned and released on demand and as needed. <sup id='fnref:12'><a href='#fn:12' rel='footnote'>12</a></sup> If agency <em>X</em> is a government agency that requires a great deal of information to be processed at the close of the stock market each day, it can pay for five servers up until 3:59 each day, be charged solely for the increased processing power and storage it requires from 4:00 to 4:05, and can return to five server for the remainder of the day. Under a traditional approach, all 100 servers, for example, it required at its peak, would have to be operational 24 hours a day, with the necessary personnel and infrastructure to support it.</p><p><strong>Types of Cloud Computing</strong></p><p>Cloud computing exists in several forms today. The most basic, &#8220;infrastructure as a service&#8221; (IAAS), uses shared facilities, hardware, and networks to hold and move data. Customers, given virtual servers, may then install, configure, and utilize their own software freely. <sup id='fnref:13'><a href='#fn:13' rel='footnote'>13</a></sup> As indicated above, however, customers do not rent the physical servers (merely their equivalent processing power), and providers may move virtual servers between physical servers as necessary. <sup id='fnref:14'><a href='#fn:14' rel='footnote'>14</a></sup> Amazon&#8217;s EC2, S3, and CloudFront are prime examples of cloud computing, storage, and delivery respectively.</p><p>Second, and slightly more advanced, &#8220;platform as a service&#8221; (PAAS) allows providers to serve customers with a shared computing platform and software environment. The customer can upload software code in a predetermined programming language (such as Java or PHP) and the provider executes that code and returns the result. <sup id='fnref:15'><a href='#fn:15' rel='footnote'>15</a></sup> Google Apps Engine is a prime example of such an arrangement.</p><p>Finally, &#8220;software as a service&#8221; (SAAS) is most associated with Web-based consumer services such as Facebook or Flickr but can find application in business and government environments as well. The provider hosts software designed to perform a specific function, such as social networking or photo sharing, and the user interacts with that application being run on the provider&#8217;s server. <sup id='fnref:16'><a href='#fn:16' rel='footnote'>16</a></sup></p><p>One additional distinction among cloud services can be made. Each of the three approaches listed above can be hosted in either a public cloud, meaning one customer&#8217;s virtual servers may be freely intermingled with another customer&#8217;s among physical servers, or in a private cloud in which the physical servers, infrastructure, or datacenter may be entirely segregated from those used to provide services to other clients. <sup id='fnref:17'><a href='#fn:17' rel='footnote'>17</a></sup></p><p><strong>Implications of Cloud Computing</strong></p><p>Cloud computing has several implication for members of the government contracting community. First, inherent in the nature of cloud computing is the fact that one organization must trust a third party with its data, something which may have far-reaching ethical and legal implication depending on the type of data stored and the parties involved.</p><p>More broadly, when contracting for cloud services, organizations have several technical aspects to take into account. From a security standpoint, customers should evaluate data encryption (can others access my data?), physical security (can others access the datacenter?), and provider viability (will the service be around in ten years?). From a data integrity standpoint, those looking to enter the cloud should inquire as to data locality (is my data being hosted outside the United States?), data portability (what happens if I want to leave the service?), and redundancy (what happens if there is a natural disaster near their data center?). Finally, from a legal perspective, customers should evaluate terms of service, privacy policies, and service level (uptime) agreements. <sup id='fnref:18'><a href='#fn:18' rel='footnote'>18</a></sup></p><p><strong>How to Get Into the Cloud</strong></p><p>Several avenues exist for organizations looking to experiment with the cloud. For federal agencies, the General Service Administration, through Apps.gov, will soon be rolling out a Federal private cloud. While the specifics have not yet been announced, this service is expected to provide federal agencies with storage, virtual machine, and Web hosting services at a relatively low cost. <sup id='fnref:19'><a href='#fn:19' rel='footnote'>19</a></sup> Some of this service&#8217;s potential has already been hinted at by the recent launch of Apps.Gov NOW, a hosted service that provides federal agencies with out-of-the-box blogs (Web site publishing platforms), Wikis (Web sites editable by members of a community), and online bulletin boards (Web sites to facilitate online discussions), all at no cost. <sup id='fnref:20'><a href='#fn:20' rel='footnote'>20</a></sup></p><p>Second, many federal Web sites such as the Federal Communications Commission and Recovery.Gov are in the process of seeking or have already sought third-party cloud hosting services likes Amazon Web Services (AWS) as mentioned above. <sup id='fnref:21'><a href='#fn:21' rel='footnote'>21</a></sup> Federal agencies opting for such a route must be sure to work closely with the appropriate parties to ensure, federal IT security standards are met, such as FISMA <sup id='fnref:22'><a href='#fn:22' rel='footnote'>22</a></sup> requirements, or that record retention standards are met, for example, where data stored in the cloud constitutes a system of records under the privacy act. <sup id='fnref:23'><a href='#fn:23' rel='footnote'>23</a></sup></p><p>Finally, earlier this summer, Google announced FISMA moderate certification of its Google Apps for Government data centers, providing mail, calendar, document, video, and Web hosting services to Federal agencies in a private cloud hosted entirely within the United States. <sup id='fnref:24'><a href='#fn:24' rel='footnote'>24</a></sup> Agencies wishing to contract their traditional IT infrastructure out to Google can do so for as low as $50 per user per year, however, such savings may come at a cost. Special attention must be paid to the risks associated with trusting a third-party with what may potentially be an agency&#8217;s most sensitive data.</p><p>Whether a federal contracting officer or a provider of IT services, just as the Internet has revolutionized countless aspects of every day life, it is clear that so too will the emerging cloud computing front forever shape the contours of Federal IT procurement in the years to come.</p><p><em>This article originally published in the <a href='http://www.fedbar.org/Sections/Government-Contracts-Section/Newsletters.aspx'>Federal Bar Association Government Contracts Section</a> <a href='http://www.fedbar.org/Sections/Government-Contracts-Section/Newsletters/Fall-2010.aspx?FT=.pdf'>Fall 2010 Newsletter</a> (PDF, p. 6).&lt;/p&gt; Notes:</em></p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>Stephen Lawson, <em>Cloud is Internet&#8217;s Next Generation, HP Executive Says</em>, InfoWorld, June 25, 2009, http://www.infoworld.com/d/cloud-computing/cloud-internets-next-generation-hp-executive-says-120 (quoting HP CTO Russ Daniels). <span>27</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p><em>See Generally</em>Jack Newton, <em>Putting Your Practice in the Cloud a Pre-Flight Checklist</em>, 73 Tex. B.J. 632 (2010). <span>28</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p><em>See</em> Mark H. Wittow, Daniel J. Buller, <em>Cloud Computing: Emerging Legal Issues for Access to Data, Anywhere, Anytime,</em> 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010). <span>29</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>30</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:5'>\n<p>Wittow, 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010). <span>31</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:5' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:6'>\n<p>J. Nicholas Hoover, <em>Interop: Oracle Predicts Cloud Confusion to Continue</em>, InformationWeek, Sept. 17, 2008, http:// www.informationweek.com/news/services/hosted_apps/showArticle.jhtml? articlelD=210602225. <span>32</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:6' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:7'>\n<p>Peter M. Lefkowitz, <em>Contracting in the Cloud: A Primer,</em> Boston B.J., Summer 2010, at 9. <span>33</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:7' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:8'>\n<p>Dennis Kennedy, <em>Working in the Cloud Tips on Success with Online Software Services</em>, ABA J., August 2009, at 31. <span>34</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:8' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:9'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>35</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:9' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:10'>\n<p>Wittow, 14 J. Internet L. 1 (2010). <span>36</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:10' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:11'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>37</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:11' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:12'>\n<p>Peter Mell and Tim Grance, <em>Definition of Cloud Computing</em>, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Information Technology Laboratory, October 7, 2009, http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/cloud-def-v15.doc. <span>38</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:12' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:13'>\n<p>Lefkowitz, Boston B.J., Summer 2010, at 9. <span>39</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:13' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:14'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>40</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:14' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:15'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>41</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:15' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:16'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>42</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:16' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:17'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>43</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:17' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:18'>\n<p>Newton, 73 Tex. B.J. 632. <span>44</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:18' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:19'>\n<p>Cloud IT Services, Apps.Gov, https://www.apps.gov/cloud/advantage/cloud/category_home.do (last visited* <em>October 5, 2010). <span>45</span></em></p>\n<a href='#fnref:19' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:20'>\n<p>Apps.Gov Now, General Services Administration, <a href='http://citizen.apps.gov/'>http://citizen.apps.gov/</a> (last visited October 12, 2015). <span>46</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:20' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:21'>\n<p>Cloud Services, Federal Business Opportunities, https://www.fbo.gov/index?s=opportunity&amp;mode=form&amp;id=d63c725d5a3006919289698350e3d4b3&amp;tab=core&amp;_cview=1 (last visited October 5, 2010); J. Nicholas Hoover, <em>Recovert.Gov Moved to Amazon Cloud</em>, Information Week, May 12, 2010, http://www.informationweek.com/news/government/cloud-saas/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=224701861. <span>47</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:21' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:22'>\n<p>Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002. <span>48</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:22' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:23'>\n<p>5 U.S.C.A. § 552a (West). <span>49</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:23' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:24'>\n<p>Google Apps for Government, Official Google Enterprise Blog, July 26, 2010, http://googleenterprise.blogspot.com/2010/07/google-apps-for-government.html. <span>50</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:24' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p>In 593 A.D., the first printing press quietly spun into operation in China. Exactly 120 years later, the first paper, <em>Kaiyuan Za Bao</em>, began production in Beijing. <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> In 2010, however, China&#8217;s information landscape is best characterized not by innovation, but rather by tightly controlled government restriction, and no American corporation is more acutely aware of this austere reality than Internet giant Google. The company <a href='http://googlepublicpolicy.blogspot.com/2010/11/promoting-free-trade-for-internet.html'>recently released</a> a <a href='http://www.google.com/googleblogs/pdfs/trade_free_flow_of_information.pdf'>white paper</a> calling out China, among others for violating WTO commitments and urged law makers to break down barriers to free trade and global e-commerce.</p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/1194563275_664d6b15e2_b.jpg' /></p><p>The argument is simple: As the internet is increasingly becoming the dominant instrument of industry, blocking access to information is tantamount to blocking access to trade.</p><p>The white paper elaborates:</p><blockquote>\n<p>The tremendous spread of the Internet – faster than the spread of any previous technology – has also created new, rapidly expanding markets. Online traffic has increased at a compound annual growth rate of 66 percent over the past five years. <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> Today more than one-quarter of the world&#8217;s population (1.7 billion people) uses this technology to communicate, inform, create, and buy and sell across borders. <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> These 1.7 billion Internet users are a massive new consumer base for both Internet services like email and the hard goods and services that are increasingly advertised, marketed, or sold online…</p>\n\n<p>Annual internet-based commerce worldwide is expected to soon reach $1 trillion. <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup>In the United States alone, online retail sales were over $132 billion in 2008. <sup id='fnref:5'><a href='#fn:5' rel='footnote'>5</a></sup> Globally, Internet and telecom services contributed 3.3 percent of GDP in 2004, compared with 1.8 percent in 1990, with virtually every single economy enjoying growth in the sector. <sup id='fnref:6'><a href='#fn:6' rel='footnote'>6</a></sup></p>\n</blockquote><p>The commercialization of the internet and subsequent clash with government restriction is nothing new. US-based information technology companies have been doing business in China with relative success for quite some time. Yahoo!, Inc. was the first to enter the fray in 1998, launching a Chinese-language version of its popular search engine to compete with China&#8217;s domestic Internet content providers, and not long after, Microsoft and Google followed suit. <sup id='fnref:7'><a href='#fn:7' rel='footnote'>7</a></sup> However, in 2000, China&#8217;s Ministry of Public Service began the Golden Shield Project with the goal of &#8220;adopt<span>ing</span>… advanced information and communication technology to strengthen central police control, responsiveness, and crime combating capacity to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of police work. <sup id='fnref:8'><a href='#fn:8' rel='footnote'>8</a></sup>&#8221;</p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/4273568581_3c4db9799d_z-300x238.jpg' />A prime example of such restriction came in Fall 2002, as Google employees were booting up their Mountain View, California computers to angry emails informing them that the search engine was entirely unavailable to Chinese citizens. <sup id='fnref:9'><a href='#fn:9' rel='footnote'>9</a></sup> Even when users could access Google.com, the Web site was slow, often cases, inoperably so when compared to Google&#8217;s censored competitors. <sup id='fnref:10'><a href='#fn:10' rel='footnote'>10</a></sup> As Google&#8217;s Senior Policy Council, Andrew McLaughlin, noted, &#8220;Google.com appears to be down around 10 percent of the time,&#8221; adding, &#8221;<span>e</span>ven when users can reach it, the website is slow, and sometimes produces results that… stall out the user&#8217;s browser. <sup id='fnref:11'><a href='#fn:11' rel='footnote'>11</a></sup>&#8221;</p><p>So why do we care if a handful of countries do not enjoy unfettered access to American e-commerce? According to the China Internet Network Information Center, the Chinese market represents some 123 million Internet users. <sup id='fnref:12'><a href='#fn:12' rel='footnote'>12</a></sup> The Internet far surpassed television, newspapers, magazines, and radio as the primary source for information among the Chinese people. <sup id='fnref:13'><a href='#fn:13' rel='footnote'>13</a></sup> As a result, today, the People&#8217;s Republic represents the largest emerging Internet market in the world. Baidu.com, for example, the Chinese-based search engine, enjoyed only 2.5% of the search market in 2003, but boasted 46% by 2005, while during that same time, Google&#8217;s market share in China dropped some 30% and continued to fall. <sup id='fnref:14'><a href='#fn:14' rel='footnote'>14</a></sup></p><p>The implications are clear. The fastest, most powerful commercial vehicle the world has ever seen is unavailable to its largest emerging market. To put it another way, countries that censor internet traffic are blocking the 21st century&#8217;s busiest trade ports. It would be as if merchant ships in the 1500′s, full of goods from the New World, made their way back to Europe only to be turned away. Even in a post-dot-com-bubble world, with nearly ubiquitous free shipping, cyber Mondays, and an app store for everything from your phone to your toaster, it is not hard to imagine that the internet will soon become the dominant mechanism of international trade, if it has not earned such a title already. Today, one thing is certain: As the domestic e-commerce market reaches saturation, American firms will continue to seek out opportunities abroad despite censorship and restrictions. <sup id='fnref:15'><a href='#fn:15' rel='footnote'>15</a></sup> Their level of success, however, and the level of access available to users in the countries cited in the white paper, if any, remains to be seen.</p><p><span>Photos courtesy <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/stuckincustoms/1194563275/'>stuckincustoms</a> and <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/winterkanal/4273568581/'>winterkanal</a></span></p><p>Notes:</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>Gardels, Nathan, <em>Google vs. Confucius</em>, 27 New Perspective Quarterly 2 (May 2010), at 2. <span>22</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>Fed. Commc&#8217;ns Comm&#8217;n <span>FCC</span>, Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan ch. 4 (2010). <span>23</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>Miniwatts, <a href='http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm'>Internet World Stats,</a><em><a href='http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm'>Internet World Users by Language: Top Ten Languages</a></em>(chart) (Sept. 30, 2009); Int&#8217;l Telecomm. Union <span>ITU</span>, <a href='http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/material/Telecom09_flyer.pdf'><em>The World in 2009: ICT Facts and Figures</em>1</a> (2009). The total number of fixed broadband subscribers reached nearly 500 million by the end of 2009. <em>Id.</em>at 5. <span>26</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>Brian Hindley &amp; Hosuk Lee-Makiyama, <em><a href='http://ecipe.org/publications/ecipe-working-papers/protectionism-online-'><em>Protectionism Online: Internet Censorship and International Trade Law</em></a></em>3 (ECIPE, Working Paper No. 12/2009). <span>28</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:5'>\n<p>U.S. Census Bureau, <em><a href='http://www.census.gov/mrts/www/data/html/09Q1table3.html'>Estimated Quarterly U.S. Retail Sales (Adjusted): Total and E-commerce (chart)</a></em> (May 15, 2009). <span>30</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:5' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:6'>\n<p>Int&#8217;l Telecomm. Union <span>ITU</span>, <a href='http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/publications/digitalife/docs/digital-life-web.pdf'><em>digital.life: ITU Internet Report 2006</em></a> 73 (2006). <span>32</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:6' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:7'>\n<p>Marc D. Nawyn, <em>Code Red: Responding to the Moral Hazards Facing U.S. Information Technology Companies in China</em>, 2007 Colum. Bus. L. Rev. 505 (2007). <span>33</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:7' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:8'>\n<p>Greg Walton, <em><a href='http://'>China&#8217;s Golden Shield: Corporations and the Development of Surveillance Technology in the People&#8217;s Republic of China</a></em>, Rights &amp; Democracy, 2001; <em>See</em> Jennifer Shyu, <em>Speak No Evil: Circumventing Chinese Censorship</em>, 45 San Diego L. Rev. 211, 249 (2008). <span>35</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:8' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:9'>\n<p>Testimony of Google, Inc. before the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, and the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Human Rights, and International Operations, Committee on International Relations, 207th Cong. (2006) (statement of Elliot Schrage, Vice President, Global Communications and Public Affairs, Google, Inc.). <span>36</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:9' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:10'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>37</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:10' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:11'>\n<p><a href='http://Googleblog.blogspot.com/2006/01/Google-in-china.html'>Google in China</a>, Google Official Blog, January 27, 2006. <span>39</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:11' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:12'>\n<p>Lindsay Eastwood, <em>&#8220;Don&#8217;t Be Evil&#8221;: Google Faces the Chinese Internet Market and the Global Online Freedom Act of 2007</em>, 9 Minn. J.L. Sci. &amp; Tech. 287, 288 (2008) (citing China Internet Network Info. Ctr., <a href='http://cnnic.cn/download/2006/18threport-en.pdf'>18th Statistical Survey Report on the Internet Development in China</a>, 3 (2006). <span>41</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:12' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:13'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> at n. 30 (stating &#8220;the main channel that obtain information are the Internet (82.6%), television (64.5%), papers (57.9%), magazines (18.8%), books (18.7%), radio (14.4%), and other (6.9%)&#8221;) (internal quotations omitted). <span>42</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:13' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:14'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>43</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:14' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:15'>\n<p><em>E.g.,</em> Google&#8217;s decision to enter China, and subsequently censor search results, was primarily based on the premise that it was the lesser of two evils. Google CEO Eric Schmidt commented, &#8220;although we weren&#8217;t wild about the restrictions, it was even worse to not try to serve those users at all,&#8221; elaborating, &#8220;we actually did an evil scale and decided not to serve at all was worse evil.&#8221; Shyu, <em>Supra</em> note 8 at 213 (citing Danny Sullivan, <em><a href='http://blog.searchenginewatch.com/blog/060130-154414'>Google Created EvilRank Scale To Decide On Chinese Censorship</a></em>, Search Engine Watch, January 30, 2006. Accordingly, Google launched Google.cn under the belief that the &#8220;benefits of increased access to information for people in China… outweighed <span>the</span> discomfort… <span>of</span> agreeing to censor some results,&#8221; (<a href='http://Googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/01/new-approach-to-china.html'><em>A New Approach to China</em></a>, Official Google Blog, January 12, 2010) calling their service a &#8220;a meaningful – though imperfect – contribution to the overall expansion of… information in China.&#8221; Press Release, Google, Inc., <a href='http://www.Google.com/press/pressrel/rd_china.html'><em>Google to Open Research Center in China</em></a> (July 19, 2005). <span>47</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:15' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/","title":"WordPress Resume Plugin"},{"url":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party/","title":"New Media Flak: Megaphone vs. Cocktail Party"},{"url":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/","title":"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?"},{"url":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility/","title":"Removing the Barriers to Organizational Agility\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing/","title":"What Fourteen-Century Apple Pie Teaches Us About Sharing\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds/","title":"Will Federal Contracting Officers Soon Have Their Heads in the Clouds?\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/","title":"Twitter Mentions as Comments WordPress Plugin\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes/","title":"The Internet is Series of Tubes (oh, and Tollgates too)\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/","title":"Late-Night Infomercials: Guaranteed to Extend the 4th Amendment or Your Money Back"},{"url":"/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer/","title":"The Files \"in\" the Computer -- Zoolander and the California Supreme Court"}]}
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@@ -1 +1 @@
-{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"Twitter Mentions as Comments WordPress Plugin\n","excerpt":"Twiter Mentions as Comments does exactly what it promises to do -- scours Twitter for people talking about your blog posts and silently inserts their Tweets alongside your existing comments. ","layout":"post","category":["Technology"],"tags":["comments","open source","plugin","twitter","wordpress"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/","date":"2010-11-29 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments","categories":[["Technology"]],"next":"[![][2]][2]The Internet backbone (big [tube][2]) provider, Level 3, which makes up much of the behind-the-scenes magic that delivers Netflix streaming movies, revealed that in recent negotiations, internet service (smaller tube) provider Comcast [demanded Level 3 pay an additional fee][3] in exchange for Comcast *continuing* to allow its customers access to Netflix videos, effectively erecting a series of tollgates on the information superhighway.\n\nIt's likely no coincidence that Comcast's decision comes just a week after Netflix began offering [streaming-only plans][4] (hinting at the firm's broader push toward streaming video in the near future) and Level 3′s subsequent announcement of a partnership with Netflix to be its [primary carrier of streaming video][5].\n\n\n\nIn Comcast's defense, their move makes *some* sense from a business standpoint. After all, during peak hours, just 2% of Netflix users (via Level 3) account for [20% of all bandwidth used][6] in North America. In Comcast's own words:\n\n> [W]hen one provider… push[es] the burden of massive traffic growth onto the other provider and its customers, we believe this is not fair.\n\nThe problem with the \"it's the customer's fault for using our service\" argument, the [same argument used by AT&T][7] not too long ago, is that, if they haven't already, service providers need to realize the Internet is here to stay. We as consumers like browsing the net. We like images. We like YouTube videos. We like interactive content. We like streaming stuff, and tomorrow we may like holograms or virtual reality or whatever the next cool, shiny thing is. Consumers simply can't get enough rich, bandwidth-intensive content, and if you're an internet service provider, you can't complain when your customers use your service to do just that.\n\nTrue, this may simply be [another petty dispute][8] between service providers as [Comcast claims][9], but the bigger problem with Comcast's decision, however, is that Comcast is not simply a *service* provider (tubes), but with the [impending NBC merger][10], also a *content* provider (the stuff in those tubes). This decision marks this first practical case where a service provider is actually taking steps to single out and discriminate against their competitor's content. As Level 3′s Chief Legal Officer [put it][11]:\n\n> Comcast is putting up a tollbooth at the borders of its broadband internet-access network, enabling it to unilaterally decide how much to charge for content which competes with its own cable TV and Xfinity-delivered content.\n\nThe Level-3/Comcast arrangement spells bleak hope for any future in which the Internet's information democratization ethos continues – perhaps a commercialized future [not too dissimilar from today's tiered broadcast/cable TV system][12] — and a future unequivocally bad for consumers, regardless of what the FCC may or may not decide [later this month][13].\n\nConsider this: as Comcast's customers increasingly [look to their computers for video content][14] rather than their cable box, Comcast can either squeeze that lost revenue out of its customers by bringing an [end to all-you-can-eat Internet][15], in which case we'll see an increase in our cable bill, or they can make up that lost revenue on the other end, by charging contest providers (like Level 3) a surcharge, forcing those services to offset their increased overhead by passing along the cost in the form of monthly fees, in which case we'll see it on our Netflix/iTunes/Facebook bill instead. Either way, the decision forecasts an inevitable flow of money from our pockets to Comcast's.\n\nAny time the nation's [largest][16] anything makes a \"[take it or leave it][17]\" offer demanding a fee for an otherwise mutually beneficial relationship like [peering][18], the transaction deserves a certain degree of scrutiny, especially when it creates a catch-22 in that company's favor. Is Comcast *trying* to kill the Internet? Probably not. *Will* they? I guess we're going to have to wait and see.\n\n*Views represent [my own][19].*\n\n[photo: [gnackgnackgnack][20]]\n\n []: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/3592493739_6b0b0d3f45_b.jpg\n [2]: http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/wed-july-12-2006/headlines---internet\n [3]: http://voices.washingtonpost.com/posttech/2010/11/comcast_hit_with_two_net_neutr.html\n [4]: http://blog.netflix.com/2010/11/new-plan-for-watching-instantly-plus.html\n [5]: http://www.wired.com/epicenter/2010/11/comcast-tollbooth/\n [6]: http://www.slate.com/id/2273314/\n [7]: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/03/technology/companies/03att.html?_r=1\n [8]: http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2008/03/isp-quarrel-par/\n [9]: http://twitter.com/#!/ceciliakang/statuses/9730130310078464\n [10]: http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/29/netflix-partner-says-comcast-toll-threatens-online-video-delivery/\n [11]: http://www.marketwatch.com/story/level-3-communications-issues-statement-concerning-comcasts-actions-2010-11-29?reflink=MW_news_stmp\n [12]: http://io9.com/5610328/how-the-googleverizon-proposal-could-kill-the-internet-in-5-years\n [13]: http://voices.washingtonpost.com/posttech/2010/11/lawmakers_push_fcc_to_vote_on.html\n [14]: http://lifehacker.com/5667680/ditching-cable-for-the-web-how-much-can-you-save-buying-renting-or-streaming-tv\n [15]: http://www.businessinsider.com/comcast-internet-access-2010-11\n [16]: http://www.comcast.com/About/PressRelease/PressReleaseDetail.ashx?PRID=887\n [17]: http://www.comcast.net/articles/finance/20101130/US.Level.3.Comcast/\n [18]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peering\n [19]: http://ben.balter.com/fine-print/\n [20]: http://www.flickr.com/photos/gnackgnackgnack/3592493739/","previous":"<p>In 593 A.D., the first printing press quietly spun into operation in China. Exactly 120 years later, the first paper, <em>Kaiyuan Za Bao</em>, began production in Beijing. <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> In 2010, however, China&#8217;s information landscape is best characterized not by innovation, but rather by tightly controlled government restriction, and no American corporation is more acutely aware of this austere reality than Internet giant Google. The company <a href='http://googlepublicpolicy.blogspot.com/2010/11/promoting-free-trade-for-internet.html'>recently released</a> a <a href='http://www.google.com/googleblogs/pdfs/trade_free_flow_of_information.pdf'>white paper</a> calling out China, among others for violating WTO commitments and urged law makers to break down barriers to free trade and global e-commerce.</p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/1194563275_664d6b15e2_b.jpg' /></p><p>The argument is simple: As the internet is increasingly becoming the dominant instrument of industry, blocking access to information is tantamount to blocking access to trade.</p><p>The white paper elaborates:</p><blockquote>\n<p>The tremendous spread of the Internet – faster than the spread of any previous technology – has also created new, rapidly expanding markets. Online traffic has increased at a compound annual growth rate of 66 percent over the past five years. <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> Today more than one-quarter of the world&#8217;s population (1.7 billion people) uses this technology to communicate, inform, create, and buy and sell across borders. <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> These 1.7 billion Internet users are a massive new consumer base for both Internet services like email and the hard goods and services that are increasingly advertised, marketed, or sold online…</p>\n\n<p>Annual internet-based commerce worldwide is expected to soon reach $1 trillion. <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup>In the United States alone, online retail sales were over $132 billion in 2008. <sup id='fnref:5'><a href='#fn:5' rel='footnote'>5</a></sup> Globally, Internet and telecom services contributed 3.3 percent of GDP in 2004, compared with 1.8 percent in 1990, with virtually every single economy enjoying growth in the sector. <sup id='fnref:6'><a href='#fn:6' rel='footnote'>6</a></sup></p>\n</blockquote><p>The commercialization of the internet and subsequent clash with government restriction is nothing new. US-based information technology companies have been doing business in China with relative success for quite some time. Yahoo!, Inc. was the first to enter the fray in 1998, launching a Chinese-language version of its popular search engine to compete with China&#8217;s domestic Internet content providers, and not long after, Microsoft and Google followed suit. <sup id='fnref:7'><a href='#fn:7' rel='footnote'>7</a></sup> However, in 2000, China&#8217;s Ministry of Public Service began the Golden Shield Project with the goal of &#8220;adopt<span>ing</span>… advanced information and communication technology to strengthen central police control, responsiveness, and crime combating capacity to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of police work. <sup id='fnref:8'><a href='#fn:8' rel='footnote'>8</a></sup>&#8221;</p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/4273568581_3c4db9799d_z-300x238.jpg' />A prime example of such restriction came in Fall 2002, as Google employees were booting up their Mountain View, California computers to angry emails informing them that the search engine was entirely unavailable to Chinese citizens. <sup id='fnref:9'><a href='#fn:9' rel='footnote'>9</a></sup> Even when users could access Google.com, the Web site was slow, often cases, inoperably so when compared to Google&#8217;s censored competitors. <sup id='fnref:10'><a href='#fn:10' rel='footnote'>10</a></sup> As Google&#8217;s Senior Policy Council, Andrew McLaughlin, noted, &#8220;Google.com appears to be down around 10 percent of the time,&#8221; adding, &#8221;<span>e</span>ven when users can reach it, the website is slow, and sometimes produces results that… stall out the user&#8217;s browser. <sup id='fnref:11'><a href='#fn:11' rel='footnote'>11</a></sup>&#8221;</p><p>So why do we care if a handful of countries do not enjoy unfettered access to American e-commerce? According to the China Internet Network Information Center, the Chinese market represents some 123 million Internet users. <sup id='fnref:12'><a href='#fn:12' rel='footnote'>12</a></sup> The Internet far surpassed television, newspapers, magazines, and radio as the primary source for information among the Chinese people. <sup id='fnref:13'><a href='#fn:13' rel='footnote'>13</a></sup> As a result, today, the People&#8217;s Republic represents the largest emerging Internet market in the world. Baidu.com, for example, the Chinese-based search engine, enjoyed only 2.5% of the search market in 2003, but boasted 46% by 2005, while during that same time, Google&#8217;s market share in China dropped some 30% and continued to fall. <sup id='fnref:14'><a href='#fn:14' rel='footnote'>14</a></sup></p><p>The implications are clear. The fastest, most powerful commercial vehicle the world has ever seen is unavailable to its largest emerging market. To put it another way, countries that censor internet traffic are blocking the 21st century&#8217;s busiest trade ports. It would be as if merchant ships in the 1500′s, full of goods from the New World, made their way back to Europe only to be turned away. Even in a post-dot-com-bubble world, with nearly ubiquitous free shipping, cyber Mondays, and an app store for everything from your phone to your toaster, it is not hard to imagine that the internet will soon become the dominant mechanism of international trade, if it has not earned such a title already. Today, one thing is certain: As the domestic e-commerce market reaches saturation, American firms will continue to seek out opportunities abroad despite censorship and restrictions. <sup id='fnref:15'><a href='#fn:15' rel='footnote'>15</a></sup> Their level of success, however, and the level of access available to users in the countries cited in the white paper, if any, remains to be seen.</p><p><span>Photos courtesy <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/stuckincustoms/1194563275/'>stuckincustoms</a> and <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/winterkanal/4273568581/'>winterkanal</a></span></p><p>Notes:</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>Gardels, Nathan, <em>Google vs. Confucius</em>, 27 New Perspective Quarterly 2 (May 2010), at 2. <span>22</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>Fed. Commc&#8217;ns Comm&#8217;n <span>FCC</span>, Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan ch. 4 (2010). <span>23</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>Miniwatts, <a href='http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm'>Internet World Stats,</a><em><a href='http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm'>Internet World Users by Language: Top Ten Languages</a></em>(chart) (Sept. 30, 2009); Int&#8217;l Telecomm. Union <span>ITU</span>, <a href='http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/material/Telecom09_flyer.pdf'><em>The World in 2009: ICT Facts and Figures</em>1</a> (2009). The total number of fixed broadband subscribers reached nearly 500 million by the end of 2009. <em>Id.</em>at 5. <span>26</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>Brian Hindley &amp; Hosuk Lee-Makiyama, <em><a href='http://ecipe.org/publications/ecipe-working-papers/protectionism-online-'><em>Protectionism Online: Internet Censorship and International Trade Law</em></a></em>3 (ECIPE, Working Paper No. 12/2009). <span>28</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:5'>\n<p>U.S. Census Bureau, <em><a href='http://www.census.gov/mrts/www/data/html/09Q1table3.html'>Estimated Quarterly U.S. Retail Sales (Adjusted): Total and E-commerce (chart)</a></em> (May 15, 2009). <span>30</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:5' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:6'>\n<p>Int&#8217;l Telecomm. Union <span>ITU</span>, <a href='http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/publications/digitalife/docs/digital-life-web.pdf'><em>digital.life: ITU Internet Report 2006</em></a> 73 (2006). <span>32</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:6' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:7'>\n<p>Marc D. Nawyn, <em>Code Red: Responding to the Moral Hazards Facing U.S. Information Technology Companies in China</em>, 2007 Colum. Bus. L. Rev. 505 (2007). <span>33</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:7' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:8'>\n<p>Greg Walton, <em><a href='http://'>China&#8217;s Golden Shield: Corporations and the Development of Surveillance Technology in the People&#8217;s Republic of China</a></em>, Rights &amp; Democracy, 2001; <em>See</em> Jennifer Shyu, <em>Speak No Evil: Circumventing Chinese Censorship</em>, 45 San Diego L. Rev. 211, 249 (2008). <span>35</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:8' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:9'>\n<p>Testimony of Google, Inc. before the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, and the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Human Rights, and International Operations, Committee on International Relations, 207th Cong. (2006) (statement of Elliot Schrage, Vice President, Global Communications and Public Affairs, Google, Inc.). <span>36</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:9' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:10'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>37</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:10' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:11'>\n<p><a href='http://Googleblog.blogspot.com/2006/01/Google-in-china.html'>Google in China</a>, Google Official Blog, January 27, 2006. <span>39</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:11' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:12'>\n<p>Lindsay Eastwood, <em>&#8220;Don&#8217;t Be Evil&#8221;: Google Faces the Chinese Internet Market and the Global Online Freedom Act of 2007</em>, 9 Minn. J.L. Sci. &amp; Tech. 287, 288 (2008) (citing China Internet Network Info. Ctr., <a href='http://cnnic.cn/download/2006/18threport-en.pdf'>18th Statistical Survey Report on the Internet Development in China</a>, 3 (2006). <span>41</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:12' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:13'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> at n. 30 (stating &#8220;the main channel that obtain information are the Internet (82.6%), television (64.5%), papers (57.9%), magazines (18.8%), books (18.7%), radio (14.4%), and other (6.9%)&#8221;) (internal quotations omitted). <span>42</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:13' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:14'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>43</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:14' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:15'>\n<p><em>E.g.,</em> Google&#8217;s decision to enter China, and subsequently censor search results, was primarily based on the premise that it was the lesser of two evils. Google CEO Eric Schmidt commented, &#8220;although we weren&#8217;t wild about the restrictions, it was even worse to not try to serve those users at all,&#8221; elaborating, &#8220;we actually did an evil scale and decided not to serve at all was worse evil.&#8221; Shyu, <em>Supra</em> note 8 at 213 (citing Danny Sullivan, <em><a href='http://blog.searchenginewatch.com/blog/060130-154414'>Google Created EvilRank Scale To Decide On Chinese Censorship</a></em>, Search Engine Watch, January 30, 2006. Accordingly, Google launched Google.cn under the belief that the &#8220;benefits of increased access to information for people in China… outweighed <span>the</span> discomfort… <span>of</span> agreeing to censor some results,&#8221; (<a href='http://Googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/01/new-approach-to-china.html'><em>A New Approach to China</em></a>, Official Google Blog, January 12, 2010) calling their service a &#8220;a meaningful – though imperfect – contribution to the overall expansion of… information in China.&#8221; Press Release, Google, Inc., <a href='http://www.Google.com/press/pressrel/rd_china.html'><em>Google to Open Research Center in China</em></a> (July 19, 2005). <span>47</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:15' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p>Twitter Mentions as Comments does exactly what it promises to do – scours Twitter for people talking about your blog posts and silently inserts their Tweets alongside your existing comments. The plugin leverages the power of WordPress&#8217;s built-in commenting system – notification, comment moderation, author white/black listing – making Twitter an extension of your blog.</p><p><strong>Features</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Searches for Tweets linking to your blog posts, regardless of the URL shortener used (using Twitter&#8217;s Search API)</li>\n\n<li>Pushes Tweets into WordPress&#8217;s existing comment workflow – notifications, comment moderation, and author whitelists/blacklists work just like any other comment</li>\n\n<li>Fetches user&#8217;s real name and profile picture and links directly to the original Tweet</li>\n\n<li>Checks automatically – no need to do a thing</li>\n\n<li>Option to automatically exclude ReTweets</li>\n\n<li>Option to store tweets as trackbacks/B</li>\n\n<li>Option to specify which posts to check (e.g., 10 most recent posts, all posts, front page only)</li>\n\n<li>Smart Caching of Tweets and user data – retrieves only what it needs to save on API calls and server load</li>\n</ul><p><strong>Planned Features</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Dynamic resizing of Twitter profile images to fit WordPress theme</li>\n\n<li>Prioritization of newer posts</li>\n\n<li>Oauth Authentication to raise API limit (currently unlimited Tweets, but limited to 150 <em>new</em> comment authors per hour)</li>\n\n<li>Smarter API throttling</li>\n</ul><p>The plugin is available in the <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/twitter-mentions-as-comments/'>WordPress plugin repository</a>, and you can see it in action <a href='#comments'>below</a> or on the <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/#comment-168'>WP Resume plugin page</a>.</p><p><strong>Looking to filter out a particular user or keyword?</strong> Because Tweets go through the normal comment filter, you can just <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/#comment-246'>blacklist them as described below</a>.</p><p><em>Enjoy using Twitter Mentions as Comments? Feel free to <a href='http://ben.balter.com/donate/' title='Donate'>make a small donation</a> to support the software&#8217;s continued development.</em></p><p><strong>Update (7/8): Comments have been closed in favor of <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/Twitter-Mentions-as-Comments/wiki/Where-to-get-Support-or-Report-an-Issue'>expanded support and discussion options</a>. Additional documentation about the project can now be found in the <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/Twitter-Mentions-as-Comments/wiki'>Project Wiki</a>. If you are interested in joining the project at any level of technical expertise, please see <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/Twitter-Mentions-as-Comments/wiki/How-to-Contribute'>How to Contribute</a>.</strong></p>","related_posts":[{"url":"/about/","title":"About"},{"url":"/contact/","title":"Contact"},{"url":"/donate/","title":"Donate"},{"url":"/fine-print/","title":"Fine Print"},{"url":"/resume/","title":"Resume"},{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"}]}
+{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"Twitter Mentions as Comments WordPress Plugin\n","excerpt":"Twiter Mentions as Comments does exactly what it promises to do -- scours Twitter for people talking about your blog posts and silently inserts their Tweets alongside your existing comments. ","layout":"post","category":["Technology"],"tags":["comments","open source","plugin","twitter","wordpress"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/","date":"2010-11-29 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments","categories":[["Technology"]],"next":"[![][2]][2]The Internet backbone (big [tube][2]) provider, Level 3, which makes up much of the behind-the-scenes magic that delivers Netflix streaming movies, revealed that in recent negotiations, internet service (smaller tube) provider Comcast [demanded Level 3 pay an additional fee][3] in exchange for Comcast *continuing* to allow its customers access to Netflix videos, effectively erecting a series of tollgates on the information superhighway.\n\nIt's likely no coincidence that Comcast's decision comes just a week after Netflix began offering [streaming-only plans][4] (hinting at the firm's broader push toward streaming video in the near future) and Level 3′s subsequent announcement of a partnership with Netflix to be its [primary carrier of streaming video][5].\n\n\n\nIn Comcast's defense, their move makes *some* sense from a business standpoint. After all, during peak hours, just 2% of Netflix users (via Level 3) account for [20% of all bandwidth used][6] in North America. In Comcast's own words:\n\n> [W]hen one provider… push[es] the burden of massive traffic growth onto the other provider and its customers, we believe this is not fair.\n\nThe problem with the \"it's the customer's fault for using our service\" argument, the [same argument used by AT&T][7] not too long ago, is that, if they haven't already, service providers need to realize the Internet is here to stay. We as consumers like browsing the net. We like images. We like YouTube videos. We like interactive content. We like streaming stuff, and tomorrow we may like holograms or virtual reality or whatever the next cool, shiny thing is. Consumers simply can't get enough rich, bandwidth-intensive content, and if you're an internet service provider, you can't complain when your customers use your service to do just that.\n\nTrue, this may simply be [another petty dispute][8] between service providers as [Comcast claims][9], but the bigger problem with Comcast's decision, however, is that Comcast is not simply a *service* provider (tubes), but with the [impending NBC merger][10], also a *content* provider (the stuff in those tubes). This decision marks this first practical case where a service provider is actually taking steps to single out and discriminate against their competitor's content. As Level 3′s Chief Legal Officer [put it][11]:\n\n> Comcast is putting up a tollbooth at the borders of its broadband internet-access network, enabling it to unilaterally decide how much to charge for content which competes with its own cable TV and Xfinity-delivered content.\n\nThe Level-3/Comcast arrangement spells bleak hope for any future in which the Internet's information democratization ethos continues – perhaps a commercialized future [not too dissimilar from today's tiered broadcast/cable TV system][12] — and a future unequivocally bad for consumers, regardless of what the FCC may or may not decide [later this month][13].\n\nConsider this: as Comcast's customers increasingly [look to their computers for video content][14] rather than their cable box, Comcast can either squeeze that lost revenue out of its customers by bringing an [end to all-you-can-eat Internet][15], in which case we'll see an increase in our cable bill, or they can make up that lost revenue on the other end, by charging contest providers (like Level 3) a surcharge, forcing those services to offset their increased overhead by passing along the cost in the form of monthly fees, in which case we'll see it on our Netflix/iTunes/Facebook bill instead. Either way, the decision forecasts an inevitable flow of money from our pockets to Comcast's.\n\nAny time the nation's [largest][16] anything makes a \"[take it or leave it][17]\" offer demanding a fee for an otherwise mutually beneficial relationship like [peering][18], the transaction deserves a certain degree of scrutiny, especially when it creates a catch-22 in that company's favor. Is Comcast *trying* to kill the Internet? Probably not. *Will* they? I guess we're going to have to wait and see.\n\n*Views represent [my own][19].*\n\n[photo: [gnackgnackgnack][20]]\n\n []: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/3592493739_6b0b0d3f45_b.jpg\n [2]: http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/wed-july-12-2006/headlines---internet\n [3]: http://voices.washingtonpost.com/posttech/2010/11/comcast_hit_with_two_net_neutr.html\n [4]: http://blog.netflix.com/2010/11/new-plan-for-watching-instantly-plus.html\n [5]: http://www.wired.com/epicenter/2010/11/comcast-tollbooth/\n [6]: http://www.slate.com/id/2273314/\n [7]: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/03/technology/companies/03att.html?_r=1\n [8]: http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2008/03/isp-quarrel-par/\n [9]: http://twitter.com/#!/ceciliakang/statuses/9730130310078464\n [10]: http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/29/netflix-partner-says-comcast-toll-threatens-online-video-delivery/\n [11]: http://www.marketwatch.com/story/level-3-communications-issues-statement-concerning-comcasts-actions-2010-11-29?reflink=MW_news_stmp\n [12]: http://io9.com/5610328/how-the-googleverizon-proposal-could-kill-the-internet-in-5-years\n [13]: http://voices.washingtonpost.com/posttech/2010/11/lawmakers_push_fcc_to_vote_on.html\n [14]: http://lifehacker.com/5667680/ditching-cable-for-the-web-how-much-can-you-save-buying-renting-or-streaming-tv\n [15]: http://www.businessinsider.com/comcast-internet-access-2010-11\n [16]: http://www.comcast.com/About/PressRelease/PressReleaseDetail.ashx?PRID=887\n [17]: http://www.comcast.net/articles/finance/20101130/US.Level.3.Comcast/\n [18]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peering\n [19]: http://ben.balter.com/fine-print/\n [20]: http://www.flickr.com/photos/gnackgnackgnack/3592493739/","previous":"<p>In 593 A.D., the first printing press quietly spun into operation in China. Exactly 120 years later, the first paper, <em>Kaiyuan Za Bao</em>, began production in Beijing. <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> In 2010, however, China&#8217;s information landscape is best characterized not by innovation, but rather by tightly controlled government restriction, and no American corporation is more acutely aware of this austere reality than Internet giant Google. The company <a href='http://googlepublicpolicy.blogspot.com/2010/11/promoting-free-trade-for-internet.html'>recently released</a> a <a href='http://www.google.com/googleblogs/pdfs/trade_free_flow_of_information.pdf'>white paper</a> calling out China, among others for violating WTO commitments and urged law makers to break down barriers to free trade and global e-commerce.</p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/1194563275_664d6b15e2_b.jpg' /></p><p>The argument is simple: As the internet is increasingly becoming the dominant instrument of industry, blocking access to information is tantamount to blocking access to trade.</p><p>The white paper elaborates:</p><blockquote>\n<p>The tremendous spread of the Internet – faster than the spread of any previous technology – has also created new, rapidly expanding markets. Online traffic has increased at a compound annual growth rate of 66 percent over the past five years. <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> Today more than one-quarter of the world&#8217;s population (1.7 billion people) uses this technology to communicate, inform, create, and buy and sell across borders. <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> These 1.7 billion Internet users are a massive new consumer base for both Internet services like email and the hard goods and services that are increasingly advertised, marketed, or sold online…</p>\n\n<p>Annual internet-based commerce worldwide is expected to soon reach $1 trillion. <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup>In the United States alone, online retail sales were over $132 billion in 2008. <sup id='fnref:5'><a href='#fn:5' rel='footnote'>5</a></sup> Globally, Internet and telecom services contributed 3.3 percent of GDP in 2004, compared with 1.8 percent in 1990, with virtually every single economy enjoying growth in the sector. <sup id='fnref:6'><a href='#fn:6' rel='footnote'>6</a></sup></p>\n</blockquote><p>The commercialization of the internet and subsequent clash with government restriction is nothing new. US-based information technology companies have been doing business in China with relative success for quite some time. Yahoo!, Inc. was the first to enter the fray in 1998, launching a Chinese-language version of its popular search engine to compete with China&#8217;s domestic Internet content providers, and not long after, Microsoft and Google followed suit. <sup id='fnref:7'><a href='#fn:7' rel='footnote'>7</a></sup> However, in 2000, China&#8217;s Ministry of Public Service began the Golden Shield Project with the goal of &#8220;adopt<span>ing</span>… advanced information and communication technology to strengthen central police control, responsiveness, and crime combating capacity to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of police work. <sup id='fnref:8'><a href='#fn:8' rel='footnote'>8</a></sup>&#8221;</p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/4273568581_3c4db9799d_z-300x238.jpg' />A prime example of such restriction came in Fall 2002, as Google employees were booting up their Mountain View, California computers to angry emails informing them that the search engine was entirely unavailable to Chinese citizens. <sup id='fnref:9'><a href='#fn:9' rel='footnote'>9</a></sup> Even when users could access Google.com, the Web site was slow, often cases, inoperably so when compared to Google&#8217;s censored competitors. <sup id='fnref:10'><a href='#fn:10' rel='footnote'>10</a></sup> As Google&#8217;s Senior Policy Council, Andrew McLaughlin, noted, &#8220;Google.com appears to be down around 10 percent of the time,&#8221; adding, &#8221;<span>e</span>ven when users can reach it, the website is slow, and sometimes produces results that… stall out the user&#8217;s browser. <sup id='fnref:11'><a href='#fn:11' rel='footnote'>11</a></sup>&#8221;</p><p>So why do we care if a handful of countries do not enjoy unfettered access to American e-commerce? According to the China Internet Network Information Center, the Chinese market represents some 123 million Internet users. <sup id='fnref:12'><a href='#fn:12' rel='footnote'>12</a></sup> The Internet far surpassed television, newspapers, magazines, and radio as the primary source for information among the Chinese people. <sup id='fnref:13'><a href='#fn:13' rel='footnote'>13</a></sup> As a result, today, the People&#8217;s Republic represents the largest emerging Internet market in the world. Baidu.com, for example, the Chinese-based search engine, enjoyed only 2.5% of the search market in 2003, but boasted 46% by 2005, while during that same time, Google&#8217;s market share in China dropped some 30% and continued to fall. <sup id='fnref:14'><a href='#fn:14' rel='footnote'>14</a></sup></p><p>The implications are clear. The fastest, most powerful commercial vehicle the world has ever seen is unavailable to its largest emerging market. To put it another way, countries that censor internet traffic are blocking the 21st century&#8217;s busiest trade ports. It would be as if merchant ships in the 1500′s, full of goods from the New World, made their way back to Europe only to be turned away. Even in a post-dot-com-bubble world, with nearly ubiquitous free shipping, cyber Mondays, and an app store for everything from your phone to your toaster, it is not hard to imagine that the internet will soon become the dominant mechanism of international trade, if it has not earned such a title already. Today, one thing is certain: As the domestic e-commerce market reaches saturation, American firms will continue to seek out opportunities abroad despite censorship and restrictions. <sup id='fnref:15'><a href='#fn:15' rel='footnote'>15</a></sup> Their level of success, however, and the level of access available to users in the countries cited in the white paper, if any, remains to be seen.</p><p><span>Photos courtesy <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/stuckincustoms/1194563275/'>stuckincustoms</a> and <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/winterkanal/4273568581/'>winterkanal</a></span></p><p>Notes:</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>Gardels, Nathan, <em>Google vs. Confucius</em>, 27 New Perspective Quarterly 2 (May 2010), at 2. <span>22</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>Fed. Commc&#8217;ns Comm&#8217;n <span>FCC</span>, Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan ch. 4 (2010). <span>23</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>Miniwatts, <a href='http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm'>Internet World Stats,</a><em><a href='http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm'>Internet World Users by Language: Top Ten Languages</a></em>(chart) (Sept. 30, 2009); Int&#8217;l Telecomm. Union <span>ITU</span>, <a href='http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/material/Telecom09_flyer.pdf'><em>The World in 2009: ICT Facts and Figures</em>1</a> (2009). The total number of fixed broadband subscribers reached nearly 500 million by the end of 2009. <em>Id.</em>at 5. <span>26</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>Brian Hindley &amp; Hosuk Lee-Makiyama, <em><a href='http://ecipe.org/publications/ecipe-working-papers/protectionism-online-'><em>Protectionism Online: Internet Censorship and International Trade Law</em></a></em>3 (ECIPE, Working Paper No. 12/2009). <span>28</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:5'>\n<p>U.S. Census Bureau, <em><a href='http://www.census.gov/mrts/www/data/html/09Q1table3.html'>Estimated Quarterly U.S. Retail Sales (Adjusted): Total and E-commerce (chart)</a></em> (May 15, 2009). <span>30</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:5' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:6'>\n<p>Int&#8217;l Telecomm. Union <span>ITU</span>, <a href='http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/publications/digitalife/docs/digital-life-web.pdf'><em>digital.life: ITU Internet Report 2006</em></a> 73 (2006). <span>32</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:6' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:7'>\n<p>Marc D. Nawyn, <em>Code Red: Responding to the Moral Hazards Facing U.S. Information Technology Companies in China</em>, 2007 Colum. Bus. L. Rev. 505 (2007). <span>33</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:7' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:8'>\n<p>Greg Walton, <em><a href='http://'>China&#8217;s Golden Shield: Corporations and the Development of Surveillance Technology in the People&#8217;s Republic of China</a></em>, Rights &amp; Democracy, 2001; <em>See</em> Jennifer Shyu, <em>Speak No Evil: Circumventing Chinese Censorship</em>, 45 San Diego L. Rev. 211, 249 (2008). <span>35</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:8' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:9'>\n<p>Testimony of Google, Inc. before the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, and the Subcommittee on Africa, Global Human Rights, and International Operations, Committee on International Relations, 207th Cong. (2006) (statement of Elliot Schrage, Vice President, Global Communications and Public Affairs, Google, Inc.). <span>36</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:9' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:10'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>37</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:10' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:11'>\n<p><a href='http://Googleblog.blogspot.com/2006/01/Google-in-china.html'>Google in China</a>, Google Official Blog, January 27, 2006. <span>39</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:11' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:12'>\n<p>Lindsay Eastwood, <em>&#8220;Don&#8217;t Be Evil&#8221;: Google Faces the Chinese Internet Market and the Global Online Freedom Act of 2007</em>, 9 Minn. J.L. Sci. &amp; Tech. 287, 288 (2008) (citing China Internet Network Info. Ctr., <a href='http://cnnic.cn/download/2006/18threport-en.pdf'>18th Statistical Survey Report on the Internet Development in China</a>, 3 (2006). <span>41</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:12' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:13'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> at n. 30 (stating &#8220;the main channel that obtain information are the Internet (82.6%), television (64.5%), papers (57.9%), magazines (18.8%), books (18.7%), radio (14.4%), and other (6.9%)&#8221;) (internal quotations omitted). <span>42</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:13' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:14'>\n<p><em>Id.</em> <span>43</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:14' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:15'>\n<p><em>E.g.,</em> Google&#8217;s decision to enter China, and subsequently censor search results, was primarily based on the premise that it was the lesser of two evils. Google CEO Eric Schmidt commented, &#8220;although we weren&#8217;t wild about the restrictions, it was even worse to not try to serve those users at all,&#8221; elaborating, &#8220;we actually did an evil scale and decided not to serve at all was worse evil.&#8221; Shyu, <em>Supra</em> note 8 at 213 (citing Danny Sullivan, <em><a href='http://blog.searchenginewatch.com/blog/060130-154414'>Google Created EvilRank Scale To Decide On Chinese Censorship</a></em>, Search Engine Watch, January 30, 2006. Accordingly, Google launched Google.cn under the belief that the &#8220;benefits of increased access to information for people in China… outweighed <span>the</span> discomfort… <span>of</span> agreeing to censor some results,&#8221; (<a href='http://Googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/01/new-approach-to-china.html'><em>A New Approach to China</em></a>, Official Google Blog, January 12, 2010) calling their service a &#8220;a meaningful – though imperfect – contribution to the overall expansion of… information in China.&#8221; Press Release, Google, Inc., <a href='http://www.Google.com/press/pressrel/rd_china.html'><em>Google to Open Research Center in China</em></a> (July 19, 2005). <span>47</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:15' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p>Twitter Mentions as Comments does exactly what it promises to do – scours Twitter for people talking about your blog posts and silently inserts their Tweets alongside your existing comments. The plugin leverages the power of WordPress&#8217;s built-in commenting system – notification, comment moderation, author white/black listing – making Twitter an extension of your blog.</p><p><strong>Features</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Searches for Tweets linking to your blog posts, regardless of the URL shortener used (using Twitter&#8217;s Search API)</li>\n\n<li>Pushes Tweets into WordPress&#8217;s existing comment workflow – notifications, comment moderation, and author whitelists/blacklists work just like any other comment</li>\n\n<li>Fetches user&#8217;s real name and profile picture and links directly to the original Tweet</li>\n\n<li>Checks automatically – no need to do a thing</li>\n\n<li>Option to automatically exclude ReTweets</li>\n\n<li>Option to store tweets as trackbacks/B</li>\n\n<li>Option to specify which posts to check (e.g., 10 most recent posts, all posts, front page only)</li>\n\n<li>Smart Caching of Tweets and user data – retrieves only what it needs to save on API calls and server load</li>\n</ul><p><strong>Planned Features</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Dynamic resizing of Twitter profile images to fit WordPress theme</li>\n\n<li>Prioritization of newer posts</li>\n\n<li>Oauth Authentication to raise API limit (currently unlimited Tweets, but limited to 150 <em>new</em> comment authors per hour)</li>\n\n<li>Smarter API throttling</li>\n</ul><p>The plugin is available in the <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/twitter-mentions-as-comments/'>WordPress plugin repository</a>, and you can see it in action <a href='#comments'>below</a> or on the <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/#comment-168'>WP Resume plugin page</a>.</p><p><strong>Looking to filter out a particular user or keyword?</strong> Because Tweets go through the normal comment filter, you can just <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/#comment-246'>blacklist them as described below</a>.</p><p><em>Enjoy using Twitter Mentions as Comments? Feel free to <a href='http://ben.balter.com/donate/' title='Donate'>make a small donation</a> to support the software&#8217;s continued development.</em></p><p><strong>Update (7/8): Comments have been closed in favor of <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/Twitter-Mentions-as-Comments/wiki/Where-to-get-Support-or-Report-an-Issue'>expanded support and discussion options</a>. Additional documentation about the project can now be found in the <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/Twitter-Mentions-as-Comments/wiki'>Project Wiki</a>. If you are interested in joining the project at any level of technical expertise, please see <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/Twitter-Mentions-as-Comments/wiki/How-to-Contribute'>How to Contribute</a>.</strong></p>","related_posts":[{"url":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/","title":"WordPress Resume Plugin"},{"url":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party/","title":"New Media Flak: Megaphone vs. Cocktail Party"},{"url":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/","title":"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?"},{"url":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility/","title":"Removing the Barriers to Organizational Agility\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing/","title":"What Fourteen-Century Apple Pie Teaches Us About Sharing\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds/","title":"Will Federal Contracting Officers Soon Have Their Heads in the Clouds?\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it/","title":"Free Trade in China? Just Google it."},{"url":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes/","title":"The Internet is Series of Tubes (oh, and Tollgates too)\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/","title":"Late-Night Infomercials: Guaranteed to Extend the 4th Amendment or Your Money Back"},{"url":"/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer/","title":"The Files \"in\" the Computer -- Zoolander and the California Supreme Court"}]}
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2  2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes.json
@@ -1 +1 @@
-{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"The Internet is Series of Tubes (oh, and Tollgates too)\n","excerpt":"The internet backbone provider Level 3 revealed that in recent negotiations, internet service provider Comcast demanded they pay an additional fee in exchange for Comcast continuing to allow its customers access to Netflix videos, effectively erecting a series of tollbooths on the information superhighway.\n","layout":"post","category":["Business","Technology"],"tags":["comcast","fcc","net neutrality","open internet","series of tubes"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes/","date":"2010-12-01 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes","categories":[["Business","Technology"]],"next":"Despite some users' [lax approach to safeguarding their identities][1], online accounts may now be afforded greater protection following the Sixth Circuit's ruling in *[United States v. Warshak][2].* The court, which upheld a temporary injunction on a fraud investigation involving the all-too-familiar [late-night \"Smilin' Bob\" informercials][3], extended the fourth amendment's warrant requirements to messages stored on third-party servers. The Sixth Circuit wrote:\n\n> \"[T]he ISP is the functional equivalent of a post office or a telephone company… [T]he police may not storm the post office and intercept a letter, and they are likewise forbidden from using the phone system to make a clandestine recording of a telephone call—unless they get a warrant, that is.\" [^1]\n\nPrior to the ruling, the government could ([and regularly did][5]) obtain e-mails stored on third-party hosts like Gmail, without first needing to obtain a search warrant. In its decision, the district court declared the 1986 Stored Communications Act (SCA) [2][^2] unconstitutional on the grounds that it allowed what was tantamount to a traditional search, but without the required showing of probable cause. The court noted, \"*[g]iven the fundamental similarities between e-mail and traditional forms of communication, it would defy common sense to afford e-mails lesser Fourth Amendment protection.*\" [3][^3]\n\nThe SCA, written long before GMail's all-you-can-eat storage was ever dreamed, required a warrant for any message stored on a third-party server for fewer than 180 days, but simply required a subpoena or court order for older messages or messages that had been previously downloaded by the user, thus denying the subject of the investigation both notice and the subsequent opportunity to contest the search itself. [^1][^4]\n\nFor the most part, [the decision makes sense][9]. As e-mail moves from download-and-delete [POP-based][10] messages stored solely on a user's computer to the nearly limitless [IMAP][11], [Exchange][12], or [Web-based][13] messaging that increasingly lives in the unseen cloud, neither opportunity to download nor time spent on server are very compelling standards to determine the level of privacy that should be afforded to a message or the showing of cause that should be required to compel a host to disclose its contents.\n\nThe decision, which [tips a circuit split][14] further in favor of extending the fourth amendment, should, at least in theory, lay the groundwork to grant such protections to other forms of information stored in the cloud. Such information may include calendars or contacts on the more obvious end of the spectrum, but may arguable be construed to cover wholesale cloud services like AWS, Salesforce, Rackspace, and Azure, a possibility not to be taken lightly following the [WikiLeaks hosting scramble][15].\n\nSurely the decision does not settle the issue outright, but it is the latest in a long march of much-needed rulings further blurring the legal distinctions between the world online and the world off, and as persuasively written as it is, is likely to prove influential as both law and technology continue to evolve side by side.\n\n\n[^1]: *United States v. Warshak*, 08-3997, 2010 WL 5071766 (6th Cir. Dec. 14, 2010). [16]\n[^2]: [18 U.S.C. 2703][17](b). \n[^3]: *Warshak*, 2010 WL 5071766. \n[^4]: *See generall*y [Obtaining Electronic Evidence][20], Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (July 2003)\n\n [1]: http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2010/12/13/the-top-50-gawker-media-passwords/\n [2]: http://www.ca6.uscourts.gov/opinions.pdf/10a0377p-06.pdf\n [3]: http://blogs.forbes.com/kashmirhill/2010/12/15/your-email-now-warrants-greater-privacy-thanks-to-sex-pill-peddling-dude/\n [5]: http://www.google.com/transparencyreport/governmentrequests/\n\n [9]: http://ben.balter.com/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/ \"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?\"\n [10]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post_Office_Protocol\n [11]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Message_Access_Protocol\n [12]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Exchange_Server\n [13]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Webmail\n [14]: http://volokh.com/2010/12/14/sixth-circuit-rules-that-e-mail-protected-by-the-fourth-amendment-warrant-requirement/\n [15]: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/12/01/wikileaks-website-loses-h_n_790526.html\n \n [17]: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/18/usc_sec_18_00002703----000-.html\n \n \n [20]: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IYzfdrim0owJ:www.fletc.gov/training/programs/legal-division/downloads-articles-and-faqs/downloads/other/obtaining_electronic.pdf/download+&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgpYeTPUFAijEyb4BnY4_wzFLwSJmRNv8yL2ZD8EkhQTjt7oXv9kELuYHG7A202xJ9_MGwvgVDwjviAEh0zW76gZQAbieBYwR6cnNUyD83txcScrGTU0qDUME590QPAMej6hmSy&sig=AHIEtbTf4jZconLMbkMO_hVK8xQ92bqZNQ","previous":"<p>Twitter Mentions as Comments does exactly what it promises to do – scours Twitter for people talking about your blog posts and silently inserts their Tweets alongside your existing comments. The plugin leverages the power of WordPress&#8217;s built-in commenting system – notification, comment moderation, author white/black listing – making Twitter an extension of your blog.</p><p><strong>Features</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Searches for Tweets linking to your blog posts, regardless of the URL shortener used (using Twitter&#8217;s Search API)</li>\n\n<li>Pushes Tweets into WordPress&#8217;s existing comment workflow – notifications, comment moderation, and author whitelists/blacklists work just like any other comment</li>\n\n<li>Fetches user&#8217;s real name and profile picture and links directly to the original Tweet</li>\n\n<li>Checks automatically – no need to do a thing</li>\n\n<li>Option to automatically exclude ReTweets</li>\n\n<li>Option to store tweets as trackbacks/B</li>\n\n<li>Option to specify which posts to check (e.g., 10 most recent posts, all posts, front page only)</li>\n\n<li>Smart Caching of Tweets and user data – retrieves only what it needs to save on API calls and server load</li>\n</ul><p><strong>Planned Features</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Dynamic resizing of Twitter profile images to fit WordPress theme</li>\n\n<li>Prioritization of newer posts</li>\n\n<li>Oauth Authentication to raise API limit (currently unlimited Tweets, but limited to 150 <em>new</em> comment authors per hour)</li>\n\n<li>Smarter API throttling</li>\n</ul><p>The plugin is available in the <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/twitter-mentions-as-comments/'>WordPress plugin repository</a>, and you can see it in action <a href='#comments'>below</a> or on the <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/#comment-168'>WP Resume plugin page</a>.</p><p><strong>Looking to filter out a particular user or keyword?</strong> Because Tweets go through the normal comment filter, you can just <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/#comment-246'>blacklist them as described below</a>.</p><p><em>Enjoy using Twitter Mentions as Comments? Feel free to <a href='http://ben.balter.com/donate/' title='Donate'>make a small donation</a> to support the software&#8217;s continued development.</em></p><p><strong>Update (7/8): Comments have been closed in favor of <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/Twitter-Mentions-as-Comments/wiki/Where-to-get-Support-or-Report-an-Issue'>expanded support and discussion options</a>. Additional documentation about the project can now be found in the <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/Twitter-Mentions-as-Comments/wiki'>Project Wiki</a>. If you are interested in joining the project at any level of technical expertise, please see <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/Twitter-Mentions-as-Comments/wiki/How-to-Contribute'>How to Contribute</a>.</strong></p>","content":"<p><a href='http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/wed-july-12-2006/headlines---internet'><img alt='' src='http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/wed-july-12-2006/headlines---internet' /></a>The Internet backbone (big <a href='http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/wed-july-12-2006/headlines---internet'>tube</a>) provider, Level 3, which makes up much of the behind-the-scenes magic that delivers Netflix streaming movies, revealed that in recent negotiations, internet service (smaller tube) provider Comcast <a href='http://voices.washingtonpost.com/posttech/2010/11/comcast_hit_with_two_net_neutr.html'>demanded Level 3 pay an additional fee</a> in exchange for Comcast <em>continuing</em> to allow its customers access to Netflix videos, effectively erecting a series of tollgates on the information superhighway.</p><p>It&#8217;s likely no coincidence that Comcast&#8217;s decision comes just a week after Netflix began offering <a href='http://blog.netflix.com/2010/11/new-plan-for-watching-instantly-plus.html'>streaming-only plans</a> (hinting at the firm&#8217;s broader push toward streaming video in the near future) and Level 3′s subsequent announcement of a partnership with Netflix to be its <a href='http://www.wired.com/epicenter/2010/11/comcast-tollbooth/'>primary carrier of streaming video</a>.</p><p>In Comcast&#8217;s defense, their move makes <em>some</em> sense from a business standpoint. After all, during peak hours, just 2% of Netflix users (via Level 3) account for <a href='http://www.slate.com/id/2273314/'>20% of all bandwidth used</a> in North America. In Comcast&#8217;s own words:</p><blockquote>\n<p><span>W</span>hen one provider… push<span>es</span> the burden of massive traffic growth onto the other provider and its customers, we believe this is not fair.</p>\n</blockquote><p>The problem with the &#8220;it&#8217;s the customer&#8217;s fault for using our service&#8221; argument, the <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/03/technology/companies/03att.html?_r=1'>same argument used by AT&amp;T</a> not too long ago, is that, if they haven&#8217;t already, service providers need to realize the Internet is here to stay. We as consumers like browsing the net. We like images. We like YouTube videos. We like interactive content. We like streaming stuff, and tomorrow we may like holograms or virtual reality or whatever the next cool, shiny thing is. Consumers simply can&#8217;t get enough rich, bandwidth-intensive content, and if you&#8217;re an internet service provider, you can&#8217;t complain when your customers use your service to do just that.</p><p>True, this may simply be <a href='http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2008/03/isp-quarrel-par/'>another petty dispute</a> between service providers as <a href='http://twitter.com/#!/ceciliakang/statuses/9730130310078464'>Comcast claims</a>, but the bigger problem with Comcast&#8217;s decision, however, is that Comcast is not simply a <em>service</em> provider (tubes), but with the <a href='http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/29/netflix-partner-says-comcast-toll-threatens-online-video-delivery/'>impending NBC merger</a>, also a <em>content</em> provider (the stuff in those tubes). This decision marks this first practical case where a service provider is actually taking steps to single out and discriminate against their competitor&#8217;s content. As Level 3′s Chief Legal Officer <a href='http://www.marketwatch.com/story/level-3-communications-issues-statement-concerning-comcasts-actions-2010-11-29?reflink=MW_news_stmp'>put it</a>:</p><blockquote>\n<p>Comcast is putting up a tollbooth at the borders of its broadband internet-access network, enabling it to unilaterally decide how much to charge for content which competes with its own cable TV and Xfinity-delivered content.</p>\n</blockquote><p>The Level-3/Comcast arrangement spells bleak hope for any future in which the Internet&#8217;s information democratization ethos continues – perhaps a commercialized future <a href='http://io9.com/5610328/how-the-googleverizon-proposal-could-kill-the-internet-in-5-years'>not too dissimilar from today&#8217;s tiered broadcast/cable TV system</a> — and a future unequivocally bad for consumers, regardless of what the FCC may or may not decide <a href='http://voices.washingtonpost.com/posttech/2010/11/lawmakers_push_fcc_to_vote_on.html'>later this month</a>.</p><p>Consider this: as Comcast&#8217;s customers increasingly <a href='http://lifehacker.com/5667680/ditching-cable-for-the-web-how-much-can-you-save-buying-renting-or-streaming-tv'>look to their computers for video content</a> rather than their cable box, Comcast can either squeeze that lost revenue out of its customers by bringing an <a href='http://www.businessinsider.com/comcast-internet-access-2010-11'>end to all-you-can-eat Internet</a>, in which case we&#8217;ll see an increase in our cable bill, or they can make up that lost revenue on the other end, by charging contest providers (like Level 3) a surcharge, forcing those services to offset their increased overhead by passing along the cost in the form of monthly fees, in which case we&#8217;ll see it on our Netflix/iTunes/Facebook bill instead. Either way, the decision forecasts an inevitable flow of money from our pockets to Comcast&#8217;s.</p><p>Any time the nation&#8217;s <a href='http://www.comcast.com/About/PressRelease/PressReleaseDetail.ashx?PRID=887'>largest</a> anything makes a &#8221;<a href='http://www.comcast.net/articles/finance/20101130/US.Level.3.Comcast/'>take it or leave it</a>&#8221; offer demanding a fee for an otherwise mutually beneficial relationship like <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peering'>peering</a>, the transaction deserves a certain degree of scrutiny, especially when it creates a catch-22 in that company&#8217;s favor. Is Comcast <em>trying</em> to kill the Internet? Probably not. <em>Will</em> they? I guess we&#8217;re going to have to wait and see.</p><p><em>Views represent <a href='http://ben.balter.com/fine-print/'>my own</a>.</em></p><p><span>photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/gnackgnackgnack/3592493739/'>gnackgnackgnack</a></span></p><p><span />: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/3592493739_6b0b0d3f45_b.jpg</p>","related_posts":[{"url":"/about/","title":"About"},{"url":"/contact/","title":"Contact"},{"url":"/donate/","title":"Donate"},{"url":"/fine-print/","title":"Fine Print"},{"url":"/resume/","title":"Resume"},{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"}]}
+{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"The Internet is Series of Tubes (oh, and Tollgates too)\n","excerpt":"The internet backbone provider Level 3 revealed that in recent negotiations, internet service provider Comcast demanded they pay an additional fee in exchange for Comcast continuing to allow its customers access to Netflix videos, effectively erecting a series of tollbooths on the information superhighway.\n","layout":"post","category":["Business","Technology"],"tags":["comcast","fcc","net neutrality","open internet","series of tubes"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes/","date":"2010-12-01 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes","categories":[["Business","Technology"]],"next":"Despite some users' [lax approach to safeguarding their identities][1], online accounts may now be afforded greater protection following the Sixth Circuit's ruling in *[United States v. Warshak][2].* The court, which upheld a temporary injunction on a fraud investigation involving the all-too-familiar [late-night \"Smilin' Bob\" informercials][3], extended the fourth amendment's warrant requirements to messages stored on third-party servers. The Sixth Circuit wrote:\n\n> \"[T]he ISP is the functional equivalent of a post office or a telephone company… [T]he police may not storm the post office and intercept a letter, and they are likewise forbidden from using the phone system to make a clandestine recording of a telephone call—unless they get a warrant, that is.\" [^1]\n\nPrior to the ruling, the government could ([and regularly did][5]) obtain e-mails stored on third-party hosts like Gmail, without first needing to obtain a search warrant. In its decision, the district court declared the 1986 Stored Communications Act (SCA) [2][^2] unconstitutional on the grounds that it allowed what was tantamount to a traditional search, but without the required showing of probable cause. The court noted, \"*[g]iven the fundamental similarities between e-mail and traditional forms of communication, it would defy common sense to afford e-mails lesser Fourth Amendment protection.*\" [3][^3]\n\nThe SCA, written long before GMail's all-you-can-eat storage was ever dreamed, required a warrant for any message stored on a third-party server for fewer than 180 days, but simply required a subpoena or court order for older messages or messages that had been previously downloaded by the user, thus denying the subject of the investigation both notice and the subsequent opportunity to contest the search itself. [^1][^4]\n\nFor the most part, [the decision makes sense][9]. As e-mail moves from download-and-delete [POP-based][10] messages stored solely on a user's computer to the nearly limitless [IMAP][11], [Exchange][12], or [Web-based][13] messaging that increasingly lives in the unseen cloud, neither opportunity to download nor time spent on server are very compelling standards to determine the level of privacy that should be afforded to a message or the showing of cause that should be required to compel a host to disclose its contents.\n\nThe decision, which [tips a circuit split][14] further in favor of extending the fourth amendment, should, at least in theory, lay the groundwork to grant such protections to other forms of information stored in the cloud. Such information may include calendars or contacts on the more obvious end of the spectrum, but may arguable be construed to cover wholesale cloud services like AWS, Salesforce, Rackspace, and Azure, a possibility not to be taken lightly following the [WikiLeaks hosting scramble][15].\n\nSurely the decision does not settle the issue outright, but it is the latest in a long march of much-needed rulings further blurring the legal distinctions between the world online and the world off, and as persuasively written as it is, is likely to prove influential as both law and technology continue to evolve side by side.\n\n\n[^1]: *United States v. Warshak*, 08-3997, 2010 WL 5071766 (6th Cir. Dec. 14, 2010). [16]\n[^2]: [18 U.S.C. 2703][17](b). \n[^3]: *Warshak*, 2010 WL 5071766. \n[^4]: *See generall*y [Obtaining Electronic Evidence][20], Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (July 2003)\n\n [1]: http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2010/12/13/the-top-50-gawker-media-passwords/\n [2]: http://www.ca6.uscourts.gov/opinions.pdf/10a0377p-06.pdf\n [3]: http://blogs.forbes.com/kashmirhill/2010/12/15/your-email-now-warrants-greater-privacy-thanks-to-sex-pill-peddling-dude/\n [5]: http://www.google.com/transparencyreport/governmentrequests/\n\n [9]: http://ben.balter.com/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/ \"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?\"\n [10]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post_Office_Protocol\n [11]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Message_Access_Protocol\n [12]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Exchange_Server\n [13]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Webmail\n [14]: http://volokh.com/2010/12/14/sixth-circuit-rules-that-e-mail-protected-by-the-fourth-amendment-warrant-requirement/\n [15]: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/12/01/wikileaks-website-loses-h_n_790526.html\n \n [17]: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/18/usc_sec_18_00002703----000-.html\n \n \n [20]: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IYzfdrim0owJ:www.fletc.gov/training/programs/legal-division/downloads-articles-and-faqs/downloads/other/obtaining_electronic.pdf/download+&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgpYeTPUFAijEyb4BnY4_wzFLwSJmRNv8yL2ZD8EkhQTjt7oXv9kELuYHG7A202xJ9_MGwvgVDwjviAEh0zW76gZQAbieBYwR6cnNUyD83txcScrGTU0qDUME590QPAMej6hmSy&sig=AHIEtbTf4jZconLMbkMO_hVK8xQ92bqZNQ","previous":"<p>Twitter Mentions as Comments does exactly what it promises to do – scours Twitter for people talking about your blog posts and silently inserts their Tweets alongside your existing comments. The plugin leverages the power of WordPress&#8217;s built-in commenting system – notification, comment moderation, author white/black listing – making Twitter an extension of your blog.</p><p><strong>Features</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Searches for Tweets linking to your blog posts, regardless of the URL shortener used (using Twitter&#8217;s Search API)</li>\n\n<li>Pushes Tweets into WordPress&#8217;s existing comment workflow – notifications, comment moderation, and author whitelists/blacklists work just like any other comment</li>\n\n<li>Fetches user&#8217;s real name and profile picture and links directly to the original Tweet</li>\n\n<li>Checks automatically – no need to do a thing</li>\n\n<li>Option to automatically exclude ReTweets</li>\n\n<li>Option to store tweets as trackbacks/B</li>\n\n<li>Option to specify which posts to check (e.g., 10 most recent posts, all posts, front page only)</li>\n\n<li>Smart Caching of Tweets and user data – retrieves only what it needs to save on API calls and server load</li>\n</ul><p><strong>Planned Features</strong></p><ul>\n<li>Dynamic resizing of Twitter profile images to fit WordPress theme</li>\n\n<li>Prioritization of newer posts</li>\n\n<li>Oauth Authentication to raise API limit (currently unlimited Tweets, but limited to 150 <em>new</em> comment authors per hour)</li>\n\n<li>Smarter API throttling</li>\n</ul><p>The plugin is available in the <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/twitter-mentions-as-comments/'>WordPress plugin repository</a>, and you can see it in action <a href='#comments'>below</a> or on the <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/#comment-168'>WP Resume plugin page</a>.</p><p><strong>Looking to filter out a particular user or keyword?</strong> Because Tweets go through the normal comment filter, you can just <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/#comment-246'>blacklist them as described below</a>.</p><p><em>Enjoy using Twitter Mentions as Comments? Feel free to <a href='http://ben.balter.com/donate/' title='Donate'>make a small donation</a> to support the software&#8217;s continued development.</em></p><p><strong>Update (7/8): Comments have been closed in favor of <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/Twitter-Mentions-as-Comments/wiki/Where-to-get-Support-or-Report-an-Issue'>expanded support and discussion options</a>. Additional documentation about the project can now be found in the <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/Twitter-Mentions-as-Comments/wiki'>Project Wiki</a>. If you are interested in joining the project at any level of technical expertise, please see <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/Twitter-Mentions-as-Comments/wiki/How-to-Contribute'>How to Contribute</a>.</strong></p>","content":"<p><a href='http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/wed-july-12-2006/headlines---internet'><img alt='' src='http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/wed-july-12-2006/headlines---internet' /></a>The Internet backbone (big <a href='http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/wed-july-12-2006/headlines---internet'>tube</a>) provider, Level 3, which makes up much of the behind-the-scenes magic that delivers Netflix streaming movies, revealed that in recent negotiations, internet service (smaller tube) provider Comcast <a href='http://voices.washingtonpost.com/posttech/2010/11/comcast_hit_with_two_net_neutr.html'>demanded Level 3 pay an additional fee</a> in exchange for Comcast <em>continuing</em> to allow its customers access to Netflix videos, effectively erecting a series of tollgates on the information superhighway.</p><p>It&#8217;s likely no coincidence that Comcast&#8217;s decision comes just a week after Netflix began offering <a href='http://blog.netflix.com/2010/11/new-plan-for-watching-instantly-plus.html'>streaming-only plans</a> (hinting at the firm&#8217;s broader push toward streaming video in the near future) and Level 3′s subsequent announcement of a partnership with Netflix to be its <a href='http://www.wired.com/epicenter/2010/11/comcast-tollbooth/'>primary carrier of streaming video</a>.</p><p>In Comcast&#8217;s defense, their move makes <em>some</em> sense from a business standpoint. After all, during peak hours, just 2% of Netflix users (via Level 3) account for <a href='http://www.slate.com/id/2273314/'>20% of all bandwidth used</a> in North America. In Comcast&#8217;s own words:</p><blockquote>\n<p><span>W</span>hen one provider… push<span>es</span> the burden of massive traffic growth onto the other provider and its customers, we believe this is not fair.</p>\n</blockquote><p>The problem with the &#8220;it&#8217;s the customer&#8217;s fault for using our service&#8221; argument, the <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/03/technology/companies/03att.html?_r=1'>same argument used by AT&amp;T</a> not too long ago, is that, if they haven&#8217;t already, service providers need to realize the Internet is here to stay. We as consumers like browsing the net. We like images. We like YouTube videos. We like interactive content. We like streaming stuff, and tomorrow we may like holograms or virtual reality or whatever the next cool, shiny thing is. Consumers simply can&#8217;t get enough rich, bandwidth-intensive content, and if you&#8217;re an internet service provider, you can&#8217;t complain when your customers use your service to do just that.</p><p>True, this may simply be <a href='http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2008/03/isp-quarrel-par/'>another petty dispute</a> between service providers as <a href='http://twitter.com/#!/ceciliakang/statuses/9730130310078464'>Comcast claims</a>, but the bigger problem with Comcast&#8217;s decision, however, is that Comcast is not simply a <em>service</em> provider (tubes), but with the <a href='http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/29/netflix-partner-says-comcast-toll-threatens-online-video-delivery/'>impending NBC merger</a>, also a <em>content</em> provider (the stuff in those tubes). This decision marks this first practical case where a service provider is actually taking steps to single out and discriminate against their competitor&#8217;s content. As Level 3′s Chief Legal Officer <a href='http://www.marketwatch.com/story/level-3-communications-issues-statement-concerning-comcasts-actions-2010-11-29?reflink=MW_news_stmp'>put it</a>:</p><blockquote>\n<p>Comcast is putting up a tollbooth at the borders of its broadband internet-access network, enabling it to unilaterally decide how much to charge for content which competes with its own cable TV and Xfinity-delivered content.</p>\n</blockquote><p>The Level-3/Comcast arrangement spells bleak hope for any future in which the Internet&#8217;s information democratization ethos continues – perhaps a commercialized future <a href='http://io9.com/5610328/how-the-googleverizon-proposal-could-kill-the-internet-in-5-years'>not too dissimilar from today&#8217;s tiered broadcast/cable TV system</a> — and a future unequivocally bad for consumers, regardless of what the FCC may or may not decide <a href='http://voices.washingtonpost.com/posttech/2010/11/lawmakers_push_fcc_to_vote_on.html'>later this month</a>.</p><p>Consider this: as Comcast&#8217;s customers increasingly <a href='http://lifehacker.com/5667680/ditching-cable-for-the-web-how-much-can-you-save-buying-renting-or-streaming-tv'>look to their computers for video content</a> rather than their cable box, Comcast can either squeeze that lost revenue out of its customers by bringing an <a href='http://www.businessinsider.com/comcast-internet-access-2010-11'>end to all-you-can-eat Internet</a>, in which case we&#8217;ll see an increase in our cable bill, or they can make up that lost revenue on the other end, by charging contest providers (like Level 3) a surcharge, forcing those services to offset their increased overhead by passing along the cost in the form of monthly fees, in which case we&#8217;ll see it on our Netflix/iTunes/Facebook bill instead. Either way, the decision forecasts an inevitable flow of money from our pockets to Comcast&#8217;s.</p><p>Any time the nation&#8217;s <a href='http://www.comcast.com/About/PressRelease/PressReleaseDetail.ashx?PRID=887'>largest</a> anything makes a &#8221;<a href='http://www.comcast.net/articles/finance/20101130/US.Level.3.Comcast/'>take it or leave it</a>&#8221; offer demanding a fee for an otherwise mutually beneficial relationship like <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peering'>peering</a>, the transaction deserves a certain degree of scrutiny, especially when it creates a catch-22 in that company&#8217;s favor. Is Comcast <em>trying</em> to kill the Internet? Probably not. <em>Will</em> they? I guess we&#8217;re going to have to wait and see.</p><p><em>Views represent <a href='http://ben.balter.com/fine-print/'>my own</a>.</em></p><p><span>photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/gnackgnackgnack/3592493739/'>gnackgnackgnack</a></span></p><p><span />: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/3592493739_6b0b0d3f45_b.jpg</p>","related_posts":[{"url":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/","title":"WordPress Resume Plugin"},{"url":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party/","title":"New Media Flak: Megaphone vs. Cocktail Party"},{"url":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/","title":"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?"},{"url":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility/","title":"Removing the Barriers to Organizational Agility\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing/","title":"What Fourteen-Century Apple Pie Teaches Us About Sharing\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds/","title":"Will Federal Contracting Officers Soon Have Their Heads in the Clouds?\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it/","title":"Free Trade in China? Just Google it."},{"url":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/","title":"Twitter Mentions as Comments WordPress Plugin\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/","title":"Late-Night Infomercials: Guaranteed to Extend the 4th Amendment or Your Money Back"},{"url":"/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer/","title":"The Files \"in\" the Computer -- Zoolander and the California Supreme Court"}]}
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2  2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials.json
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-{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"Late-Night Infomercials: Guaranteed to Extend the 4th Amendment or Your Money Back","excerpt":"Online accounts may now be afforded greater protection following the Sixth Circuit's ruling in United States v. Warshak. The court, upholding a temporary injunction on e-mail searches extended the fourth amendment's warrant requirements to messages stored on third-party servers.","layout":"post","category":["Law","Technology"],"tags":["cloud computing","digital due process","privacy"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/","date":"2010-12-20 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials","categories":[["Law","Technology"]],"next":"![Policeman Checks Cellphone][1]\n\nWhen drafting and interpreting the fourth amendment, neither the founding fathers, nor the countless legal scholars that followed them could have ever imagined that one day technology would allow us to walk down the street with our entire life chronicled in our pocket. The growing popularity of the cloud coupled with increasing power of smart phones has resulted in what not too long ago was tool for placing and receiving calls, today, in actuality, is a portal to one's entire digital life. Imagine if a routine traffic stop, say, for failing to signal properly, would place in the state's hands every e-mail you have ever sent, contact you have ever met, or financial transaction you have ever completed (not to mention your current [Angry Birds][2] score!). Regardless of how Orwellian it may sound, the California Supreme Court [ruled in favor of just such an outcome][3].\n\nIn *[People v. Diaz][4]*, the court ruled that a warrentless search of text messages on a cell phone confiscated subsequent to a lawful arrest did infact, constitute a valid search. While the dissent realized that mobile phones were increasingly becoming the hubs of our digital world, noting that the decision gave \"*carte blanche, with no showing of exigency, to rummage at leisure through the wealth of personal and business information that can be carried on a mobile phone or handheld computer merely because the device was taken from an arrestee's person,*\" I do not believe they fully grasped the gravity of the ruling. [^1]\n\n![][6][Much like Ben Stiller and Owen Wilson's characters in the movie Zoolander][7], the dissent's analysis is based on the assumption that information \"can be carried on\" or \"in\" one's mobile phone, a reality which simply is not the case in today's increasingly cloud-centric world.\n\nToday, and even more so tomorrow, information will not be \"carried on\" a phone, but rather, that phone will merely be the vehicle used to access information stored elsewhere, information that would otherwise carry the highest expectation of privacy. Put another way, the device holds, both literally and metaphorically, the address, keys, and means to access one's digital home, a breach of privacy that would not be tolerated if it occurred in a more tangible sense.\n\nIn a world where in reality, nearly every e-mail I have ever sent or received can be accessed by opening a folder on my phone virtually indistinguishable [^2] from any neighboring folder that contains locally stored information, the majority's interpretation grants the state access to nearly everything one says or does on a daily basis. Put another way, how much information do you think *won't* be accessible from your mobile phone in 5 years? 10 years? 20? Just scroll through your home screen. [^3]\n\nThe majority's decision was well argued by legal minds much wiser than my own, but even reading through the verbiage of the opinion, discussing the nature of containers and cavities as they relate to what is \"in\" the phone, it leads one to believe that their analysis is handicapped by [outdated concepts of storage and space][10]. [^4]\n\nWhile it may not be practical to install [Faraday cages][12] in every police station to ferret out what information can be gleamed from a mobile device without it querying a remote server (if there is any information at all), the majority's opinion fails to take into account the reality of how mobile phones are used today, let alone, how they will be most likely be used in the not-to-distant future. While the courts sort out [what fourth amendment protections are extended into the digital world][13], I for one, will be sure to put a password on my phone next time I cross the California state line. [^5]\n\n[photo: [Thomas Hawk][15]]\n\nNotes:\n\n[^1]: While the question has been pondered to some extent, for example, in Professor Kerr's 2006 paper [Searches and Seizures in a Digital World][16], or Professor Gershowitz's 2008 paper, [the iPhone Meets the Fourth Amendment][17], technology has come a long way, even in the past two years, and will continue to evolve in the years to come. [18]\n[^2]: Even for the technologically adept, today, it is hard to tell exactly what information exists \"on\" my phone, and what information exists \"in\" the cloud. The subject and sender of an incoming e-mail may be pushed to my iPhone automatically, for example, but the body or attachments may not download until I access the message itself. Today's calendar entries may be cached on the device (I wouldn't consider my calendar \"stored\" on my device — it's not the master copy), but yesterday's and tomorrow's agendas are both retrieved on demand from a distant server unrelated to any hypothetical search to which I may me subject. [19]\n[^3]: Beyond the obvious (e-mail, phone, contact, calendars), there's [dinner reservations][20], [car rentals][21], [TV viewing habits][22], [financial data][23], [recent purchases][24], even [desktop browsing history][25] — it's like winning the lottery of personal information. [26]\n[^4]: It's worth noting that the word \"server\" is not mentioned once in the opinion, yet the phrase \"storage capacity\" is used no less than five times — a concept that [even as early as 2007 was considered a thing of the past][27]. [28]\n[^5]: A password may only delay the inevitable. *See *Gershowitz, Adam M.,* [Password Protected? Can a Password Save Your Cell Phone from the Search Incident to Arrest Doctrine?][29] *(August 31, 2010). [30]\n\n [1]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/policeman.jpg \"Policeman Checks Cellphone\"\n [2]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angry_Birds\n [3]: http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2011/01/warrantless-cell-phone-search-gets-a-green-light-in-california.ars?comments=1#comments-bar\n [4]: http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/S166600.PDF\n [5]: #note-2020-1 \"While the question has been pondered to some extent, for example, in Professor Kerr's 2006 paper Searches and Seizures in a Digital World, or Professor Gershowitz's 2008 paper, the iPhone Meets the Fourth Amendment, technology has come a long way, even in the past two years, and will continue to evolve in the years to come.\"\n [6]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/zoolander-300x188.jpg \"Zoolander\"\n [7]: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_m_PncKuDao&feature=related#t=1m16s\n [8]: #note-2020-2 \"Even for the technologically adept, today, it is hard to tell exactly what information exists \"on\" my phone, and what information exists \"in\" the cloud. The subject and sender of an incoming e-mail may be pushed to my iPhone automatically, for example, but the body or attachments may not download until I access the message itself. Today's calendar entries may be cached on the device (I wouldn't consider my calendar \"stored\" on my device — it's not the master copy), but yesterday's and tomorrow's agendas are both retrieved on demand from a distant server unrelated to any hypothetical search to which I may me subject.\"\n [9]: #note-2020-3 \"Beyond the obvious (e-mail, phone, contact, calendars), there's dinner reservations, car rentals, TV viewing habits, financial data, recent purchases, even desktop browsing history — it's like winning the lottery of personal information.\"\n [10]: http://movieclips.com/sgNVB-zoolander-movie-computer-experts/\n [11]: #note-2020-4 \"It's worth noting that the word \"server\" is not mentioned once in the opinion, yet the phrase \"storage capacity\" is used no less than five times — a concept that even as early as 2007 was considered a thing of the past.\"\n [12]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faraday_cage\n [13]: http://ben.balter.com/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/\n [14]: #note-2020-5 \"A password may only delay the inevitable. See Gershowitz, Adam M., Password Protected? Can a Password Save Your Cell Phone from the Search Incident to Arrest Doctrine? (August 31, 2010).\"\n [15]: http://www.flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/61076493/\n [16]: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=697541\n [17]: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1084503\n \n \n [20]: http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/opentable/id296581815?mt=8\n [21]: http://www.zipcar.com/iphone/\n [22]: http://www.engadget.com/2010/11/15/comcast-xfinity-remote-app-for-iphone-ipad-launches-video-stre/\n [23]: http://www.mint.com/features/iphone/\n [24]: http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?ie=UTF8&docId=1000291661\n [25]: http://www.mozilla.com/en-US/mobile/home/\n \n [27]: http://mashable.com/2007/05/14/yahoo-mail-unlimited/\n \n [29]: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1669403","previous":"<p><a href='http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/wed-july-12-2006/headlines---internet'><img alt='' src='http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/wed-july-12-2006/headlines---internet' /></a>The Internet backbone (big <a href='http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/wed-july-12-2006/headlines---internet'>tube</a>) provider, Level 3, which makes up much of the behind-the-scenes magic that delivers Netflix streaming movies, revealed that in recent negotiations, internet service (smaller tube) provider Comcast <a href='http://voices.washingtonpost.com/posttech/2010/11/comcast_hit_with_two_net_neutr.html'>demanded Level 3 pay an additional fee</a> in exchange for Comcast <em>continuing</em> to allow its customers access to Netflix videos, effectively erecting a series of tollgates on the information superhighway.</p><p>It&#8217;s likely no coincidence that Comcast&#8217;s decision comes just a week after Netflix began offering <a href='http://blog.netflix.com/2010/11/new-plan-for-watching-instantly-plus.html'>streaming-only plans</a> (hinting at the firm&#8217;s broader push toward streaming video in the near future) and Level 3′s subsequent announcement of a partnership with Netflix to be its <a href='http://www.wired.com/epicenter/2010/11/comcast-tollbooth/'>primary carrier of streaming video</a>.</p><p>In Comcast&#8217;s defense, their move makes <em>some</em> sense from a business standpoint. After all, during peak hours, just 2% of Netflix users (via Level 3) account for <a href='http://www.slate.com/id/2273314/'>20% of all bandwidth used</a> in North America. In Comcast&#8217;s own words:</p><blockquote>\n<p><span>W</span>hen one provider… push<span>es</span> the burden of massive traffic growth onto the other provider and its customers, we believe this is not fair.</p>\n</blockquote><p>The problem with the &#8220;it&#8217;s the customer&#8217;s fault for using our service&#8221; argument, the <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/03/technology/companies/03att.html?_r=1'>same argument used by AT&amp;T</a> not too long ago, is that, if they haven&#8217;t already, service providers need to realize the Internet is here to stay. We as consumers like browsing the net. We like images. We like YouTube videos. We like interactive content. We like streaming stuff, and tomorrow we may like holograms or virtual reality or whatever the next cool, shiny thing is. Consumers simply can&#8217;t get enough rich, bandwidth-intensive content, and if you&#8217;re an internet service provider, you can&#8217;t complain when your customers use your service to do just that.</p><p>True, this may simply be <a href='http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2008/03/isp-quarrel-par/'>another petty dispute</a> between service providers as <a href='http://twitter.com/#!/ceciliakang/statuses/9730130310078464'>Comcast claims</a>, but the bigger problem with Comcast&#8217;s decision, however, is that Comcast is not simply a <em>service</em> provider (tubes), but with the <a href='http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/29/netflix-partner-says-comcast-toll-threatens-online-video-delivery/'>impending NBC merger</a>, also a <em>content</em> provider (the stuff in those tubes). This decision marks this first practical case where a service provider is actually taking steps to single out and discriminate against their competitor&#8217;s content. As Level 3′s Chief Legal Officer <a href='http://www.marketwatch.com/story/level-3-communications-issues-statement-concerning-comcasts-actions-2010-11-29?reflink=MW_news_stmp'>put it</a>:</p><blockquote>\n<p>Comcast is putting up a tollbooth at the borders of its broadband internet-access network, enabling it to unilaterally decide how much to charge for content which competes with its own cable TV and Xfinity-delivered content.</p>\n</blockquote><p>The Level-3/Comcast arrangement spells bleak hope for any future in which the Internet&#8217;s information democratization ethos continues – perhaps a commercialized future <a href='http://io9.com/5610328/how-the-googleverizon-proposal-could-kill-the-internet-in-5-years'>not too dissimilar from today&#8217;s tiered broadcast/cable TV system</a> — and a future unequivocally bad for consumers, regardless of what the FCC may or may not decide <a href='http://voices.washingtonpost.com/posttech/2010/11/lawmakers_push_fcc_to_vote_on.html'>later this month</a>.</p><p>Consider this: as Comcast&#8217;s customers increasingly <a href='http://lifehacker.com/5667680/ditching-cable-for-the-web-how-much-can-you-save-buying-renting-or-streaming-tv'>look to their computers for video content</a> rather than their cable box, Comcast can either squeeze that lost revenue out of its customers by bringing an <a href='http://www.businessinsider.com/comcast-internet-access-2010-11'>end to all-you-can-eat Internet</a>, in which case we&#8217;ll see an increase in our cable bill, or they can make up that lost revenue on the other end, by charging contest providers (like Level 3) a surcharge, forcing those services to offset their increased overhead by passing along the cost in the form of monthly fees, in which case we&#8217;ll see it on our Netflix/iTunes/Facebook bill instead. Either way, the decision forecasts an inevitable flow of money from our pockets to Comcast&#8217;s.</p><p>Any time the nation&#8217;s <a href='http://www.comcast.com/About/PressRelease/PressReleaseDetail.ashx?PRID=887'>largest</a> anything makes a &#8221;<a href='http://www.comcast.net/articles/finance/20101130/US.Level.3.Comcast/'>take it or leave it</a>&#8221; offer demanding a fee for an otherwise mutually beneficial relationship like <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peering'>peering</a>, the transaction deserves a certain degree of scrutiny, especially when it creates a catch-22 in that company&#8217;s favor. Is Comcast <em>trying</em> to kill the Internet? Probably not. <em>Will</em> they? I guess we&#8217;re going to have to wait and see.</p><p><em>Views represent <a href='http://ben.balter.com/fine-print/'>my own</a>.</em></p><p><span>photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/gnackgnackgnack/3592493739/'>gnackgnackgnack</a></span></p><p><span />: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/3592493739_6b0b0d3f45_b.jpg</p>","content":"<p>Despite some users&#8217; <a href='http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2010/12/13/the-top-50-gawker-media-passwords/'>lax approach to safeguarding their identities</a>, online accounts may now be afforded greater protection following the Sixth Circuit&#8217;s ruling in <em><a href='http://www.ca6.uscourts.gov/opinions.pdf/10a0377p-06.pdf'>United States v. Warshak</a>.</em> The court, which upheld a temporary injunction on a fraud investigation involving the all-too-familiar <a href='http://blogs.forbes.com/kashmirhill/2010/12/15/your-email-now-warrants-greater-privacy-thanks-to-sex-pill-peddling-dude/'>late-night &#8220;Smilin&#8217; Bob&#8221; informercials</a>, extended the fourth amendment&#8217;s warrant requirements to messages stored on third-party servers. The Sixth Circuit wrote:</p><blockquote>\n<p>&#8221;<span>T</span>he ISP is the functional equivalent of a post office or a telephone company… <span>T</span>he police may not storm the post office and intercept a letter, and they are likewise forbidden from using the phone system to make a clandestine recording of a telephone call—unless they get a warrant, that is.&#8221; <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup></p>\n</blockquote><p>Prior to the ruling, the government could (<a href='http://www.google.com/transparencyreport/governmentrequests/'>and regularly did</a>) obtain e-mails stored on third-party hosts like Gmail, without first needing to obtain a search warrant. In its decision, the district court declared the 1986 Stored Communications Act (SCA) <a href='http://www.ca6.uscourts.gov/opinions.pdf/10a0377p-06.pdf'>2</a> unconstitutional on the grounds that it allowed what was tantamount to a traditional search, but without the required showing of probable cause. The court noted, &#8221;<em><span>g</span>iven the fundamental similarities between e-mail and traditional forms of communication, it would defy common sense to afford e-mails lesser Fourth Amendment protection.</em>&#8221; <a href='http://blogs.forbes.com/kashmirhill/2010/12/15/your-email-now-warrants-greater-privacy-thanks-to-sex-pill-peddling-dude/'>3</a></p><p>The SCA, written long before GMail&#8217;s all-you-can-eat storage was ever dreamed, required a warrant for any message stored on a third-party server for fewer than 180 days, but simply required a subpoena or court order for older messages or messages that had been previously downloaded by the user, thus denying the subject of the investigation both notice and the subsequent opportunity to contest the search itself. <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup></p><p>For the most part, <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/' title='Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?'>the decision makes sense</a>. As e-mail moves from download-and-delete <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post_Office_Protocol'>POP-based</a> messages stored solely on a user&#8217;s computer to the nearly limitless <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Message_Access_Protocol'>IMAP</a>, <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Exchange_Server'>Exchange</a>, or <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Webmail'>Web-based</a> messaging that increasingly lives in the unseen cloud, neither opportunity to download nor time spent on server are very compelling standards to determine the level of privacy that should be afforded to a message or the showing of cause that should be required to compel a host to disclose its contents.</p><p>The decision, which <a href='http://volokh.com/2010/12/14/sixth-circuit-rules-that-e-mail-protected-by-the-fourth-amendment-warrant-requirement/'>tips a circuit split</a> further in favor of extending the fourth amendment, should, at least in theory, lay the groundwork to grant such protections to other forms of information stored in the cloud. Such information may include calendars or contacts on the more obvious end of the spectrum, but may arguable be construed to cover wholesale cloud services like AWS, Salesforce, Rackspace, and Azure, a possibility not to be taken lightly following the <a href='http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/12/01/wikileaks-website-loses-h_n_790526.html'>WikiLeaks hosting scramble</a>.</p><p>Surely the decision does not settle the issue outright, but it is the latest in a long march of much-needed rulings further blurring the legal distinctions between the world online and the world off, and as persuasively written as it is, is likely to prove influential as both law and technology continue to evolve side by side.</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p><em>United States v. Warshak</em>, 08-3997, 2010 WL 5071766 (6th Cir. Dec. 14, 2010). <span>16</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p><em>See generall</em>y <a href='http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&amp;q=cache:IYzfdrim0owJ:www.fletc.gov/training/programs/legal-division/downloads-articles-and-faqs/downloads/other/obtaining_electronic.pdf/download+&amp;hl=en&amp;gl=us&amp;pid=bl&amp;srcid=ADGEESgpYeTPUFAijEyb4BnY4_wzFLwSJmRNv8yL2ZD8EkhQTjt7oXv9kELuYHG7A202xJ9_MGwvgVDwjviAEh0zW76gZQAbieBYwR6cnNUyD83txcScrGTU0qDUME590QPAMej6hmSy&amp;sig=AHIEtbTf4jZconLMbkMO_hVK8xQ92bqZNQ'>Obtaining Electronic Evidence</a>, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (July 2003)</p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/about/","title":"About"},{"url":"/contact/","title":"Contact"},{"url":"/donate/","title":"Donate"},{"url":"/fine-print/","title":"Fine Print"},{"url":"/resume/","title":"Resume"},{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"}]}
+{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"Late-Night Infomercials: Guaranteed to Extend the 4th Amendment or Your Money Back","excerpt":"Online accounts may now be afforded greater protection following the Sixth Circuit's ruling in United States v. Warshak. The court, upholding a temporary injunction on e-mail searches extended the fourth amendment's warrant requirements to messages stored on third-party servers.","layout":"post","category":["Law","Technology"],"tags":["cloud computing","digital due process","privacy"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/","date":"2010-12-20 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials","categories":[["Law","Technology"]],"next":"![Policeman Checks Cellphone][1]\n\nWhen drafting and interpreting the fourth amendment, neither the founding fathers, nor the countless legal scholars that followed them could have ever imagined that one day technology would allow us to walk down the street with our entire life chronicled in our pocket. The growing popularity of the cloud coupled with increasing power of smart phones has resulted in what not too long ago was tool for placing and receiving calls, today, in actuality, is a portal to one's entire digital life. Imagine if a routine traffic stop, say, for failing to signal properly, would place in the state's hands every e-mail you have ever sent, contact you have ever met, or financial transaction you have ever completed (not to mention your current [Angry Birds][2] score!). Regardless of how Orwellian it may sound, the California Supreme Court [ruled in favor of just such an outcome][3].\n\nIn *[People v. Diaz][4]*, the court ruled that a warrentless search of text messages on a cell phone confiscated subsequent to a lawful arrest did infact, constitute a valid search. While the dissent realized that mobile phones were increasingly becoming the hubs of our digital world, noting that the decision gave \"*carte blanche, with no showing of exigency, to rummage at leisure through the wealth of personal and business information that can be carried on a mobile phone or handheld computer merely because the device was taken from an arrestee's person,*\" I do not believe they fully grasped the gravity of the ruling. [^1]\n\n![][6][Much like Ben Stiller and Owen Wilson's characters in the movie Zoolander][7], the dissent's analysis is based on the assumption that information \"can be carried on\" or \"in\" one's mobile phone, a reality which simply is not the case in today's increasingly cloud-centric world.\n\nToday, and even more so tomorrow, information will not be \"carried on\" a phone, but rather, that phone will merely be the vehicle used to access information stored elsewhere, information that would otherwise carry the highest expectation of privacy. Put another way, the device holds, both literally and metaphorically, the address, keys, and means to access one's digital home, a breach of privacy that would not be tolerated if it occurred in a more tangible sense.\n\nIn a world where in reality, nearly every e-mail I have ever sent or received can be accessed by opening a folder on my phone virtually indistinguishable [^2] from any neighboring folder that contains locally stored information, the majority's interpretation grants the state access to nearly everything one says or does on a daily basis. Put another way, how much information do you think *won't* be accessible from your mobile phone in 5 years? 10 years? 20? Just scroll through your home screen. [^3]\n\nThe majority's decision was well argued by legal minds much wiser than my own, but even reading through the verbiage of the opinion, discussing the nature of containers and cavities as they relate to what is \"in\" the phone, it leads one to believe that their analysis is handicapped by [outdated concepts of storage and space][10]. [^4]\n\nWhile it may not be practical to install [Faraday cages][12] in every police station to ferret out what information can be gleamed from a mobile device without it querying a remote server (if there is any information at all), the majority's opinion fails to take into account the reality of how mobile phones are used today, let alone, how they will be most likely be used in the not-to-distant future. While the courts sort out [what fourth amendment protections are extended into the digital world][13], I for one, will be sure to put a password on my phone next time I cross the California state line. [^5]\n\n[photo: [Thomas Hawk][15]]\n\nNotes:\n\n[^1]: While the question has been pondered to some extent, for example, in Professor Kerr's 2006 paper [Searches and Seizures in a Digital World][16], or Professor Gershowitz's 2008 paper, [the iPhone Meets the Fourth Amendment][17], technology has come a long way, even in the past two years, and will continue to evolve in the years to come. [18]\n[^2]: Even for the technologically adept, today, it is hard to tell exactly what information exists \"on\" my phone, and what information exists \"in\" the cloud. The subject and sender of an incoming e-mail may be pushed to my iPhone automatically, for example, but the body or attachments may not download until I access the message itself. Today's calendar entries may be cached on the device (I wouldn't consider my calendar \"stored\" on my device — it's not the master copy), but yesterday's and tomorrow's agendas are both retrieved on demand from a distant server unrelated to any hypothetical search to which I may me subject. [19]\n[^3]: Beyond the obvious (e-mail, phone, contact, calendars), there's [dinner reservations][20], [car rentals][21], [TV viewing habits][22], [financial data][23], [recent purchases][24], even [desktop browsing history][25] — it's like winning the lottery of personal information. [26]\n[^4]: It's worth noting that the word \"server\" is not mentioned once in the opinion, yet the phrase \"storage capacity\" is used no less than five times — a concept that [even as early as 2007 was considered a thing of the past][27]. [28]\n[^5]: A password may only delay the inevitable. *See *Gershowitz, Adam M.,* [Password Protected? Can a Password Save Your Cell Phone from the Search Incident to Arrest Doctrine?][29] *(August 31, 2010). [30]\n\n [1]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/policeman.jpg \"Policeman Checks Cellphone\"\n [2]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angry_Birds\n [3]: http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2011/01/warrantless-cell-phone-search-gets-a-green-light-in-california.ars?comments=1#comments-bar\n [4]: http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/S166600.PDF\n [5]: #note-2020-1 \"While the question has been pondered to some extent, for example, in Professor Kerr's 2006 paper Searches and Seizures in a Digital World, or Professor Gershowitz's 2008 paper, the iPhone Meets the Fourth Amendment, technology has come a long way, even in the past two years, and will continue to evolve in the years to come.\"\n [6]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/zoolander-300x188.jpg \"Zoolander\"\n [7]: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_m_PncKuDao&feature=related#t=1m16s\n [8]: #note-2020-2 \"Even for the technologically adept, today, it is hard to tell exactly what information exists \"on\" my phone, and what information exists \"in\" the cloud. The subject and sender of an incoming e-mail may be pushed to my iPhone automatically, for example, but the body or attachments may not download until I access the message itself. Today's calendar entries may be cached on the device (I wouldn't consider my calendar \"stored\" on my device — it's not the master copy), but yesterday's and tomorrow's agendas are both retrieved on demand from a distant server unrelated to any hypothetical search to which I may me subject.\"\n [9]: #note-2020-3 \"Beyond the obvious (e-mail, phone, contact, calendars), there's dinner reservations, car rentals, TV viewing habits, financial data, recent purchases, even desktop browsing history — it's like winning the lottery of personal information.\"\n [10]: http://movieclips.com/sgNVB-zoolander-movie-computer-experts/\n [11]: #note-2020-4 \"It's worth noting that the word \"server\" is not mentioned once in the opinion, yet the phrase \"storage capacity\" is used no less than five times — a concept that even as early as 2007 was considered a thing of the past.\"\n [12]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faraday_cage\n [13]: http://ben.balter.com/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/\n [14]: #note-2020-5 \"A password may only delay the inevitable. See Gershowitz, Adam M., Password Protected? Can a Password Save Your Cell Phone from the Search Incident to Arrest Doctrine? (August 31, 2010).\"\n [15]: http://www.flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/61076493/\n [16]: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=697541\n [17]: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1084503\n \n \n [20]: http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/opentable/id296581815?mt=8\n [21]: http://www.zipcar.com/iphone/\n [22]: http://www.engadget.com/2010/11/15/comcast-xfinity-remote-app-for-iphone-ipad-launches-video-stre/\n [23]: http://www.mint.com/features/iphone/\n [24]: http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?ie=UTF8&docId=1000291661\n [25]: http://www.mozilla.com/en-US/mobile/home/\n \n [27]: http://mashable.com/2007/05/14/yahoo-mail-unlimited/\n \n [29]: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1669403","previous":"<p><a href='http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/wed-july-12-2006/headlines---internet'><img alt='' src='http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/wed-july-12-2006/headlines---internet' /></a>The Internet backbone (big <a href='http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/wed-july-12-2006/headlines---internet'>tube</a>) provider, Level 3, which makes up much of the behind-the-scenes magic that delivers Netflix streaming movies, revealed that in recent negotiations, internet service (smaller tube) provider Comcast <a href='http://voices.washingtonpost.com/posttech/2010/11/comcast_hit_with_two_net_neutr.html'>demanded Level 3 pay an additional fee</a> in exchange for Comcast <em>continuing</em> to allow its customers access to Netflix videos, effectively erecting a series of tollgates on the information superhighway.</p><p>It&#8217;s likely no coincidence that Comcast&#8217;s decision comes just a week after Netflix began offering <a href='http://blog.netflix.com/2010/11/new-plan-for-watching-instantly-plus.html'>streaming-only plans</a> (hinting at the firm&#8217;s broader push toward streaming video in the near future) and Level 3′s subsequent announcement of a partnership with Netflix to be its <a href='http://www.wired.com/epicenter/2010/11/comcast-tollbooth/'>primary carrier of streaming video</a>.</p><p>In Comcast&#8217;s defense, their move makes <em>some</em> sense from a business standpoint. After all, during peak hours, just 2% of Netflix users (via Level 3) account for <a href='http://www.slate.com/id/2273314/'>20% of all bandwidth used</a> in North America. In Comcast&#8217;s own words:</p><blockquote>\n<p><span>W</span>hen one provider… push<span>es</span> the burden of massive traffic growth onto the other provider and its customers, we believe this is not fair.</p>\n</blockquote><p>The problem with the &#8220;it&#8217;s the customer&#8217;s fault for using our service&#8221; argument, the <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/03/technology/companies/03att.html?_r=1'>same argument used by AT&amp;T</a> not too long ago, is that, if they haven&#8217;t already, service providers need to realize the Internet is here to stay. We as consumers like browsing the net. We like images. We like YouTube videos. We like interactive content. We like streaming stuff, and tomorrow we may like holograms or virtual reality or whatever the next cool, shiny thing is. Consumers simply can&#8217;t get enough rich, bandwidth-intensive content, and if you&#8217;re an internet service provider, you can&#8217;t complain when your customers use your service to do just that.</p><p>True, this may simply be <a href='http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2008/03/isp-quarrel-par/'>another petty dispute</a> between service providers as <a href='http://twitter.com/#!/ceciliakang/statuses/9730130310078464'>Comcast claims</a>, but the bigger problem with Comcast&#8217;s decision, however, is that Comcast is not simply a <em>service</em> provider (tubes), but with the <a href='http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/29/netflix-partner-says-comcast-toll-threatens-online-video-delivery/'>impending NBC merger</a>, also a <em>content</em> provider (the stuff in those tubes). This decision marks this first practical case where a service provider is actually taking steps to single out and discriminate against their competitor&#8217;s content. As Level 3′s Chief Legal Officer <a href='http://www.marketwatch.com/story/level-3-communications-issues-statement-concerning-comcasts-actions-2010-11-29?reflink=MW_news_stmp'>put it</a>:</p><blockquote>\n<p>Comcast is putting up a tollbooth at the borders of its broadband internet-access network, enabling it to unilaterally decide how much to charge for content which competes with its own cable TV and Xfinity-delivered content.</p>\n</blockquote><p>The Level-3/Comcast arrangement spells bleak hope for any future in which the Internet&#8217;s information democratization ethos continues – perhaps a commercialized future <a href='http://io9.com/5610328/how-the-googleverizon-proposal-could-kill-the-internet-in-5-years'>not too dissimilar from today&#8217;s tiered broadcast/cable TV system</a> — and a future unequivocally bad for consumers, regardless of what the FCC may or may not decide <a href='http://voices.washingtonpost.com/posttech/2010/11/lawmakers_push_fcc_to_vote_on.html'>later this month</a>.</p><p>Consider this: as Comcast&#8217;s customers increasingly <a href='http://lifehacker.com/5667680/ditching-cable-for-the-web-how-much-can-you-save-buying-renting-or-streaming-tv'>look to their computers for video content</a> rather than their cable box, Comcast can either squeeze that lost revenue out of its customers by bringing an <a href='http://www.businessinsider.com/comcast-internet-access-2010-11'>end to all-you-can-eat Internet</a>, in which case we&#8217;ll see an increase in our cable bill, or they can make up that lost revenue on the other end, by charging contest providers (like Level 3) a surcharge, forcing those services to offset their increased overhead by passing along the cost in the form of monthly fees, in which case we&#8217;ll see it on our Netflix/iTunes/Facebook bill instead. Either way, the decision forecasts an inevitable flow of money from our pockets to Comcast&#8217;s.</p><p>Any time the nation&#8217;s <a href='http://www.comcast.com/About/PressRelease/PressReleaseDetail.ashx?PRID=887'>largest</a> anything makes a &#8221;<a href='http://www.comcast.net/articles/finance/20101130/US.Level.3.Comcast/'>take it or leave it</a>&#8221; offer demanding a fee for an otherwise mutually beneficial relationship like <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peering'>peering</a>, the transaction deserves a certain degree of scrutiny, especially when it creates a catch-22 in that company&#8217;s favor. Is Comcast <em>trying</em> to kill the Internet? Probably not. <em>Will</em> they? I guess we&#8217;re going to have to wait and see.</p><p><em>Views represent <a href='http://ben.balter.com/fine-print/'>my own</a>.</em></p><p><span>photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/gnackgnackgnack/3592493739/'>gnackgnackgnack</a></span></p><p><span />: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/3592493739_6b0b0d3f45_b.jpg</p>","content":"<p>Despite some users&#8217; <a href='http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2010/12/13/the-top-50-gawker-media-passwords/'>lax approach to safeguarding their identities</a>, online accounts may now be afforded greater protection following the Sixth Circuit&#8217;s ruling in <em><a href='http://www.ca6.uscourts.gov/opinions.pdf/10a0377p-06.pdf'>United States v. Warshak</a>.</em> The court, which upheld a temporary injunction on a fraud investigation involving the all-too-familiar <a href='http://blogs.forbes.com/kashmirhill/2010/12/15/your-email-now-warrants-greater-privacy-thanks-to-sex-pill-peddling-dude/'>late-night &#8220;Smilin&#8217; Bob&#8221; informercials</a>, extended the fourth amendment&#8217;s warrant requirements to messages stored on third-party servers. The Sixth Circuit wrote:</p><blockquote>\n<p>&#8221;<span>T</span>he ISP is the functional equivalent of a post office or a telephone company… <span>T</span>he police may not storm the post office and intercept a letter, and they are likewise forbidden from using the phone system to make a clandestine recording of a telephone call—unless they get a warrant, that is.&#8221; <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup></p>\n</blockquote><p>Prior to the ruling, the government could (<a href='http://www.google.com/transparencyreport/governmentrequests/'>and regularly did</a>) obtain e-mails stored on third-party hosts like Gmail, without first needing to obtain a search warrant. In its decision, the district court declared the 1986 Stored Communications Act (SCA) <a href='http://www.ca6.uscourts.gov/opinions.pdf/10a0377p-06.pdf'>2</a> unconstitutional on the grounds that it allowed what was tantamount to a traditional search, but without the required showing of probable cause. The court noted, &#8221;<em><span>g</span>iven the fundamental similarities between e-mail and traditional forms of communication, it would defy common sense to afford e-mails lesser Fourth Amendment protection.</em>&#8221; <a href='http://blogs.forbes.com/kashmirhill/2010/12/15/your-email-now-warrants-greater-privacy-thanks-to-sex-pill-peddling-dude/'>3</a></p><p>The SCA, written long before GMail&#8217;s all-you-can-eat storage was ever dreamed, required a warrant for any message stored on a third-party server for fewer than 180 days, but simply required a subpoena or court order for older messages or messages that had been previously downloaded by the user, thus denying the subject of the investigation both notice and the subsequent opportunity to contest the search itself. <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup></p><p>For the most part, <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/' title='Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?'>the decision makes sense</a>. As e-mail moves from download-and-delete <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post_Office_Protocol'>POP-based</a> messages stored solely on a user&#8217;s computer to the nearly limitless <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Message_Access_Protocol'>IMAP</a>, <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Exchange_Server'>Exchange</a>, or <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Webmail'>Web-based</a> messaging that increasingly lives in the unseen cloud, neither opportunity to download nor time spent on server are very compelling standards to determine the level of privacy that should be afforded to a message or the showing of cause that should be required to compel a host to disclose its contents.</p><p>The decision, which <a href='http://volokh.com/2010/12/14/sixth-circuit-rules-that-e-mail-protected-by-the-fourth-amendment-warrant-requirement/'>tips a circuit split</a> further in favor of extending the fourth amendment, should, at least in theory, lay the groundwork to grant such protections to other forms of information stored in the cloud. Such information may include calendars or contacts on the more obvious end of the spectrum, but may arguable be construed to cover wholesale cloud services like AWS, Salesforce, Rackspace, and Azure, a possibility not to be taken lightly following the <a href='http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/12/01/wikileaks-website-loses-h_n_790526.html'>WikiLeaks hosting scramble</a>.</p><p>Surely the decision does not settle the issue outright, but it is the latest in a long march of much-needed rulings further blurring the legal distinctions between the world online and the world off, and as persuasively written as it is, is likely to prove influential as both law and technology continue to evolve side by side.</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p><em>United States v. Warshak</em>, 08-3997, 2010 WL 5071766 (6th Cir. Dec. 14, 2010). <span>16</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p><em>See generall</em>y <a href='http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&amp;q=cache:IYzfdrim0owJ:www.fletc.gov/training/programs/legal-division/downloads-articles-and-faqs/downloads/other/obtaining_electronic.pdf/download+&amp;hl=en&amp;gl=us&amp;pid=bl&amp;srcid=ADGEESgpYeTPUFAijEyb4BnY4_wzFLwSJmRNv8yL2ZD8EkhQTjt7oXv9kELuYHG7A202xJ9_MGwvgVDwjviAEh0zW76gZQAbieBYwR6cnNUyD83txcScrGTU0qDUME590QPAMej6hmSy&amp;sig=AHIEtbTf4jZconLMbkMO_hVK8xQ92bqZNQ'>Obtaining Electronic Evidence</a>, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (July 2003)</p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/","title":"WordPress Resume Plugin"},{"url":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party/","title":"New Media Flak: Megaphone vs. Cocktail Party"},{"url":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/","title":"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?"},{"url":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility/","title":"Removing the Barriers to Organizational Agility\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing/","title":"What Fourteen-Century Apple Pie Teaches Us About Sharing\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds/","title":"Will Federal Contracting Officers Soon Have Their Heads in the Clouds?\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it/","title":"Free Trade in China? Just Google it."},{"url":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/","title":"Twitter Mentions as Comments WordPress Plugin\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes/","title":"The Internet is Series of Tubes (oh, and Tollgates too)\n"},{"url":"/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer/","title":"The Files \"in\" the Computer -- Zoolander and the California Supreme Court"}]}
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2  2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer.json
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-{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"The Files \"in\" the Computer -- Zoolander and the California Supreme Court","excerpt":"Imagine if a routine traffic stop, say, for failure to signal or wear a seat belt would place in the state's hands every e-mail you've ever sent, contact your ever met, or financial transaction your ever completed. The California Supreme Court ruled in favor of just that.","layout":"post","category":["Law","Technology"],"tags":["cloud computing","digital due process","generation gap","privacy"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer/","date":"2011-01-04 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer","categories":[["Law","Technology"]],"next":"Regardless of where one's politics may fall on the WikiLeaks prosecution, one thing is becoming abundantly clear as a result: *Twitter is emerging as a champion of users' rights.*\n\n![][1]Federal prosecutors investigating the disclosure of classified state documents [served Twitter with a court order][2] demanding it turn over information pertaining to several of its users. While there is nothing particularly alarming about [the order][3], [^1] the bigger news is that [Twitter fought back][5], contesting the attached gag order that prevented the social networking service from informing its users of its compliance with the otherwise lawful request. [^2]\n\nTwitter's decision, arguably [the first of its kind][7], gave the targets of the order the time and legal cover necessary to pursue their own challenges in court. What is troubling, however, is that presumably other service providers, [such as Google and Facebook][8], could have received similar requests and silently acquiesced to the government's demands.\n\nWhile many companies, including [Google][9] and [Yahoo][10], have a policy of informing users of such requests when legally permissible, in this case, Twitter's contention of the gag order, and the resulting opportunity to pursue legal action it subsequently afforded its users, was somewhat heroic, at least by internet standards, and is a practice other firms should follow. By no means was Twitter obliged to spend time and money [^3] rocking the boat on what appears to be an undoubtedly troublesome, but otherwise [somewhat routine][12] request, but they did so anyway, and to their users' benefit. Wired put it best when [they noted][13], \"*Twitter introduced a new feature last month without telling anyone about it… Twitter beta-tested a spine.*\"\n\nA user's protection from government intrusion should not diminish depending on the medium chosen and even more importantly, should not be dependent on the heroics of a caped internet crusader. This holds especially true when the world's top social media firms are seemingly at [opposite ends][14] of the privacy spectrum. While it may be true that it is simply good business sense [^4] for service providers to [fight to ensure the privacy of its user's data][16] so that potential customers continue to visit the site and use their service, as any former Google Wave user knows, beta features, regardless of how heroic, are [not services to be relied on][17]. For progress to continue to march users into the cloud, the [ambiguities surrounding a user's digital rights][18] must be resolved through [a comprehensive CTRL-F5 of privacy law][19] by [knowledgeable lawmakers][20] before we all [retreat to pen and paper][21] in the interest of privacy.\n\nNotes:\n\n[^1]: As our interactions move increasingly online, [we can hardly be surprised][22] that law enforcement officers will seek supporting documents from digital rather than physical information stores. *See, e.g.,* [Google search history aiding murder convictions][23], [Prisoners coordinating riots via Facebook events][24]. [25]\n[^2]: To be sure, the government's request was [far from a demand for specific, targeted information][26], but rather suggested that prosecutors unfamiliar with *what exactly it is kids do these days* were simply casting as wide a net as legally permissible. Beyond [misspelling the name of one of its targets][27], the order, a [2703(d)][28] order, [requested][29] credit card, banking information, and street addresses (information Twitter would obviously not be privy to as a free, web-based service) be delivered via \"[CD-ROM][3]\". More likely, [the feds were seeking metadata][30], the non-content data automatically associated with a user whenever he or she interacts with the service, data such as the date, time, and network address of the computer used to post messages (which could potentially be traced back to an individual or at least a physical location). [31]\n[^3]: Some might argue that Twitter should be considered heroic simply for stimulating the demand side of an [otherwise anemic legal economy][32]. [33]\n[^4]: This may only hold true in the short run. As Columbia Law professor Tim Wu points out in his book *The Master Switch*, AT&T's \"[secret rooms][34]\" illustrate that the service provider often may be compelled to contribute to the government's information gathering infrastructure in hopes of garnering more favorable regulatory treatment. [35]\n\n [1]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/order-300x131.jpg \"Court Order\"\n [2]: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/09/world/09wiki.html?partner=rss&emc=rss\n [3]: http://www.salon.com/news/opinion/glenn_greenwald/2011/01/07/twitter/subpoena.pdf\n [4]: #note-2020-1 \"As our interactions move increasingly online, we can hardly be surprised that law enforcement officers will seek supporting documents from digital rather than physical information stores. See, e.g., Google search history aiding murder convictions, Prisoners coordinating riots via Facebook events.\"\n [5]: http://techcrunch.com/2011/01/07/twitter-informs-users-of-doj-wikileaks-court-order-didnt-have-to/\n [6]: #note-2020-2 \"To be sure, the government's request was far from a demand for specific, targeted information, but rather suggested that prosecutors unfamiliar with what exactly it is kids do these days were simply casting as wide a net as legally permissible. Beyond misspelling the name of one of its targets, the order, a 2703(d) order, requested credit card, banking information, and street addresses (information Twitter would obviously not be privy to as a free, web-based service) be delivered via \"CD-ROM\". More likely, the feds were seeking metadata, the non-content data automatically associated with a user whenever he or she interacts with the service, data such as the date, time, and network address of the computer used to post messages (which could potentially be traced back to an individual or at least a physical location).\"\n [7]: http://www.mediaaccess.org/2011/01/twitter-does-good-no-kidding/\n [8]: http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2011/jan/08/wikileaks-calls-google-facebook-us-subpoenas\n [9]: http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacy/privacy-policy.html\n [10]: http://info.yahoo.com/privacy/us/yahoo/details.html\n [11]: #note-2020-3 \"Some might argue that Twitter should be considered heroic simply for stimulating the demand side of an otherwise anemic legal economy.\"\n [12]: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/10/business/media/10link.html?ref=wikileaks\n [13]: http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2011/01/twitter/\n [14]: https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2010/04/facebook-further-reduces-control-over-personal-information\n [15]: #note-2020-4 \"This may only hold true in the short run. As Columbia Law professor Tim Wu points out in his book The Master Switch, AT&T's \"secret rooms\" illustrate that the service provider often may be compelled to contribute to the government's information gathering infrastructure in hopes of garnering more favorable regulatory treatment.\"\n [16]: http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/04/emailprivacy-2/\n [17]: http://news.cnet.com/8301-13860_3-20012698-56.html\n [18]: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IYzfdrim0owJ:www.fletc.gov/training/programs/legal-division/downloads-articles-and-faqs/downloads/other/obtaining_electronic.pdf/download+&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgpYeTPUFAijEyb4BnY4_wzFLwSJmRNv8yL2ZD8EkhQTjt7oXv9kELuYHG7A202xJ9_MGwvgVDwjviAEh0zW76gZQAbieBYwR6cnNUyD83txcScrGTU0qDUME590QPAMej6hmSy&sig=AHIEtbTf4jZconLMbkMO_hVK8xQ92bqZNQ\n [19]: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/10/technology/10privacy.html?_r=1&hp\n [20]: http://ben.balter.com/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer/\n [21]: http://techcrunch.com/2011/01/10/why-im-having-second-thoughts-about-the-wisdom-of-the-cloud/\n [22]: http://ben.balter.com/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/\n [23]: http://blogs.forbes.com/kashmirhill/2011/01/04/google-m-for-murder-internet-search-history-of-killing-methods-helped-convict-husband-of-homicide/\n [24]: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/03/us/03prisoners.html\n \n [26]: http://news.cnet.com/8301-31921_3-20027893-281.html\n [27]: http://www.salon.com/news/opinion/glenn_greenwald/2011/01/07/twitter/index.html\n [28]: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/18/usc_sec_18_00002703----000-.html\n [29]: http://mashable.com/2011/01/08/twitter-subpoenaed-by-u-s-government-for-wikileaks-accounts/\n [30]: http://paranoia.dubfire.net/2011/01/thoughts-on-doj-wikileakstwitter-court.html\n \n [32]: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/09/business/09law.html\n \n [34]: https://www.eff.org/nsa/hepting","previous":"<p>Despite some users&#8217; <a href='http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2010/12/13/the-top-50-gawker-media-passwords/'>lax approach to safeguarding their identities</a>, online accounts may now be afforded greater protection following the Sixth Circuit&#8217;s ruling in <em><a href='http://www.ca6.uscourts.gov/opinions.pdf/10a0377p-06.pdf'>United States v. Warshak</a>.</em> The court, which upheld a temporary injunction on a fraud investigation involving the all-too-familiar <a href='http://blogs.forbes.com/kashmirhill/2010/12/15/your-email-now-warrants-greater-privacy-thanks-to-sex-pill-peddling-dude/'>late-night &#8220;Smilin&#8217; Bob&#8221; informercials</a>, extended the fourth amendment&#8217;s warrant requirements to messages stored on third-party servers. The Sixth Circuit wrote:</p><blockquote>\n<p>&#8221;<span>T</span>he ISP is the functional equivalent of a post office or a telephone company… <span>T</span>he police may not storm the post office and intercept a letter, and they are likewise forbidden from using the phone system to make a clandestine recording of a telephone call—unless they get a warrant, that is.&#8221; <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup></p>\n</blockquote><p>Prior to the ruling, the government could (<a href='http://www.google.com/transparencyreport/governmentrequests/'>and regularly did</a>) obtain e-mails stored on third-party hosts like Gmail, without first needing to obtain a search warrant. In its decision, the district court declared the 1986 Stored Communications Act (SCA) <a href='http://www.ca6.uscourts.gov/opinions.pdf/10a0377p-06.pdf'>2</a> unconstitutional on the grounds that it allowed what was tantamount to a traditional search, but without the required showing of probable cause. The court noted, &#8221;<em><span>g</span>iven the fundamental similarities between e-mail and traditional forms of communication, it would defy common sense to afford e-mails lesser Fourth Amendment protection.</em>&#8221; <a href='http://blogs.forbes.com/kashmirhill/2010/12/15/your-email-now-warrants-greater-privacy-thanks-to-sex-pill-peddling-dude/'>3</a></p><p>The SCA, written long before GMail&#8217;s all-you-can-eat storage was ever dreamed, required a warrant for any message stored on a third-party server for fewer than 180 days, but simply required a subpoena or court order for older messages or messages that had been previously downloaded by the user, thus denying the subject of the investigation both notice and the subsequent opportunity to contest the search itself. <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup></p><p>For the most part, <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/' title='Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?'>the decision makes sense</a>. As e-mail moves from download-and-delete <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post_Office_Protocol'>POP-based</a> messages stored solely on a user&#8217;s computer to the nearly limitless <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Message_Access_Protocol'>IMAP</a>, <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Exchange_Server'>Exchange</a>, or <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Webmail'>Web-based</a> messaging that increasingly lives in the unseen cloud, neither opportunity to download nor time spent on server are very compelling standards to determine the level of privacy that should be afforded to a message or the showing of cause that should be required to compel a host to disclose its contents.</p><p>The decision, which <a href='http://volokh.com/2010/12/14/sixth-circuit-rules-that-e-mail-protected-by-the-fourth-amendment-warrant-requirement/'>tips a circuit split</a> further in favor of extending the fourth amendment, should, at least in theory, lay the groundwork to grant such protections to other forms of information stored in the cloud. Such information may include calendars or contacts on the more obvious end of the spectrum, but may arguable be construed to cover wholesale cloud services like AWS, Salesforce, Rackspace, and Azure, a possibility not to be taken lightly following the <a href='http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/12/01/wikileaks-website-loses-h_n_790526.html'>WikiLeaks hosting scramble</a>.</p><p>Surely the decision does not settle the issue outright, but it is the latest in a long march of much-needed rulings further blurring the legal distinctions between the world online and the world off, and as persuasively written as it is, is likely to prove influential as both law and technology continue to evolve side by side.</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p><em>United States v. Warshak</em>, 08-3997, 2010 WL 5071766 (6th Cir. Dec. 14, 2010). <span>16</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p><em>See generall</em>y <a href='http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&amp;q=cache:IYzfdrim0owJ:www.fletc.gov/training/programs/legal-division/downloads-articles-and-faqs/downloads/other/obtaining_electronic.pdf/download+&amp;hl=en&amp;gl=us&amp;pid=bl&amp;srcid=ADGEESgpYeTPUFAijEyb4BnY4_wzFLwSJmRNv8yL2ZD8EkhQTjt7oXv9kELuYHG7A202xJ9_MGwvgVDwjviAEh0zW76gZQAbieBYwR6cnNUyD83txcScrGTU0qDUME590QPAMej6hmSy&amp;sig=AHIEtbTf4jZconLMbkMO_hVK8xQ92bqZNQ'>Obtaining Electronic Evidence</a>, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (July 2003)</p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p><img alt='Policeman Checks Cellphone' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/policeman.jpg' /></p><p>When drafting and interpreting the fourth amendment, neither the founding fathers, nor the countless legal scholars that followed them could have ever imagined that one day technology would allow us to walk down the street with our entire life chronicled in our pocket. The growing popularity of the cloud coupled with increasing power of smart phones has resulted in what not too long ago was tool for placing and receiving calls, today, in actuality, is a portal to one&#8217;s entire digital life. Imagine if a routine traffic stop, say, for failing to signal properly, would place in the state&#8217;s hands every e-mail you have ever sent, contact you have ever met, or financial transaction you have ever completed (not to mention your current <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angry_Birds'>Angry Birds</a> score!). Regardless of how Orwellian it may sound, the California Supreme Court <a href='http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2011/01/warrantless-cell-phone-search-gets-a-green-light-in-california.ars?comments=1#comments-bar'>ruled in favor of just such an outcome</a>.</p><p>In <em><a href='http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/S166600.PDF'>People v. Diaz</a></em>, the court ruled that a warrentless search of text messages on a cell phone confiscated subsequent to a lawful arrest did infact, constitute a valid search. While the dissent realized that mobile phones were increasingly becoming the hubs of our digital world, noting that the decision gave &#8221;<em>carte blanche, with no showing of exigency, to rummage at leisure through the wealth of personal and business information that can be carried on a mobile phone or handheld computer merely because the device was taken from an arrestee&#8217;s person,</em>&#8221; I do not believe they fully grasped the gravity of the ruling. <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup></p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/zoolander-300x188.jpg' /><a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_m_PncKuDao&amp;feature=related#t=1m16s'>Much like Ben Stiller and Owen Wilson&#8217;s characters in the movie Zoolander</a>, the dissent&#8217;s analysis is based on the assumption that information &#8220;can be carried on&#8221; or &#8220;in&#8221; one&#8217;s mobile phone, a reality which simply is not the case in today&#8217;s increasingly cloud-centric world.</p><p>Today, and even more so tomorrow, information will not be &#8220;carried on&#8221; a phone, but rather, that phone will merely be the vehicle used to access information stored elsewhere, information that would otherwise carry the highest expectation of privacy. Put another way, the device holds, both literally and metaphorically, the address, keys, and means to access one&#8217;s digital home, a breach of privacy that would not be tolerated if it occurred in a more tangible sense.</p><p>In a world where in reality, nearly every e-mail I have ever sent or received can be accessed by opening a folder on my phone virtually indistinguishable <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> from any neighboring folder that contains locally stored information, the majority&#8217;s interpretation grants the state access to nearly everything one says or does on a daily basis. Put another way, how much information do you think <em>won&#8217;t</em> be accessible from your mobile phone in 5 years? 10 years? 20? Just scroll through your home screen. <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup></p><p>The majority&#8217;s decision was well argued by legal minds much wiser than my own, but even reading through the verbiage of the opinion, discussing the nature of containers and cavities as they relate to what is &#8220;in&#8221; the phone, it leads one to believe that their analysis is handicapped by <a href='http://movieclips.com/sgNVB-zoolander-movie-computer-experts/'>outdated concepts of storage and space</a>. <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup></p><p>While it may not be practical to install <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faraday_cage'>Faraday cages</a> in every police station to ferret out what information can be gleamed from a mobile device without it querying a remote server (if there is any information at all), the majority&#8217;s opinion fails to take into account the reality of how mobile phones are used today, let alone, how they will be most likely be used in the not-to-distant future. While the courts sort out <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/'>what fourth amendment protections are extended into the digital world</a>, I for one, will be sure to put a password on my phone next time I cross the California state line. <sup id='fnref:5'><a href='#fn:5' rel='footnote'>5</a></sup></p><p><span>photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/61076493/'>Thomas Hawk</a></span></p><p>Notes:</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>While the question has been pondered to some extent, for example, in Professor Kerr&#8217;s 2006 paper <a href='http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=697541'>Searches and Seizures in a Digital World</a>, or Professor Gershowitz&#8217;s 2008 paper, <a href='http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1084503'>the iPhone Meets the Fourth Amendment</a>, technology has come a long way, even in the past two years, and will continue to evolve in the years to come. <span>18</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>Even for the technologically adept, today, it is hard to tell exactly what information exists &#8220;on&#8221; my phone, and what information exists &#8220;in&#8221; the cloud. The subject and sender of an incoming e-mail may be pushed to my iPhone automatically, for example, but the body or attachments may not download until I access the message itself. Today&#8217;s calendar entries may be cached on the device (I wouldn&#8217;t consider my calendar &#8220;stored&#8221; on my device — it&#8217;s not the master copy), but yesterday&#8217;s and tomorrow&#8217;s agendas are both retrieved on demand from a distant server unrelated to any hypothetical search to which I may me subject. <span>19</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>Beyond the obvious (e-mail, phone, contact, calendars), there&#8217;s <a href='http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/opentable/id296581815?mt=8'>dinner reservations</a>, <a href='http://www.zipcar.com/iphone/'>car rentals</a>, <a href='http://www.engadget.com/2010/11/15/comcast-xfinity-remote-app-for-iphone-ipad-launches-video-stre/'>TV viewing habits</a>, <a href='http://www.mint.com/features/iphone/'>financial data</a>, <a href='http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?ie=UTF8&amp;docId=1000291661'>recent purchases</a>, even <a href='http://www.mozilla.com/en-US/mobile/home/'>desktop browsing history</a> — it&#8217;s like winning the lottery of personal information. <span>26</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>It&#8217;s worth noting that the word &#8220;server&#8221; is not mentioned once in the opinion, yet the phrase &#8220;storage capacity&#8221; is used no less than five times — a concept that <a href='http://mashable.com/2007/05/14/yahoo-mail-unlimited/'>even as early as 2007 was considered a thing of the past</a>. <span>28</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:5'>\n<p>A password may only delay the inevitable. <em>See</em>Gershowitz, Adam M.,* <a href='http://ssrn.com/abstract=1669403'>Password Protected? Can a Password Save Your Cell Phone from the Search Incident to Arrest Doctrine?</a> <em>(August 31, 2010). <span>30</span></em></p>\n<a href='#fnref:5' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/about/","title":"About"},{"url":"/contact/","title":"Contact"},{"url":"/donate/","title":"Donate"},{"url":"/fine-print/","title":"Fine Print"},{"url":"/resume/","title":"Resume"},{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"}]}
+{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"The Files \"in\" the Computer -- Zoolander and the California Supreme Court","excerpt":"Imagine if a routine traffic stop, say, for failure to signal or wear a seat belt would place in the state's hands every e-mail you've ever sent, contact your ever met, or financial transaction your ever completed. The California Supreme Court ruled in favor of just that.","layout":"post","category":["Law","Technology"],"tags":["cloud computing","digital due process","generation gap","privacy"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer/","date":"2011-01-04 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer","categories":[["Law","Technology"]],"next":"Regardless of where one's politics may fall on the WikiLeaks prosecution, one thing is becoming abundantly clear as a result: *Twitter is emerging as a champion of users' rights.*\n\n![][1]Federal prosecutors investigating the disclosure of classified state documents [served Twitter with a court order][2] demanding it turn over information pertaining to several of its users. While there is nothing particularly alarming about [the order][3], [^1] the bigger news is that [Twitter fought back][5], contesting the attached gag order that prevented the social networking service from informing its users of its compliance with the otherwise lawful request. [^2]\n\nTwitter's decision, arguably [the first of its kind][7], gave the targets of the order the time and legal cover necessary to pursue their own challenges in court. What is troubling, however, is that presumably other service providers, [such as Google and Facebook][8], could have received similar requests and silently acquiesced to the government's demands.\n\nWhile many companies, including [Google][9] and [Yahoo][10], have a policy of informing users of such requests when legally permissible, in this case, Twitter's contention of the gag order, and the resulting opportunity to pursue legal action it subsequently afforded its users, was somewhat heroic, at least by internet standards, and is a practice other firms should follow. By no means was Twitter obliged to spend time and money [^3] rocking the boat on what appears to be an undoubtedly troublesome, but otherwise [somewhat routine][12] request, but they did so anyway, and to their users' benefit. Wired put it best when [they noted][13], \"*Twitter introduced a new feature last month without telling anyone about it… Twitter beta-tested a spine.*\"\n\nA user's protection from government intrusion should not diminish depending on the medium chosen and even more importantly, should not be dependent on the heroics of a caped internet crusader. This holds especially true when the world's top social media firms are seemingly at [opposite ends][14] of the privacy spectrum. While it may be true that it is simply good business sense [^4] for service providers to [fight to ensure the privacy of its user's data][16] so that potential customers continue to visit the site and use their service, as any former Google Wave user knows, beta features, regardless of how heroic, are [not services to be relied on][17]. For progress to continue to march users into the cloud, the [ambiguities surrounding a user's digital rights][18] must be resolved through [a comprehensive CTRL-F5 of privacy law][19] by [knowledgeable lawmakers][20] before we all [retreat to pen and paper][21] in the interest of privacy.\n\nNotes:\n\n[^1]: As our interactions move increasingly online, [we can hardly be surprised][22] that law enforcement officers will seek supporting documents from digital rather than physical information stores. *See, e.g.,* [Google search history aiding murder convictions][23], [Prisoners coordinating riots via Facebook events][24]. [25]\n[^2]: To be sure, the government's request was [far from a demand for specific, targeted information][26], but rather suggested that prosecutors unfamiliar with *what exactly it is kids do these days* were simply casting as wide a net as legally permissible. Beyond [misspelling the name of one of its targets][27], the order, a [2703(d)][28] order, [requested][29] credit card, banking information, and street addresses (information Twitter would obviously not be privy to as a free, web-based service) be delivered via \"[CD-ROM][3]\". More likely, [the feds were seeking metadata][30], the non-content data automatically associated with a user whenever he or she interacts with the service, data such as the date, time, and network address of the computer used to post messages (which could potentially be traced back to an individual or at least a physical location). [31]\n[^3]: Some might argue that Twitter should be considered heroic simply for stimulating the demand side of an [otherwise anemic legal economy][32]. [33]\n[^4]: This may only hold true in the short run. As Columbia Law professor Tim Wu points out in his book *The Master Switch*, AT&T's \"[secret rooms][34]\" illustrate that the service provider often may be compelled to contribute to the government's information gathering infrastructure in hopes of garnering more favorable regulatory treatment. [35]\n\n [1]: http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/order-300x131.jpg \"Court Order\"\n [2]: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/09/world/09wiki.html?partner=rss&emc=rss\n [3]: http://www.salon.com/news/opinion/glenn_greenwald/2011/01/07/twitter/subpoena.pdf\n [4]: #note-2020-1 \"As our interactions move increasingly online, we can hardly be surprised that law enforcement officers will seek supporting documents from digital rather than physical information stores. See, e.g., Google search history aiding murder convictions, Prisoners coordinating riots via Facebook events.\"\n [5]: http://techcrunch.com/2011/01/07/twitter-informs-users-of-doj-wikileaks-court-order-didnt-have-to/\n [6]: #note-2020-2 \"To be sure, the government's request was far from a demand for specific, targeted information, but rather suggested that prosecutors unfamiliar with what exactly it is kids do these days were simply casting as wide a net as legally permissible. Beyond misspelling the name of one of its targets, the order, a 2703(d) order, requested credit card, banking information, and street addresses (information Twitter would obviously not be privy to as a free, web-based service) be delivered via \"CD-ROM\". More likely, the feds were seeking metadata, the non-content data automatically associated with a user whenever he or she interacts with the service, data such as the date, time, and network address of the computer used to post messages (which could potentially be traced back to an individual or at least a physical location).\"\n [7]: http://www.mediaaccess.org/2011/01/twitter-does-good-no-kidding/\n [8]: http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2011/jan/08/wikileaks-calls-google-facebook-us-subpoenas\n [9]: http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacy/privacy-policy.html\n [10]: http://info.yahoo.com/privacy/us/yahoo/details.html\n [11]: #note-2020-3 \"Some might argue that Twitter should be considered heroic simply for stimulating the demand side of an otherwise anemic legal economy.\"\n [12]: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/10/business/media/10link.html?ref=wikileaks\n [13]: http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2011/01/twitter/\n [14]: https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2010/04/facebook-further-reduces-control-over-personal-information\n [15]: #note-2020-4 \"This may only hold true in the short run. As Columbia Law professor Tim Wu points out in his book The Master Switch, AT&T's \"secret rooms\" illustrate that the service provider often may be compelled to contribute to the government's information gathering infrastructure in hopes of garnering more favorable regulatory treatment.\"\n [16]: http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/04/emailprivacy-2/\n [17]: http://news.cnet.com/8301-13860_3-20012698-56.html\n [18]: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IYzfdrim0owJ:www.fletc.gov/training/programs/legal-division/downloads-articles-and-faqs/downloads/other/obtaining_electronic.pdf/download+&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgpYeTPUFAijEyb4BnY4_wzFLwSJmRNv8yL2ZD8EkhQTjt7oXv9kELuYHG7A202xJ9_MGwvgVDwjviAEh0zW76gZQAbieBYwR6cnNUyD83txcScrGTU0qDUME590QPAMej6hmSy&sig=AHIEtbTf4jZconLMbkMO_hVK8xQ92bqZNQ\n [19]: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/10/technology/10privacy.html?_r=1&hp\n [20]: http://ben.balter.com/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer/\n [21]: http://techcrunch.com/2011/01/10/why-im-having-second-thoughts-about-the-wisdom-of-the-cloud/\n [22]: http://ben.balter.com/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/\n [23]: http://blogs.forbes.com/kashmirhill/2011/01/04/google-m-for-murder-internet-search-history-of-killing-methods-helped-convict-husband-of-homicide/\n [24]: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/03/us/03prisoners.html\n \n [26]: http://news.cnet.com/8301-31921_3-20027893-281.html\n [27]: http://www.salon.com/news/opinion/glenn_greenwald/2011/01/07/twitter/index.html\n [28]: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/18/usc_sec_18_00002703----000-.html\n [29]: http://mashable.com/2011/01/08/twitter-subpoenaed-by-u-s-government-for-wikileaks-accounts/\n [30]: http://paranoia.dubfire.net/2011/01/thoughts-on-doj-wikileakstwitter-court.html\n \n [32]: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/09/business/09law.html\n \n [34]: https://www.eff.org/nsa/hepting","previous":"<p>Despite some users&#8217; <a href='http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2010/12/13/the-top-50-gawker-media-passwords/'>lax approach to safeguarding their identities</a>, online accounts may now be afforded greater protection following the Sixth Circuit&#8217;s ruling in <em><a href='http://www.ca6.uscourts.gov/opinions.pdf/10a0377p-06.pdf'>United States v. Warshak</a>.</em> The court, which upheld a temporary injunction on a fraud investigation involving the all-too-familiar <a href='http://blogs.forbes.com/kashmirhill/2010/12/15/your-email-now-warrants-greater-privacy-thanks-to-sex-pill-peddling-dude/'>late-night &#8220;Smilin&#8217; Bob&#8221; informercials</a>, extended the fourth amendment&#8217;s warrant requirements to messages stored on third-party servers. The Sixth Circuit wrote:</p><blockquote>\n<p>&#8221;<span>T</span>he ISP is the functional equivalent of a post office or a telephone company… <span>T</span>he police may not storm the post office and intercept a letter, and they are likewise forbidden from using the phone system to make a clandestine recording of a telephone call—unless they get a warrant, that is.&#8221; <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup></p>\n</blockquote><p>Prior to the ruling, the government could (<a href='http://www.google.com/transparencyreport/governmentrequests/'>and regularly did</a>) obtain e-mails stored on third-party hosts like Gmail, without first needing to obtain a search warrant. In its decision, the district court declared the 1986 Stored Communications Act (SCA) <a href='http://www.ca6.uscourts.gov/opinions.pdf/10a0377p-06.pdf'>2</a> unconstitutional on the grounds that it allowed what was tantamount to a traditional search, but without the required showing of probable cause. The court noted, &#8221;<em><span>g</span>iven the fundamental similarities between e-mail and traditional forms of communication, it would defy common sense to afford e-mails lesser Fourth Amendment protection.</em>&#8221; <a href='http://blogs.forbes.com/kashmirhill/2010/12/15/your-email-now-warrants-greater-privacy-thanks-to-sex-pill-peddling-dude/'>3</a></p><p>The SCA, written long before GMail&#8217;s all-you-can-eat storage was ever dreamed, required a warrant for any message stored on a third-party server for fewer than 180 days, but simply required a subpoena or court order for older messages or messages that had been previously downloaded by the user, thus denying the subject of the investigation both notice and the subsequent opportunity to contest the search itself. <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup></p><p>For the most part, <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/' title='Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?'>the decision makes sense</a>. As e-mail moves from download-and-delete <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post_Office_Protocol'>POP-based</a> messages stored solely on a user&#8217;s computer to the nearly limitless <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Message_Access_Protocol'>IMAP</a>, <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Exchange_Server'>Exchange</a>, or <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Webmail'>Web-based</a> messaging that increasingly lives in the unseen cloud, neither opportunity to download nor time spent on server are very compelling standards to determine the level of privacy that should be afforded to a message or the showing of cause that should be required to compel a host to disclose its contents.</p><p>The decision, which <a href='http://volokh.com/2010/12/14/sixth-circuit-rules-that-e-mail-protected-by-the-fourth-amendment-warrant-requirement/'>tips a circuit split</a> further in favor of extending the fourth amendment, should, at least in theory, lay the groundwork to grant such protections to other forms of information stored in the cloud. Such information may include calendars or contacts on the more obvious end of the spectrum, but may arguable be construed to cover wholesale cloud services like AWS, Salesforce, Rackspace, and Azure, a possibility not to be taken lightly following the <a href='http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/12/01/wikileaks-website-loses-h_n_790526.html'>WikiLeaks hosting scramble</a>.</p><p>Surely the decision does not settle the issue outright, but it is the latest in a long march of much-needed rulings further blurring the legal distinctions between the world online and the world off, and as persuasively written as it is, is likely to prove influential as both law and technology continue to evolve side by side.</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p><em>United States v. Warshak</em>, 08-3997, 2010 WL 5071766 (6th Cir. Dec. 14, 2010). <span>16</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p><em>See generall</em>y <a href='http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&amp;q=cache:IYzfdrim0owJ:www.fletc.gov/training/programs/legal-division/downloads-articles-and-faqs/downloads/other/obtaining_electronic.pdf/download+&amp;hl=en&amp;gl=us&amp;pid=bl&amp;srcid=ADGEESgpYeTPUFAijEyb4BnY4_wzFLwSJmRNv8yL2ZD8EkhQTjt7oXv9kELuYHG7A202xJ9_MGwvgVDwjviAEh0zW76gZQAbieBYwR6cnNUyD83txcScrGTU0qDUME590QPAMej6hmSy&amp;sig=AHIEtbTf4jZconLMbkMO_hVK8xQ92bqZNQ'>Obtaining Electronic Evidence</a>, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (July 2003)</p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p><img alt='Policeman Checks Cellphone' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/policeman.jpg' /></p><p>When drafting and interpreting the fourth amendment, neither the founding fathers, nor the countless legal scholars that followed them could have ever imagined that one day technology would allow us to walk down the street with our entire life chronicled in our pocket. The growing popularity of the cloud coupled with increasing power of smart phones has resulted in what not too long ago was tool for placing and receiving calls, today, in actuality, is a portal to one&#8217;s entire digital life. Imagine if a routine traffic stop, say, for failing to signal properly, would place in the state&#8217;s hands every e-mail you have ever sent, contact you have ever met, or financial transaction you have ever completed (not to mention your current <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angry_Birds'>Angry Birds</a> score!). Regardless of how Orwellian it may sound, the California Supreme Court <a href='http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2011/01/warrantless-cell-phone-search-gets-a-green-light-in-california.ars?comments=1#comments-bar'>ruled in favor of just such an outcome</a>.</p><p>In <em><a href='http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/S166600.PDF'>People v. Diaz</a></em>, the court ruled that a warrentless search of text messages on a cell phone confiscated subsequent to a lawful arrest did infact, constitute a valid search. While the dissent realized that mobile phones were increasingly becoming the hubs of our digital world, noting that the decision gave &#8221;<em>carte blanche, with no showing of exigency, to rummage at leisure through the wealth of personal and business information that can be carried on a mobile phone or handheld computer merely because the device was taken from an arrestee&#8217;s person,</em>&#8221; I do not believe they fully grasped the gravity of the ruling. <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup></p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/zoolander-300x188.jpg' /><a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_m_PncKuDao&amp;feature=related#t=1m16s'>Much like Ben Stiller and Owen Wilson&#8217;s characters in the movie Zoolander</a>, the dissent&#8217;s analysis is based on the assumption that information &#8220;can be carried on&#8221; or &#8220;in&#8221; one&#8217;s mobile phone, a reality which simply is not the case in today&#8217;s increasingly cloud-centric world.</p><p>Today, and even more so tomorrow, information will not be &#8220;carried on&#8221; a phone, but rather, that phone will merely be the vehicle used to access information stored elsewhere, information that would otherwise carry the highest expectation of privacy. Put another way, the device holds, both literally and metaphorically, the address, keys, and means to access one&#8217;s digital home, a breach of privacy that would not be tolerated if it occurred in a more tangible sense.</p><p>In a world where in reality, nearly every e-mail I have ever sent or received can be accessed by opening a folder on my phone virtually indistinguishable <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> from any neighboring folder that contains locally stored information, the majority&#8217;s interpretation grants the state access to nearly everything one says or does on a daily basis. Put another way, how much information do you think <em>won&#8217;t</em> be accessible from your mobile phone in 5 years? 10 years? 20? Just scroll through your home screen. <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup></p><p>The majority&#8217;s decision was well argued by legal minds much wiser than my own, but even reading through the verbiage of the opinion, discussing the nature of containers and cavities as they relate to what is &#8220;in&#8221; the phone, it leads one to believe that their analysis is handicapped by <a href='http://movieclips.com/sgNVB-zoolander-movie-computer-experts/'>outdated concepts of storage and space</a>. <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup></p><p>While it may not be practical to install <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faraday_cage'>Faraday cages</a> in every police station to ferret out what information can be gleamed from a mobile device without it querying a remote server (if there is any information at all), the majority&#8217;s opinion fails to take into account the reality of how mobile phones are used today, let alone, how they will be most likely be used in the not-to-distant future. While the courts sort out <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/'>what fourth amendment protections are extended into the digital world</a>, I for one, will be sure to put a password on my phone next time I cross the California state line. <sup id='fnref:5'><a href='#fn:5' rel='footnote'>5</a></sup></p><p><span>photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/61076493/'>Thomas Hawk</a></span></p><p>Notes:</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>While the question has been pondered to some extent, for example, in Professor Kerr&#8217;s 2006 paper <a href='http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=697541'>Searches and Seizures in a Digital World</a>, or Professor Gershowitz&#8217;s 2008 paper, <a href='http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1084503'>the iPhone Meets the Fourth Amendment</a>, technology has come a long way, even in the past two years, and will continue to evolve in the years to come. <span>18</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>Even for the technologically adept, today, it is hard to tell exactly what information exists &#8220;on&#8221; my phone, and what information exists &#8220;in&#8221; the cloud. The subject and sender of an incoming e-mail may be pushed to my iPhone automatically, for example, but the body or attachments may not download until I access the message itself. Today&#8217;s calendar entries may be cached on the device (I wouldn&#8217;t consider my calendar &#8220;stored&#8221; on my device — it&#8217;s not the master copy), but yesterday&#8217;s and tomorrow&#8217;s agendas are both retrieved on demand from a distant server unrelated to any hypothetical search to which I may me subject. <span>19</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>Beyond the obvious (e-mail, phone, contact, calendars), there&#8217;s <a href='http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/opentable/id296581815?mt=8'>dinner reservations</a>, <a href='http://www.zipcar.com/iphone/'>car rentals</a>, <a href='http://www.engadget.com/2010/11/15/comcast-xfinity-remote-app-for-iphone-ipad-launches-video-stre/'>TV viewing habits</a>, <a href='http://www.mint.com/features/iphone/'>financial data</a>, <a href='http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?ie=UTF8&amp;docId=1000291661'>recent purchases</a>, even <a href='http://www.mozilla.com/en-US/mobile/home/'>desktop browsing history</a> — it&#8217;s like winning the lottery of personal information. <span>26</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>It&#8217;s worth noting that the word &#8220;server&#8221; is not mentioned once in the opinion, yet the phrase &#8220;storage capacity&#8221; is used no less than five times — a concept that <a href='http://mashable.com/2007/05/14/yahoo-mail-unlimited/'>even as early as 2007 was considered a thing of the past</a>. <span>28</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:5'>\n<p>A password may only delay the inevitable. <em>See</em>Gershowitz, Adam M.,* <a href='http://ssrn.com/abstract=1669403'>Password Protected? Can a Password Save Your Cell Phone from the Search Incident to Arrest Doctrine?</a> <em>(August 31, 2010). <span>30</span></em></p>\n<a href='#fnref:5' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/","title":"WordPress Resume Plugin"},{"url":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party/","title":"New Media Flak: Megaphone vs. Cocktail Party"},{"url":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/","title":"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?"},{"url":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility/","title":"Removing the Barriers to Organizational Agility\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing/","title":"What Fourteen-Century Apple Pie Teaches Us About Sharing\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds/","title":"Will Federal Contracting Officers Soon Have Their Heads in the Clouds?\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it/","title":"Free Trade in China? Just Google it."},{"url":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/","title":"Twitter Mentions as Comments WordPress Plugin\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes/","title":"The Internet is Series of Tubes (oh, and Tollgates too)\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/","title":"Late-Night Infomercials: Guaranteed to Extend the 4th Amendment or Your Money Back"}]}
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2  2011/01/11/twitter-goes-to-bat-for-wikileaks.json
@@ -1 +1 @@
-{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"Twitter Goes to Bat for WikiLeaks, RTs @FBI's Court Order","excerpt":"Twitter fought a court order demanding it turn over information pertaining to several of its users, contesting the attached gag order that prevented the social networking service from informing its users of its compliance with the otherwise lawful request.","layout":"post","category":["Law","Technology"],"tags":["cloud computing","digital due process","facebook","google","privacy","twitter"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2011/01/11/twitter-goes-to-bat-for-wikileaks/","date":"2011-01-11 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2011/01/11/twitter-goes-to-bat-for-wikileaks","categories":[["Law","Technology"]],"next":"![][1]The New York Times [recently open-sourced][2] their nifty wizardry which allows users to highlight and link to specific text within an article or post. In their own words:\n\n> Emphasis provides dynamic paragraph-specific anchor links and the ability to highlight text in a document, all of which is made available in the URL hash so it can be emailed, bookmarked, or shared.\n\nI adapted the New York Time's implementation into a three-line WordPress plugin for my own site, and it is available in the [WordPress plugin repository][3] as a one-click install, if you would like to add it to your own.\n\nThe \"deep links\" plugin allows for permalinking and highlighting of text on a paragraph and sentance level. No need to set anything up. Just install, tap shift twice, and start highlighting.\n\n*See* [The New York Times post on the script][2] for syntax and more information on general usage or you can double tap the *shift* key right now to give it a try.\n\nNeat, huh? [Download it][3] today.\n\n*Enjoy using WP Emphasis? Feel free to [make a small donation][4] to support the software's continued development.*\n\n**Update (1/18):** For an interesting perspective on the underlying technology and what it could mean for the net, [Zach Seward's take][5] is well worth the read.\n\n [1]: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/emphasis-screenshot.png \"Screenshot of Emphasis WordPress Plugin\"\n [2]: http://open.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/11/emphasis-update-and-source/\n [3]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-emphasis/\n [4]: http://ben.balter.com/donate/ \"Donate\"\n [5]: http://zachseward.com/emphasis/","previous":"<p><img alt='Policeman Checks Cellphone' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/policeman.jpg' /></p><p>When drafting and interpreting the fourth amendment, neither the founding fathers, nor the countless legal scholars that followed them could have ever imagined that one day technology would allow us to walk down the street with our entire life chronicled in our pocket. The growing popularity of the cloud coupled with increasing power of smart phones has resulted in what not too long ago was tool for placing and receiving calls, today, in actuality, is a portal to one&#8217;s entire digital life. Imagine if a routine traffic stop, say, for failing to signal properly, would place in the state&#8217;s hands every e-mail you have ever sent, contact you have ever met, or financial transaction you have ever completed (not to mention your current <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angry_Birds'>Angry Birds</a> score!). Regardless of how Orwellian it may sound, the California Supreme Court <a href='http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2011/01/warrantless-cell-phone-search-gets-a-green-light-in-california.ars?comments=1#comments-bar'>ruled in favor of just such an outcome</a>.</p><p>In <em><a href='http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/S166600.PDF'>People v. Diaz</a></em>, the court ruled that a warrentless search of text messages on a cell phone confiscated subsequent to a lawful arrest did infact, constitute a valid search. While the dissent realized that mobile phones were increasingly becoming the hubs of our digital world, noting that the decision gave &#8221;<em>carte blanche, with no showing of exigency, to rummage at leisure through the wealth of personal and business information that can be carried on a mobile phone or handheld computer merely because the device was taken from an arrestee&#8217;s person,</em>&#8221; I do not believe they fully grasped the gravity of the ruling. <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup></p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/zoolander-300x188.jpg' /><a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_m_PncKuDao&amp;feature=related#t=1m16s'>Much like Ben Stiller and Owen Wilson&#8217;s characters in the movie Zoolander</a>, the dissent&#8217;s analysis is based on the assumption that information &#8220;can be carried on&#8221; or &#8220;in&#8221; one&#8217;s mobile phone, a reality which simply is not the case in today&#8217;s increasingly cloud-centric world.</p><p>Today, and even more so tomorrow, information will not be &#8220;carried on&#8221; a phone, but rather, that phone will merely be the vehicle used to access information stored elsewhere, information that would otherwise carry the highest expectation of privacy. Put another way, the device holds, both literally and metaphorically, the address, keys, and means to access one&#8217;s digital home, a breach of privacy that would not be tolerated if it occurred in a more tangible sense.</p><p>In a world where in reality, nearly every e-mail I have ever sent or received can be accessed by opening a folder on my phone virtually indistinguishable <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> from any neighboring folder that contains locally stored information, the majority&#8217;s interpretation grants the state access to nearly everything one says or does on a daily basis. Put another way, how much information do you think <em>won&#8217;t</em> be accessible from your mobile phone in 5 years? 10 years? 20? Just scroll through your home screen. <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup></p><p>The majority&#8217;s decision was well argued by legal minds much wiser than my own, but even reading through the verbiage of the opinion, discussing the nature of containers and cavities as they relate to what is &#8220;in&#8221; the phone, it leads one to believe that their analysis is handicapped by <a href='http://movieclips.com/sgNVB-zoolander-movie-computer-experts/'>outdated concepts of storage and space</a>. <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup></p><p>While it may not be practical to install <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faraday_cage'>Faraday cages</a> in every police station to ferret out what information can be gleamed from a mobile device without it querying a remote server (if there is any information at all), the majority&#8217;s opinion fails to take into account the reality of how mobile phones are used today, let alone, how they will be most likely be used in the not-to-distant future. While the courts sort out <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/'>what fourth amendment protections are extended into the digital world</a>, I for one, will be sure to put a password on my phone next time I cross the California state line. <sup id='fnref:5'><a href='#fn:5' rel='footnote'>5</a></sup></p><p><span>photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/61076493/'>Thomas Hawk</a></span></p><p>Notes:</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>While the question has been pondered to some extent, for example, in Professor Kerr&#8217;s 2006 paper <a href='http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=697541'>Searches and Seizures in a Digital World</a>, or Professor Gershowitz&#8217;s 2008 paper, <a href='http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1084503'>the iPhone Meets the Fourth Amendment</a>, technology has come a long way, even in the past two years, and will continue to evolve in the years to come. <span>18</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>Even for the technologically adept, today, it is hard to tell exactly what information exists &#8220;on&#8221; my phone, and what information exists &#8220;in&#8221; the cloud. The subject and sender of an incoming e-mail may be pushed to my iPhone automatically, for example, but the body or attachments may not download until I access the message itself. Today&#8217;s calendar entries may be cached on the device (I wouldn&#8217;t consider my calendar &#8220;stored&#8221; on my device — it&#8217;s not the master copy), but yesterday&#8217;s and tomorrow&#8217;s agendas are both retrieved on demand from a distant server unrelated to any hypothetical search to which I may me subject. <span>19</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>Beyond the obvious (e-mail, phone, contact, calendars), there&#8217;s <a href='http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/opentable/id296581815?mt=8'>dinner reservations</a>, <a href='http://www.zipcar.com/iphone/'>car rentals</a>, <a href='http://www.engadget.com/2010/11/15/comcast-xfinity-remote-app-for-iphone-ipad-launches-video-stre/'>TV viewing habits</a>, <a href='http://www.mint.com/features/iphone/'>financial data</a>, <a href='http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?ie=UTF8&amp;docId=1000291661'>recent purchases</a>, even <a href='http://www.mozilla.com/en-US/mobile/home/'>desktop browsing history</a> — it&#8217;s like winning the lottery of personal information. <span>26</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>It&#8217;s worth noting that the word &#8220;server&#8221; is not mentioned once in the opinion, yet the phrase &#8220;storage capacity&#8221; is used no less than five times — a concept that <a href='http://mashable.com/2007/05/14/yahoo-mail-unlimited/'>even as early as 2007 was considered a thing of the past</a>. <span>28</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:5'>\n<p>A password may only delay the inevitable. <em>See</em>Gershowitz, Adam M.,* <a href='http://ssrn.com/abstract=1669403'>Password Protected? Can a Password Save Your Cell Phone from the Search Incident to Arrest Doctrine?</a> <em>(August 31, 2010). <span>30</span></em></p>\n<a href='#fnref:5' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p>Regardless of where one&#8217;s politics may fall on the WikiLeaks prosecution, one thing is becoming abundantly clear as a result: <em>Twitter is emerging as a champion of users&#8217; rights.</em></p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/order-300x131.jpg' />Federal prosecutors investigating the disclosure of classified state documents <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/09/world/09wiki.html?partner=rss&amp;emc=rss'>served Twitter with a court order</a> demanding it turn over information pertaining to several of its users. While there is nothing particularly alarming about <a href='http://www.salon.com/news/opinion/glenn_greenwald/2011/01/07/twitter/subpoena.pdf'>the order</a>, <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> the bigger news is that <a href='http://techcrunch.com/2011/01/07/twitter-informs-users-of-doj-wikileaks-court-order-didnt-have-to/'>Twitter fought back</a>, contesting the attached gag order that prevented the social networking service from informing its users of its compliance with the otherwise lawful request. <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup></p><p>Twitter&#8217;s decision, arguably <a href='http://www.mediaaccess.org/2011/01/twitter-does-good-no-kidding/'>the first of its kind</a>, gave the targets of the order the time and legal cover necessary to pursue their own challenges in court. What is troubling, however, is that presumably other service providers, <a href='http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2011/jan/08/wikileaks-calls-google-facebook-us-subpoenas'>such as Google and Facebook</a>, could have received similar requests and silently acquiesced to the government&#8217;s demands.</p><p>While many companies, including <a href='http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacy/privacy-policy.html'>Google</a> and <a href='http://info.yahoo.com/privacy/us/yahoo/details.html'>Yahoo</a>, have a policy of informing users of such requests when legally permissible, in this case, Twitter&#8217;s contention of the gag order, and the resulting opportunity to pursue legal action it subsequently afforded its users, was somewhat heroic, at least by internet standards, and is a practice other firms should follow. By no means was Twitter obliged to spend time and money <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> rocking the boat on what appears to be an undoubtedly troublesome, but otherwise <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/10/business/media/10link.html?ref=wikileaks'>somewhat routine</a> request, but they did so anyway, and to their users&#8217; benefit. Wired put it best when <a href='http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2011/01/twitter/'>they noted</a>, &#8221;<em>Twitter introduced a new feature last month without telling anyone about it… Twitter beta-tested a spine.</em>&#8221;</p><p>A user&#8217;s protection from government intrusion should not diminish depending on the medium chosen and even more importantly, should not be dependent on the heroics of a caped internet crusader. This holds especially true when the world&#8217;s top social media firms are seemingly at <a href='https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2010/04/facebook-further-reduces-control-over-personal-information'>opposite ends</a> of the privacy spectrum. While it may be true that it is simply good business sense <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup> for service providers to <a href='http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/04/emailprivacy-2/'>fight to ensure the privacy of its user&#8217;s data</a> so that potential customers continue to visit the site and use their service, as any former Google Wave user knows, beta features, regardless of how heroic, are <a href='http://news.cnet.com/8301-13860_3-20012698-56.html'>not services to be relied on</a>. For progress to continue to march users into the cloud, the <a href='http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&amp;q=cache:IYzfdrim0owJ:www.fletc.gov/training/programs/legal-division/downloads-articles-and-faqs/downloads/other/obtaining_electronic.pdf/download+&amp;hl=en&amp;gl=us&amp;pid=bl&amp;srcid=ADGEESgpYeTPUFAijEyb4BnY4_wzFLwSJmRNv8yL2ZD8EkhQTjt7oXv9kELuYHG7A202xJ9_MGwvgVDwjviAEh0zW76gZQAbieBYwR6cnNUyD83txcScrGTU0qDUME590QPAMej6hmSy&amp;sig=AHIEtbTf4jZconLMbkMO_hVK8xQ92bqZNQ'>ambiguities surrounding a user&#8217;s digital rights</a> must be resolved through <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/10/technology/10privacy.html?_r=1&amp;hp'>a comprehensive CTRL-F5 of privacy law</a> by <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer/'>knowledgeable lawmakers</a> before we all <a href='http://techcrunch.com/2011/01/10/why-im-having-second-thoughts-about-the-wisdom-of-the-cloud/'>retreat to pen and paper</a> in the interest of privacy.</p><p>Notes:</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>As our interactions move increasingly online, <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/'>we can hardly be surprised</a> that law enforcement officers will seek supporting documents from digital rather than physical information stores. <em>See, e.g.,</em> <a href='http://blogs.forbes.com/kashmirhill/2011/01/04/google-m-for-murder-internet-search-history-of-killing-methods-helped-convict-husband-of-homicide/'>Google search history aiding murder convictions</a>, <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/03/us/03prisoners.html'>Prisoners coordinating riots via Facebook events</a>. <span>25</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>To be sure, the government&#8217;s request was <a href='http://news.cnet.com/8301-31921_3-20027893-281.html'>far from a demand for specific, targeted information</a>, but rather suggested that prosecutors unfamiliar with <em>what exactly it is kids do these days</em> were simply casting as wide a net as legally permissible. Beyond <a href='http://www.salon.com/news/opinion/glenn_greenwald/2011/01/07/twitter/index.html'>misspelling the name of one of its targets</a>, the order, a <a href='http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/18/usc_sec_18_00002703----000-.html'>2703(d)</a> order, <a href='http://mashable.com/2011/01/08/twitter-subpoenaed-by-u-s-government-for-wikileaks-accounts/'>requested</a> credit card, banking information, and street addresses (information Twitter would obviously not be privy to as a free, web-based service) be delivered via &#8221;<a href='http://www.salon.com/news/opinion/glenn_greenwald/2011/01/07/twitter/subpoena.pdf'>CD-ROM</a>&#8221;. More likely, <a href='http://paranoia.dubfire.net/2011/01/thoughts-on-doj-wikileakstwitter-court.html'>the feds were seeking metadata</a>, the non-content data automatically associated with a user whenever he or she interacts with the service, data such as the date, time, and network address of the computer used to post messages (which could potentially be traced back to an individual or at least a physical location). <span>31</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>Some might argue that Twitter should be considered heroic simply for stimulating the demand side of an <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/09/business/09law.html'>otherwise anemic legal economy</a>. <span>33</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>This may only hold true in the short run. As Columbia Law professor Tim Wu points out in his book <em>The Master Switch</em>, AT&amp;T&#8217;s &#8221;<a href='https://www.eff.org/nsa/hepting'>secret rooms</a>&#8221; illustrate that the service provider often may be compelled to contribute to the government&#8217;s information gathering infrastructure in hopes of garnering more favorable regulatory treatment. <span>35</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/about/","title":"About"},{"url":"/contact/","title":"Contact"},{"url":"/donate/","title":"Donate"},{"url":"/fine-print/","title":"Fine Print"},{"url":"/resume/","title":"Resume"},{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"}]}
+{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"Twitter Goes to Bat for WikiLeaks, RTs @FBI's Court Order","excerpt":"Twitter fought a court order demanding it turn over information pertaining to several of its users, contesting the attached gag order that prevented the social networking service from informing its users of its compliance with the otherwise lawful request.","layout":"post","category":["Law","Technology"],"tags":["cloud computing","digital due process","facebook","google","privacy","twitter"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2011/01/11/twitter-goes-to-bat-for-wikileaks/","date":"2011-01-11 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2011/01/11/twitter-goes-to-bat-for-wikileaks","categories":[["Law","Technology"]],"next":"![][1]The New York Times [recently open-sourced][2] their nifty wizardry which allows users to highlight and link to specific text within an article or post. In their own words:\n\n> Emphasis provides dynamic paragraph-specific anchor links and the ability to highlight text in a document, all of which is made available in the URL hash so it can be emailed, bookmarked, or shared.\n\nI adapted the New York Time's implementation into a three-line WordPress plugin for my own site, and it is available in the [WordPress plugin repository][3] as a one-click install, if you would like to add it to your own.\n\nThe \"deep links\" plugin allows for permalinking and highlighting of text on a paragraph and sentance level. No need to set anything up. Just install, tap shift twice, and start highlighting.\n\n*See* [The New York Times post on the script][2] for syntax and more information on general usage or you can double tap the *shift* key right now to give it a try.\n\nNeat, huh? [Download it][3] today.\n\n*Enjoy using WP Emphasis? Feel free to [make a small donation][4] to support the software's continued development.*\n\n**Update (1/18):** For an interesting perspective on the underlying technology and what it could mean for the net, [Zach Seward's take][5] is well worth the read.\n\n [1]: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/emphasis-screenshot.png \"Screenshot of Emphasis WordPress Plugin\"\n [2]: http://open.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/11/emphasis-update-and-source/\n [3]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-emphasis/\n [4]: http://ben.balter.com/donate/ \"Donate\"\n [5]: http://zachseward.com/emphasis/","previous":"<p><img alt='Policeman Checks Cellphone' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/policeman.jpg' /></p><p>When drafting and interpreting the fourth amendment, neither the founding fathers, nor the countless legal scholars that followed them could have ever imagined that one day technology would allow us to walk down the street with our entire life chronicled in our pocket. The growing popularity of the cloud coupled with increasing power of smart phones has resulted in what not too long ago was tool for placing and receiving calls, today, in actuality, is a portal to one&#8217;s entire digital life. Imagine if a routine traffic stop, say, for failing to signal properly, would place in the state&#8217;s hands every e-mail you have ever sent, contact you have ever met, or financial transaction you have ever completed (not to mention your current <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angry_Birds'>Angry Birds</a> score!). Regardless of how Orwellian it may sound, the California Supreme Court <a href='http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2011/01/warrantless-cell-phone-search-gets-a-green-light-in-california.ars?comments=1#comments-bar'>ruled in favor of just such an outcome</a>.</p><p>In <em><a href='http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/S166600.PDF'>People v. Diaz</a></em>, the court ruled that a warrentless search of text messages on a cell phone confiscated subsequent to a lawful arrest did infact, constitute a valid search. While the dissent realized that mobile phones were increasingly becoming the hubs of our digital world, noting that the decision gave &#8221;<em>carte blanche, with no showing of exigency, to rummage at leisure through the wealth of personal and business information that can be carried on a mobile phone or handheld computer merely because the device was taken from an arrestee&#8217;s person,</em>&#8221; I do not believe they fully grasped the gravity of the ruling. <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup></p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/zoolander-300x188.jpg' /><a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_m_PncKuDao&amp;feature=related#t=1m16s'>Much like Ben Stiller and Owen Wilson&#8217;s characters in the movie Zoolander</a>, the dissent&#8217;s analysis is based on the assumption that information &#8220;can be carried on&#8221; or &#8220;in&#8221; one&#8217;s mobile phone, a reality which simply is not the case in today&#8217;s increasingly cloud-centric world.</p><p>Today, and even more so tomorrow, information will not be &#8220;carried on&#8221; a phone, but rather, that phone will merely be the vehicle used to access information stored elsewhere, information that would otherwise carry the highest expectation of privacy. Put another way, the device holds, both literally and metaphorically, the address, keys, and means to access one&#8217;s digital home, a breach of privacy that would not be tolerated if it occurred in a more tangible sense.</p><p>In a world where in reality, nearly every e-mail I have ever sent or received can be accessed by opening a folder on my phone virtually indistinguishable <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> from any neighboring folder that contains locally stored information, the majority&#8217;s interpretation grants the state access to nearly everything one says or does on a daily basis. Put another way, how much information do you think <em>won&#8217;t</em> be accessible from your mobile phone in 5 years? 10 years? 20? Just scroll through your home screen. <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup></p><p>The majority&#8217;s decision was well argued by legal minds much wiser than my own, but even reading through the verbiage of the opinion, discussing the nature of containers and cavities as they relate to what is &#8220;in&#8221; the phone, it leads one to believe that their analysis is handicapped by <a href='http://movieclips.com/sgNVB-zoolander-movie-computer-experts/'>outdated concepts of storage and space</a>. <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup></p><p>While it may not be practical to install <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faraday_cage'>Faraday cages</a> in every police station to ferret out what information can be gleamed from a mobile device without it querying a remote server (if there is any information at all), the majority&#8217;s opinion fails to take into account the reality of how mobile phones are used today, let alone, how they will be most likely be used in the not-to-distant future. While the courts sort out <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/'>what fourth amendment protections are extended into the digital world</a>, I for one, will be sure to put a password on my phone next time I cross the California state line. <sup id='fnref:5'><a href='#fn:5' rel='footnote'>5</a></sup></p><p><span>photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/61076493/'>Thomas Hawk</a></span></p><p>Notes:</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>While the question has been pondered to some extent, for example, in Professor Kerr&#8217;s 2006 paper <a href='http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=697541'>Searches and Seizures in a Digital World</a>, or Professor Gershowitz&#8217;s 2008 paper, <a href='http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1084503'>the iPhone Meets the Fourth Amendment</a>, technology has come a long way, even in the past two years, and will continue to evolve in the years to come. <span>18</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>Even for the technologically adept, today, it is hard to tell exactly what information exists &#8220;on&#8221; my phone, and what information exists &#8220;in&#8221; the cloud. The subject and sender of an incoming e-mail may be pushed to my iPhone automatically, for example, but the body or attachments may not download until I access the message itself. Today&#8217;s calendar entries may be cached on the device (I wouldn&#8217;t consider my calendar &#8220;stored&#8221; on my device — it&#8217;s not the master copy), but yesterday&#8217;s and tomorrow&#8217;s agendas are both retrieved on demand from a distant server unrelated to any hypothetical search to which I may me subject. <span>19</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>Beyond the obvious (e-mail, phone, contact, calendars), there&#8217;s <a href='http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/opentable/id296581815?mt=8'>dinner reservations</a>, <a href='http://www.zipcar.com/iphone/'>car rentals</a>, <a href='http://www.engadget.com/2010/11/15/comcast-xfinity-remote-app-for-iphone-ipad-launches-video-stre/'>TV viewing habits</a>, <a href='http://www.mint.com/features/iphone/'>financial data</a>, <a href='http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?ie=UTF8&amp;docId=1000291661'>recent purchases</a>, even <a href='http://www.mozilla.com/en-US/mobile/home/'>desktop browsing history</a> — it&#8217;s like winning the lottery of personal information. <span>26</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>It&#8217;s worth noting that the word &#8220;server&#8221; is not mentioned once in the opinion, yet the phrase &#8220;storage capacity&#8221; is used no less than five times — a concept that <a href='http://mashable.com/2007/05/14/yahoo-mail-unlimited/'>even as early as 2007 was considered a thing of the past</a>. <span>28</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:5'>\n<p>A password may only delay the inevitable. <em>See</em>Gershowitz, Adam M.,* <a href='http://ssrn.com/abstract=1669403'>Password Protected? Can a Password Save Your Cell Phone from the Search Incident to Arrest Doctrine?</a> <em>(August 31, 2010). <span>30</span></em></p>\n<a href='#fnref:5' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p>Regardless of where one&#8217;s politics may fall on the WikiLeaks prosecution, one thing is becoming abundantly clear as a result: <em>Twitter is emerging as a champion of users&#8217; rights.</em></p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/order-300x131.jpg' />Federal prosecutors investigating the disclosure of classified state documents <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/09/world/09wiki.html?partner=rss&amp;emc=rss'>served Twitter with a court order</a> demanding it turn over information pertaining to several of its users. While there is nothing particularly alarming about <a href='http://www.salon.com/news/opinion/glenn_greenwald/2011/01/07/twitter/subpoena.pdf'>the order</a>, <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> the bigger news is that <a href='http://techcrunch.com/2011/01/07/twitter-informs-users-of-doj-wikileaks-court-order-didnt-have-to/'>Twitter fought back</a>, contesting the attached gag order that prevented the social networking service from informing its users of its compliance with the otherwise lawful request. <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup></p><p>Twitter&#8217;s decision, arguably <a href='http://www.mediaaccess.org/2011/01/twitter-does-good-no-kidding/'>the first of its kind</a>, gave the targets of the order the time and legal cover necessary to pursue their own challenges in court. What is troubling, however, is that presumably other service providers, <a href='http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2011/jan/08/wikileaks-calls-google-facebook-us-subpoenas'>such as Google and Facebook</a>, could have received similar requests and silently acquiesced to the government&#8217;s demands.</p><p>While many companies, including <a href='http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacy/privacy-policy.html'>Google</a> and <a href='http://info.yahoo.com/privacy/us/yahoo/details.html'>Yahoo</a>, have a policy of informing users of such requests when legally permissible, in this case, Twitter&#8217;s contention of the gag order, and the resulting opportunity to pursue legal action it subsequently afforded its users, was somewhat heroic, at least by internet standards, and is a practice other firms should follow. By no means was Twitter obliged to spend time and money <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> rocking the boat on what appears to be an undoubtedly troublesome, but otherwise <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/10/business/media/10link.html?ref=wikileaks'>somewhat routine</a> request, but they did so anyway, and to their users&#8217; benefit. Wired put it best when <a href='http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2011/01/twitter/'>they noted</a>, &#8221;<em>Twitter introduced a new feature last month without telling anyone about it… Twitter beta-tested a spine.</em>&#8221;</p><p>A user&#8217;s protection from government intrusion should not diminish depending on the medium chosen and even more importantly, should not be dependent on the heroics of a caped internet crusader. This holds especially true when the world&#8217;s top social media firms are seemingly at <a href='https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2010/04/facebook-further-reduces-control-over-personal-information'>opposite ends</a> of the privacy spectrum. While it may be true that it is simply good business sense <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup> for service providers to <a href='http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/04/emailprivacy-2/'>fight to ensure the privacy of its user&#8217;s data</a> so that potential customers continue to visit the site and use their service, as any former Google Wave user knows, beta features, regardless of how heroic, are <a href='http://news.cnet.com/8301-13860_3-20012698-56.html'>not services to be relied on</a>. For progress to continue to march users into the cloud, the <a href='http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&amp;q=cache:IYzfdrim0owJ:www.fletc.gov/training/programs/legal-division/downloads-articles-and-faqs/downloads/other/obtaining_electronic.pdf/download+&amp;hl=en&amp;gl=us&amp;pid=bl&amp;srcid=ADGEESgpYeTPUFAijEyb4BnY4_wzFLwSJmRNv8yL2ZD8EkhQTjt7oXv9kELuYHG7A202xJ9_MGwvgVDwjviAEh0zW76gZQAbieBYwR6cnNUyD83txcScrGTU0qDUME590QPAMej6hmSy&amp;sig=AHIEtbTf4jZconLMbkMO_hVK8xQ92bqZNQ'>ambiguities surrounding a user&#8217;s digital rights</a> must be resolved through <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/10/technology/10privacy.html?_r=1&amp;hp'>a comprehensive CTRL-F5 of privacy law</a> by <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer/'>knowledgeable lawmakers</a> before we all <a href='http://techcrunch.com/2011/01/10/why-im-having-second-thoughts-about-the-wisdom-of-the-cloud/'>retreat to pen and paper</a> in the interest of privacy.</p><p>Notes:</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>As our interactions move increasingly online, <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/'>we can hardly be surprised</a> that law enforcement officers will seek supporting documents from digital rather than physical information stores. <em>See, e.g.,</em> <a href='http://blogs.forbes.com/kashmirhill/2011/01/04/google-m-for-murder-internet-search-history-of-killing-methods-helped-convict-husband-of-homicide/'>Google search history aiding murder convictions</a>, <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/03/us/03prisoners.html'>Prisoners coordinating riots via Facebook events</a>. <span>25</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>To be sure, the government&#8217;s request was <a href='http://news.cnet.com/8301-31921_3-20027893-281.html'>far from a demand for specific, targeted information</a>, but rather suggested that prosecutors unfamiliar with <em>what exactly it is kids do these days</em> were simply casting as wide a net as legally permissible. Beyond <a href='http://www.salon.com/news/opinion/glenn_greenwald/2011/01/07/twitter/index.html'>misspelling the name of one of its targets</a>, the order, a <a href='http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/18/usc_sec_18_00002703----000-.html'>2703(d)</a> order, <a href='http://mashable.com/2011/01/08/twitter-subpoenaed-by-u-s-government-for-wikileaks-accounts/'>requested</a> credit card, banking information, and street addresses (information Twitter would obviously not be privy to as a free, web-based service) be delivered via &#8221;<a href='http://www.salon.com/news/opinion/glenn_greenwald/2011/01/07/twitter/subpoena.pdf'>CD-ROM</a>&#8221;. More likely, <a href='http://paranoia.dubfire.net/2011/01/thoughts-on-doj-wikileakstwitter-court.html'>the feds were seeking metadata</a>, the non-content data automatically associated with a user whenever he or she interacts with the service, data such as the date, time, and network address of the computer used to post messages (which could potentially be traced back to an individual or at least a physical location). <span>31</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>Some might argue that Twitter should be considered heroic simply for stimulating the demand side of an <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/09/business/09law.html'>otherwise anemic legal economy</a>. <span>33</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>This may only hold true in the short run. As Columbia Law professor Tim Wu points out in his book <em>The Master Switch</em>, AT&amp;T&#8217;s &#8221;<a href='https://www.eff.org/nsa/hepting'>secret rooms</a>&#8221; illustrate that the service provider often may be compelled to contribute to the government&#8217;s information gathering infrastructure in hopes of garnering more favorable regulatory treatment. <span>35</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/","title":"WordPress Resume Plugin"},{"url":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party/","title":"New Media Flak: Megaphone vs. Cocktail Party"},{"url":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/","title":"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?"},{"url":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility/","title":"Removing the Barriers to Organizational Agility\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing/","title":"What Fourteen-Century Apple Pie Teaches Us About Sharing\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds/","title":"Will Federal Contracting Officers Soon Have Their Heads in the Clouds?\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it/","title":"Free Trade in China? Just Google it."},{"url":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/","title":"Twitter Mentions as Comments WordPress Plugin\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes/","title":"The Internet is Series of Tubes (oh, and Tollgates too)\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/","title":"Late-Night Infomercials: Guaranteed to Extend the 4th Amendment or Your Money Back"}]}
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2  2011/01/11/wordpress-emphasis-plugin.json
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-{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"WordPress Emphasis Plugin: Highlight and Permalink Text","excerpt":"One-click implementation of the New York Times open source emphasis script as a WordPress plugin which allows for highlighting and permalinking of text on a paragraph and sentence level.\n","layout":"post","category":["Technology"],"tags":["deep links","journalism","nyt","open source","plugin","wordpress"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2011/01/11/wordpress-emphasis-plugin/","date":"2011-01-11 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2011/01/11/wordpress-emphasis-plugin","categories":[["Technology"]],"next":"![Course Schedule][1]{.alignright}George Washington University recently released an [iPhone app][2] that allows students to look up the course schedule and each course's open/closed status as well as browse an interactive map of the campus. Naturally, upon installing the app, the first thing to do is to try and ferret out the underlying XML API that powers it, a simple enough task given [the right tools][3].\n\nBelow you can find the details on GW's course schedule and campus map API endpoints, as well as an API wrapper to interact with it written in PHP. Feel free to grab the code below, or fork and contribute in the [GitHub repo][4]. Cool data that deserves to be shared with the world, no doubt.\n\nCreative ideas on how best to leverage the information welcome in the [comments below][5].\n\n*Please Note: I am not a GW employee, nor is use of the API explicitly authorized by the University. The code below is provided \"as is\" solely for educational purposes. If for any reason you would like this page removed, please [contact me][6] immediately and I will do so.*\n\n* * *\n\n### Course Schedule\n\n1. Departments \n 1. Endpoint: `http://my.gwu.edu/mod/pws/scheduleXML.cfm`\n 2. Parameters: `termCode=[YYYY][01=spring, 02=summer, 03=fall]`\n 3. Returns\n \n {% highlight xml %}<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"iso-8859-1\" ?>\n<departments>\n <department>\n <departmentcode><![CDATA[ACCY]]></departmentcode>\n <departmentname><![CDATA[Accountancy]]></departmentname>\n </department>\n <department>\n <departmentcode><![CDATA[AH]]></departmentcode>\n <departmentname><![CDATA[Art/Art History]]></departmentname>\n </department>\n</departments>\n {% endhighlight %}\n\n2. Courses \n 1. Endpoint: `http://my.gwu.edu/mod/pws/scheduleXML.cfm`\n 2. Parameters: \n 1. `termCode=[YYYY][01=spring, 02=summer, 03=fall]`\n 2. `deptCode=[Dept. Code]`\n 3. Returns:\n\n{% highlight xml %}<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"iso-8859-1\" ?>\n<courses>\n <course>\n <coursedepartment><![CDATA[ACCY]]></coursedepartment>\n <coursenumber><![CDATA[6101]]></coursenumber>\n <coursecrn><![CDATA[55164]]></coursecrn>\n <coursetitle><![CDATA[FinAcctingI:BasicFinStatements]]></coursetitle>\n <courseinstructor><![CDATA[ Singleton, L]]></courseinstructor>\n <courselocation><![CDATA[<A HREF=\"http://www.gwu.edu/~map/building.cfm?BLDG=DUQUES\" target=\"_blank\" >DUQUES</a> 258]]></courselocation>\n <coursedays><![CDATA[MW 06:10PM - 09:05PM]]></coursedays>\n <coursetime><![CDATA[]]></coursetime>\n <coursestatus><![CDATA[OPEN]]></coursestatus>\n <coursesection><![CDATA[81]]></coursesection>\n <coursecredit><![CDATA[1.50 ]]></coursecredit>\n </course>\n <course>\n <coursedepartment><![CDATA[ACCY]]></coursedepartment>\n <coursenumber><![CDATA[6102]]></coursenumber>\n <coursecrn><![CDATA[55165]]></coursecrn>\n <coursetitle><![CDATA[Fin Accting II: FinAcc Choices]]></coursetitle>\n <courseinstructor><![CDATA[ Tarpley, R]]></courseinstructor>\n <courselocation><![CDATA[<A HREF=\"http://www.gwu.edu/~map/building.cfm?BLDG=DUQUES\" target=\"_blank\" >DUQUES</a> 258]]></courselocation>\n <coursedays><![CDATA[MW 06:10PM - 09:05PM]]></coursedays>\n <coursetime><![CDATA[]]></coursetime>\n <coursestatus><![CDATA[OPEN]]></coursestatus>\n <coursesection><![CDATA[80]]></coursesection>\n <coursecredit><![CDATA[1.50 ]]></coursecredit>\n </course>\n</courses>\n {% endhighlight %}\n \n\n### Campus Map\n\n1. Categories \n 1. Endpoint: `http://citl.gwu.edu/iphonedev/maps/categories.xml`\n 2. Return:\n \n{% highlight xml %} \n<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"UTF-8\" standalone=\"yes\"?>\n<categories xmlns:xsi=\"http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance\">\n <category>\n <categoryId>1</categoryId>\n <shortname>academic</shortname>\n <categoryName>Academic</categoryName>\n <state>Yes</state>\n </category>\n <category>\n <categoryId>2</categoryId>\n <shortname>administrative</shortname>\n <categoryName>Administrative</categoryName>\n <state>Yes</state>\n </category>\n</categories>\n{% endhighlight %}\n \n\n2. Buildings \n 1. Endpoint: `http://citl.gwu.edu/iphonedev/maps/[shortname].xml`\n 2. Return:\n \n{% highlight xml %}<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"UTF-8\" standalone=\"yes\"?>\n<buildings xmlns:xsi=\"http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance\">\n <building>\n <buildingNumber>153</buildingNumber>\n <campus>Foggy Bottom</campus>\n <UsageClassification>Academic</UsageClassification>\n <buildingName>1776 G St</buildingName>\n <address>1776 G St</address>\n <geoLocation>38.897984,-77.04146</geoLocation>\n <shortname>NA</shortname>\n <picturelink>http://www.gwu.edu/~newsctr/mobile/images/maps/1776-G-ST_UP_WLA_2010-6618.jpg</picturelink>\n </building>\n <building>\n <buildingNumber>136</buildingNumber>\n <campus>Foggy Bottom</campus>\n <UsageClassification>Academic</UsageClassification>\n <buildingName>1957 E St</buildingName>\n <address>1957 E St</address>\n <geoLocation>38.896193,-77.044294</geoLocation>\n <shortname>1957E</shortname>\n <picturelink>http://www.gwu.edu/~newsctr/mobile/images/maps/Elliot_School_UP_WLA_2010-3102.jpg</picturelink>\n </building>\n</buildings>\n{% endhighlight %}\n \n\n### API Wrapper\n\n1. Source \n\n<script src=\"http://gist-it.appspot.com/github/benbalter/GW-API/raw/master/gw-api.php\"> </script>\n \n2. Usage \n\n#### Initialize:\n{% highlight php %}<?php $gwapi = new gw_api; ?>{% endhighlight %}\n \n#### List Departments \n{% highlight php %}<?php $departments = $gwapi->get_schedule();\n foreach ($departments as $department)\n echo $department->departmentname . '<br />';?>{% endhighlight %} \n \n#### Get Course Schedule for Fall 2011\n{% highlight php %}<?php $courses = $gwapi->get_schedule('2011','03','ACCY');?>{% endhighlight %}\n\n#### Get Course Schedule for current term \n{% highlight php %}<?php $courses = $gwapi->get_schedule(null,null,'ACCY'); ?>{% endhighlight %}\n\n#### Get map categories \n{% highlight php %}<?php $categories = $gwapi->get_map(); ?>{% endhighlight %}\n\n#### Get Buildings \n{% highlight php %}<?php $buildings = $gwapi->get_maps('academic'); ?>{% endhighlight %}\n\n[Photo: [atomicbartbeans][7]]\n\n [1]: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/1430289931_beb7ff6428_b-300x225.jpg \"Course Schedule\"\n [2]: http://acadtech.gwu.edu/pages/gwmobile\n [3]: http://blog.jerodsanto.net/2009/06/sniff-your-iphones-network-traffic/\n [4]: https://github.com/benbalter/GW-API\n [5]: #comments\n [6]: http://ben.balter.com/contact/\n [7]: http://www.flickr.com/photos/atomicbartbeans/1430289931/","previous":"<p>Regardless of where one&#8217;s politics may fall on the WikiLeaks prosecution, one thing is becoming abundantly clear as a result: <em>Twitter is emerging as a champion of users&#8217; rights.</em></p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/order-300x131.jpg' />Federal prosecutors investigating the disclosure of classified state documents <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/09/world/09wiki.html?partner=rss&amp;emc=rss'>served Twitter with a court order</a> demanding it turn over information pertaining to several of its users. While there is nothing particularly alarming about <a href='http://www.salon.com/news/opinion/glenn_greenwald/2011/01/07/twitter/subpoena.pdf'>the order</a>, <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> the bigger news is that <a href='http://techcrunch.com/2011/01/07/twitter-informs-users-of-doj-wikileaks-court-order-didnt-have-to/'>Twitter fought back</a>, contesting the attached gag order that prevented the social networking service from informing its users of its compliance with the otherwise lawful request. <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup></p><p>Twitter&#8217;s decision, arguably <a href='http://www.mediaaccess.org/2011/01/twitter-does-good-no-kidding/'>the first of its kind</a>, gave the targets of the order the time and legal cover necessary to pursue their own challenges in court. What is troubling, however, is that presumably other service providers, <a href='http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2011/jan/08/wikileaks-calls-google-facebook-us-subpoenas'>such as Google and Facebook</a>, could have received similar requests and silently acquiesced to the government&#8217;s demands.</p><p>While many companies, including <a href='http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacy/privacy-policy.html'>Google</a> and <a href='http://info.yahoo.com/privacy/us/yahoo/details.html'>Yahoo</a>, have a policy of informing users of such requests when legally permissible, in this case, Twitter&#8217;s contention of the gag order, and the resulting opportunity to pursue legal action it subsequently afforded its users, was somewhat heroic, at least by internet standards, and is a practice other firms should follow. By no means was Twitter obliged to spend time and money <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> rocking the boat on what appears to be an undoubtedly troublesome, but otherwise <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/10/business/media/10link.html?ref=wikileaks'>somewhat routine</a> request, but they did so anyway, and to their users&#8217; benefit. Wired put it best when <a href='http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2011/01/twitter/'>they noted</a>, &#8221;<em>Twitter introduced a new feature last month without telling anyone about it… Twitter beta-tested a spine.</em>&#8221;</p><p>A user&#8217;s protection from government intrusion should not diminish depending on the medium chosen and even more importantly, should not be dependent on the heroics of a caped internet crusader. This holds especially true when the world&#8217;s top social media firms are seemingly at <a href='https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2010/04/facebook-further-reduces-control-over-personal-information'>opposite ends</a> of the privacy spectrum. While it may be true that it is simply good business sense <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup> for service providers to <a href='http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/04/emailprivacy-2/'>fight to ensure the privacy of its user&#8217;s data</a> so that potential customers continue to visit the site and use their service, as any former Google Wave user knows, beta features, regardless of how heroic, are <a href='http://news.cnet.com/8301-13860_3-20012698-56.html'>not services to be relied on</a>. For progress to continue to march users into the cloud, the <a href='http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&amp;q=cache:IYzfdrim0owJ:www.fletc.gov/training/programs/legal-division/downloads-articles-and-faqs/downloads/other/obtaining_electronic.pdf/download+&amp;hl=en&amp;gl=us&amp;pid=bl&amp;srcid=ADGEESgpYeTPUFAijEyb4BnY4_wzFLwSJmRNv8yL2ZD8EkhQTjt7oXv9kELuYHG7A202xJ9_MGwvgVDwjviAEh0zW76gZQAbieBYwR6cnNUyD83txcScrGTU0qDUME590QPAMej6hmSy&amp;sig=AHIEtbTf4jZconLMbkMO_hVK8xQ92bqZNQ'>ambiguities surrounding a user&#8217;s digital rights</a> must be resolved through <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/10/technology/10privacy.html?_r=1&amp;hp'>a comprehensive CTRL-F5 of privacy law</a> by <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer/'>knowledgeable lawmakers</a> before we all <a href='http://techcrunch.com/2011/01/10/why-im-having-second-thoughts-about-the-wisdom-of-the-cloud/'>retreat to pen and paper</a> in the interest of privacy.</p><p>Notes:</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>As our interactions move increasingly online, <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/'>we can hardly be surprised</a> that law enforcement officers will seek supporting documents from digital rather than physical information stores. <em>See, e.g.,</em> <a href='http://blogs.forbes.com/kashmirhill/2011/01/04/google-m-for-murder-internet-search-history-of-killing-methods-helped-convict-husband-of-homicide/'>Google search history aiding murder convictions</a>, <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/03/us/03prisoners.html'>Prisoners coordinating riots via Facebook events</a>. <span>25</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>To be sure, the government&#8217;s request was <a href='http://news.cnet.com/8301-31921_3-20027893-281.html'>far from a demand for specific, targeted information</a>, but rather suggested that prosecutors unfamiliar with <em>what exactly it is kids do these days</em> were simply casting as wide a net as legally permissible. Beyond <a href='http://www.salon.com/news/opinion/glenn_greenwald/2011/01/07/twitter/index.html'>misspelling the name of one of its targets</a>, the order, a <a href='http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/18/usc_sec_18_00002703----000-.html'>2703(d)</a> order, <a href='http://mashable.com/2011/01/08/twitter-subpoenaed-by-u-s-government-for-wikileaks-accounts/'>requested</a> credit card, banking information, and street addresses (information Twitter would obviously not be privy to as a free, web-based service) be delivered via &#8221;<a href='http://www.salon.com/news/opinion/glenn_greenwald/2011/01/07/twitter/subpoena.pdf'>CD-ROM</a>&#8221;. More likely, <a href='http://paranoia.dubfire.net/2011/01/thoughts-on-doj-wikileakstwitter-court.html'>the feds were seeking metadata</a>, the non-content data automatically associated with a user whenever he or she interacts with the service, data such as the date, time, and network address of the computer used to post messages (which could potentially be traced back to an individual or at least a physical location). <span>31</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>Some might argue that Twitter should be considered heroic simply for stimulating the demand side of an <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/09/business/09law.html'>otherwise anemic legal economy</a>. <span>33</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>This may only hold true in the short run. As Columbia Law professor Tim Wu points out in his book <em>The Master Switch</em>, AT&amp;T&#8217;s &#8221;<a href='https://www.eff.org/nsa/hepting'>secret rooms</a>&#8221; illustrate that the service provider often may be compelled to contribute to the government&#8217;s information gathering infrastructure in hopes of garnering more favorable regulatory treatment. <span>35</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p><img alt='' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/emphasis-screenshot.png' />The New York Times <a href='http://open.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/11/emphasis-update-and-source/'>recently open-sourced</a> their nifty wizardry which allows users to highlight and link to specific text within an article or post. In their own words:</p><blockquote>\n<p>Emphasis provides dynamic paragraph-specific anchor links and the ability to highlight text in a document, all of which is made available in the URL hash so it can be emailed, bookmarked, or shared.</p>\n</blockquote><p>I adapted the New York Time&#8217;s implementation into a three-line WordPress plugin for my own site, and it is available in the <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-emphasis/'>WordPress plugin repository</a> as a one-click install, if you would like to add it to your own.</p><p>The &#8220;deep links&#8221; plugin allows for permalinking and highlighting of text on a paragraph and sentance level. No need to set anything up. Just install, tap shift twice, and start highlighting.</p><p><em>See</em> <a href='http://open.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/11/emphasis-update-and-source/'>The New York Times post on the script</a> for syntax and more information on general usage or you can double tap the <em>shift</em> key right now to give it a try.</p><p>Neat, huh? <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-emphasis/'>Download it</a> today.</p><p><em>Enjoy using WP Emphasis? Feel free to <a href='http://ben.balter.com/donate/' title='Donate'>make a small donation</a> to support the software&#8217;s continued development.</em></p><p><strong>Update (1/18):</strong> For an interesting perspective on the underlying technology and what it could mean for the net, <a href='http://zachseward.com/emphasis/'>Zach Seward&#8217;s take</a> is well worth the read.</p>","related_posts":[{"url":"/about/","title":"About"},{"url":"/contact/","title":"Contact"},{"url":"/donate/","title":"Donate"},{"url":"/fine-print/","title":"Fine Print"},{"url":"/resume/","title":"Resume"},{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"}]}
+{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"WordPress Emphasis Plugin: Highlight and Permalink Text","excerpt":"One-click implementation of the New York Times open source emphasis script as a WordPress plugin which allows for highlighting and permalinking of text on a paragraph and sentence level.\n","layout":"post","category":["Technology"],"tags":["deep links","journalism","nyt","open source","plugin","wordpress"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2011/01/11/wordpress-emphasis-plugin/","date":"2011-01-11 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2011/01/11/wordpress-emphasis-plugin","categories":[["Technology"]],"next":"![Course Schedule][1]{.alignright}George Washington University recently released an [iPhone app][2] that allows students to look up the course schedule and each course's open/closed status as well as browse an interactive map of the campus. Naturally, upon installing the app, the first thing to do is to try and ferret out the underlying XML API that powers it, a simple enough task given [the right tools][3].\n\nBelow you can find the details on GW's course schedule and campus map API endpoints, as well as an API wrapper to interact with it written in PHP. Feel free to grab the code below, or fork and contribute in the [GitHub repo][4]. Cool data that deserves to be shared with the world, no doubt.\n\nCreative ideas on how best to leverage the information welcome in the [comments below][5].\n\n*Please Note: I am not a GW employee, nor is use of the API explicitly authorized by the University. The code below is provided \"as is\" solely for educational purposes. If for any reason you would like this page removed, please [contact me][6] immediately and I will do so.*\n\n* * *\n\n### Course Schedule\n\n1. Departments \n 1. Endpoint: `http://my.gwu.edu/mod/pws/scheduleXML.cfm`\n 2. Parameters: `termCode=[YYYY][01=spring, 02=summer, 03=fall]`\n 3. Returns\n \n {% highlight xml %}<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"iso-8859-1\" ?>\n<departments>\n <department>\n <departmentcode><![CDATA[ACCY]]></departmentcode>\n <departmentname><![CDATA[Accountancy]]></departmentname>\n </department>\n <department>\n <departmentcode><![CDATA[AH]]></departmentcode>\n <departmentname><![CDATA[Art/Art History]]></departmentname>\n </department>\n</departments>\n {% endhighlight %}\n\n2. Courses \n 1. Endpoint: `http://my.gwu.edu/mod/pws/scheduleXML.cfm`\n 2. Parameters: \n 1. `termCode=[YYYY][01=spring, 02=summer, 03=fall]`\n 2. `deptCode=[Dept. Code]`\n 3. Returns:\n\n{% highlight xml %}<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"iso-8859-1\" ?>\n<courses>\n <course>\n <coursedepartment><![CDATA[ACCY]]></coursedepartment>\n <coursenumber><![CDATA[6101]]></coursenumber>\n <coursecrn><![CDATA[55164]]></coursecrn>\n <coursetitle><![CDATA[FinAcctingI:BasicFinStatements]]></coursetitle>\n <courseinstructor><![CDATA[ Singleton, L]]></courseinstructor>\n <courselocation><![CDATA[<A HREF=\"http://www.gwu.edu/~map/building.cfm?BLDG=DUQUES\" target=\"_blank\" >DUQUES</a> 258]]></courselocation>\n <coursedays><![CDATA[MW 06:10PM - 09:05PM]]></coursedays>\n <coursetime><![CDATA[]]></coursetime>\n <coursestatus><![CDATA[OPEN]]></coursestatus>\n <coursesection><![CDATA[81]]></coursesection>\n <coursecredit><![CDATA[1.50 ]]></coursecredit>\n </course>\n <course>\n <coursedepartment><![CDATA[ACCY]]></coursedepartment>\n <coursenumber><![CDATA[6102]]></coursenumber>\n <coursecrn><![CDATA[55165]]></coursecrn>\n <coursetitle><![CDATA[Fin Accting II: FinAcc Choices]]></coursetitle>\n <courseinstructor><![CDATA[ Tarpley, R]]></courseinstructor>\n <courselocation><![CDATA[<A HREF=\"http://www.gwu.edu/~map/building.cfm?BLDG=DUQUES\" target=\"_blank\" >DUQUES</a> 258]]></courselocation>\n <coursedays><![CDATA[MW 06:10PM - 09:05PM]]></coursedays>\n <coursetime><![CDATA[]]></coursetime>\n <coursestatus><![CDATA[OPEN]]></coursestatus>\n <coursesection><![CDATA[80]]></coursesection>\n <coursecredit><![CDATA[1.50 ]]></coursecredit>\n </course>\n</courses>\n {% endhighlight %}\n \n\n### Campus Map\n\n1. Categories \n 1. Endpoint: `http://citl.gwu.edu/iphonedev/maps/categories.xml`\n 2. Return:\n \n{% highlight xml %} \n<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"UTF-8\" standalone=\"yes\"?>\n<categories xmlns:xsi=\"http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance\">\n <category>\n <categoryId>1</categoryId>\n <shortname>academic</shortname>\n <categoryName>Academic</categoryName>\n <state>Yes</state>\n </category>\n <category>\n <categoryId>2</categoryId>\n <shortname>administrative</shortname>\n <categoryName>Administrative</categoryName>\n <state>Yes</state>\n </category>\n</categories>\n{% endhighlight %}\n \n\n2. Buildings \n 1. Endpoint: `http://citl.gwu.edu/iphonedev/maps/[shortname].xml`\n 2. Return:\n \n{% highlight xml %}<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"UTF-8\" standalone=\"yes\"?>\n<buildings xmlns:xsi=\"http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance\">\n <building>\n <buildingNumber>153</buildingNumber>\n <campus>Foggy Bottom</campus>\n <UsageClassification>Academic</UsageClassification>\n <buildingName>1776 G St</buildingName>\n <address>1776 G St</address>\n <geoLocation>38.897984,-77.04146</geoLocation>\n <shortname>NA</shortname>\n <picturelink>http://www.gwu.edu/~newsctr/mobile/images/maps/1776-G-ST_UP_WLA_2010-6618.jpg</picturelink>\n </building>\n <building>\n <buildingNumber>136</buildingNumber>\n <campus>Foggy Bottom</campus>\n <UsageClassification>Academic</UsageClassification>\n <buildingName>1957 E St</buildingName>\n <address>1957 E St</address>\n <geoLocation>38.896193,-77.044294</geoLocation>\n <shortname>1957E</shortname>\n <picturelink>http://www.gwu.edu/~newsctr/mobile/images/maps/Elliot_School_UP_WLA_2010-3102.jpg</picturelink>\n </building>\n</buildings>\n{% endhighlight %}\n \n\n### API Wrapper\n\n1. Source \n\n<script src=\"http://gist-it.appspot.com/github/benbalter/GW-API/raw/master/gw-api.php\"> </script>\n \n2. Usage \n\n#### Initialize:\n{% highlight php %}<?php $gwapi = new gw_api; ?>{% endhighlight %}\n \n#### List Departments \n{% highlight php %}<?php $departments = $gwapi->get_schedule();\n foreach ($departments as $department)\n echo $department->departmentname . '<br />';?>{% endhighlight %} \n \n#### Get Course Schedule for Fall 2011\n{% highlight php %}<?php $courses = $gwapi->get_schedule('2011','03','ACCY');?>{% endhighlight %}\n\n#### Get Course Schedule for current term \n{% highlight php %}<?php $courses = $gwapi->get_schedule(null,null,'ACCY'); ?>{% endhighlight %}\n\n#### Get map categories \n{% highlight php %}<?php $categories = $gwapi->get_map(); ?>{% endhighlight %}\n\n#### Get Buildings \n{% highlight php %}<?php $buildings = $gwapi->get_maps('academic'); ?>{% endhighlight %}\n\n[Photo: [atomicbartbeans][7]]\n\n [1]: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/1430289931_beb7ff6428_b-300x225.jpg \"Course Schedule\"\n [2]: http://acadtech.gwu.edu/pages/gwmobile\n [3]: http://blog.jerodsanto.net/2009/06/sniff-your-iphones-network-traffic/\n [4]: https://github.com/benbalter/GW-API\n [5]: #comments\n [6]: http://ben.balter.com/contact/\n [7]: http://www.flickr.com/photos/atomicbartbeans/1430289931/","previous":"<p>Regardless of where one&#8217;s politics may fall on the WikiLeaks prosecution, one thing is becoming abundantly clear as a result: <em>Twitter is emerging as a champion of users&#8217; rights.</em></p><p><img alt='' src='http://cdn.benbalter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/order-300x131.jpg' />Federal prosecutors investigating the disclosure of classified state documents <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/09/world/09wiki.html?partner=rss&amp;emc=rss'>served Twitter with a court order</a> demanding it turn over information pertaining to several of its users. While there is nothing particularly alarming about <a href='http://www.salon.com/news/opinion/glenn_greenwald/2011/01/07/twitter/subpoena.pdf'>the order</a>, <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> the bigger news is that <a href='http://techcrunch.com/2011/01/07/twitter-informs-users-of-doj-wikileaks-court-order-didnt-have-to/'>Twitter fought back</a>, contesting the attached gag order that prevented the social networking service from informing its users of its compliance with the otherwise lawful request. <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup></p><p>Twitter&#8217;s decision, arguably <a href='http://www.mediaaccess.org/2011/01/twitter-does-good-no-kidding/'>the first of its kind</a>, gave the targets of the order the time and legal cover necessary to pursue their own challenges in court. What is troubling, however, is that presumably other service providers, <a href='http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2011/jan/08/wikileaks-calls-google-facebook-us-subpoenas'>such as Google and Facebook</a>, could have received similar requests and silently acquiesced to the government&#8217;s demands.</p><p>While many companies, including <a href='http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacy/privacy-policy.html'>Google</a> and <a href='http://info.yahoo.com/privacy/us/yahoo/details.html'>Yahoo</a>, have a policy of informing users of such requests when legally permissible, in this case, Twitter&#8217;s contention of the gag order, and the resulting opportunity to pursue legal action it subsequently afforded its users, was somewhat heroic, at least by internet standards, and is a practice other firms should follow. By no means was Twitter obliged to spend time and money <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> rocking the boat on what appears to be an undoubtedly troublesome, but otherwise <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/10/business/media/10link.html?ref=wikileaks'>somewhat routine</a> request, but they did so anyway, and to their users&#8217; benefit. Wired put it best when <a href='http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2011/01/twitter/'>they noted</a>, &#8221;<em>Twitter introduced a new feature last month without telling anyone about it… Twitter beta-tested a spine.</em>&#8221;</p><p>A user&#8217;s protection from government intrusion should not diminish depending on the medium chosen and even more importantly, should not be dependent on the heroics of a caped internet crusader. This holds especially true when the world&#8217;s top social media firms are seemingly at <a href='https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2010/04/facebook-further-reduces-control-over-personal-information'>opposite ends</a> of the privacy spectrum. While it may be true that it is simply good business sense <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup> for service providers to <a href='http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/04/emailprivacy-2/'>fight to ensure the privacy of its user&#8217;s data</a> so that potential customers continue to visit the site and use their service, as any former Google Wave user knows, beta features, regardless of how heroic, are <a href='http://news.cnet.com/8301-13860_3-20012698-56.html'>not services to be relied on</a>. For progress to continue to march users into the cloud, the <a href='http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&amp;q=cache:IYzfdrim0owJ:www.fletc.gov/training/programs/legal-division/downloads-articles-and-faqs/downloads/other/obtaining_electronic.pdf/download+&amp;hl=en&amp;gl=us&amp;pid=bl&amp;srcid=ADGEESgpYeTPUFAijEyb4BnY4_wzFLwSJmRNv8yL2ZD8EkhQTjt7oXv9kELuYHG7A202xJ9_MGwvgVDwjviAEh0zW76gZQAbieBYwR6cnNUyD83txcScrGTU0qDUME590QPAMej6hmSy&amp;sig=AHIEtbTf4jZconLMbkMO_hVK8xQ92bqZNQ'>ambiguities surrounding a user&#8217;s digital rights</a> must be resolved through <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/10/technology/10privacy.html?_r=1&amp;hp'>a comprehensive CTRL-F5 of privacy law</a> by <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/01/04/the-files-in-the-computer/'>knowledgeable lawmakers</a> before we all <a href='http://techcrunch.com/2011/01/10/why-im-having-second-thoughts-about-the-wisdom-of-the-cloud/'>retreat to pen and paper</a> in the interest of privacy.</p><p>Notes:</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>As our interactions move increasingly online, <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/'>we can hardly be surprised</a> that law enforcement officers will seek supporting documents from digital rather than physical information stores. <em>See, e.g.,</em> <a href='http://blogs.forbes.com/kashmirhill/2011/01/04/google-m-for-murder-internet-search-history-of-killing-methods-helped-convict-husband-of-homicide/'>Google search history aiding murder convictions</a>, <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/03/us/03prisoners.html'>Prisoners coordinating riots via Facebook events</a>. <span>25</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>To be sure, the government&#8217;s request was <a href='http://news.cnet.com/8301-31921_3-20027893-281.html'>far from a demand for specific, targeted information</a>, but rather suggested that prosecutors unfamiliar with <em>what exactly it is kids do these days</em> were simply casting as wide a net as legally permissible. Beyond <a href='http://www.salon.com/news/opinion/glenn_greenwald/2011/01/07/twitter/index.html'>misspelling the name of one of its targets</a>, the order, a <a href='http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/18/usc_sec_18_00002703----000-.html'>2703(d)</a> order, <a href='http://mashable.com/2011/01/08/twitter-subpoenaed-by-u-s-government-for-wikileaks-accounts/'>requested</a> credit card, banking information, and street addresses (information Twitter would obviously not be privy to as a free, web-based service) be delivered via &#8221;<a href='http://www.salon.com/news/opinion/glenn_greenwald/2011/01/07/twitter/subpoena.pdf'>CD-ROM</a>&#8221;. More likely, <a href='http://paranoia.dubfire.net/2011/01/thoughts-on-doj-wikileakstwitter-court.html'>the feds were seeking metadata</a>, the non-content data automatically associated with a user whenever he or she interacts with the service, data such as the date, time, and network address of the computer used to post messages (which could potentially be traced back to an individual or at least a physical location). <span>31</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>Some might argue that Twitter should be considered heroic simply for stimulating the demand side of an <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/09/business/09law.html'>otherwise anemic legal economy</a>. <span>33</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>This may only hold true in the short run. As Columbia Law professor Tim Wu points out in his book <em>The Master Switch</em>, AT&amp;T&#8217;s &#8221;<a href='https://www.eff.org/nsa/hepting'>secret rooms</a>&#8221; illustrate that the service provider often may be compelled to contribute to the government&#8217;s information gathering infrastructure in hopes of garnering more favorable regulatory treatment. <span>35</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p><img alt='' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/emphasis-screenshot.png' />The New York Times <a href='http://open.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/11/emphasis-update-and-source/'>recently open-sourced</a> their nifty wizardry which allows users to highlight and link to specific text within an article or post. In their own words:</p><blockquote>\n<p>Emphasis provides dynamic paragraph-specific anchor links and the ability to highlight text in a document, all of which is made available in the URL hash so it can be emailed, bookmarked, or shared.</p>\n</blockquote><p>I adapted the New York Time&#8217;s implementation into a three-line WordPress plugin for my own site, and it is available in the <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-emphasis/'>WordPress plugin repository</a> as a one-click install, if you would like to add it to your own.</p><p>The &#8220;deep links&#8221; plugin allows for permalinking and highlighting of text on a paragraph and sentance level. No need to set anything up. Just install, tap shift twice, and start highlighting.</p><p><em>See</em> <a href='http://open.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/11/emphasis-update-and-source/'>The New York Times post on the script</a> for syntax and more information on general usage or you can double tap the <em>shift</em> key right now to give it a try.</p><p>Neat, huh? <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-emphasis/'>Download it</a> today.</p><p><em>Enjoy using WP Emphasis? Feel free to <a href='http://ben.balter.com/donate/' title='Donate'>make a small donation</a> to support the software&#8217;s continued development.</em></p><p><strong>Update (1/18):</strong> For an interesting perspective on the underlying technology and what it could mean for the net, <a href='http://zachseward.com/emphasis/'>Zach Seward&#8217;s take</a> is well worth the read.</p>","related_posts":[{"url":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/","title":"WordPress Resume Plugin"},{"url":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party/","title":"New Media Flak: Megaphone vs. Cocktail Party"},{"url":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/","title":"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?"},{"url":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility/","title":"Removing the Barriers to Organizational Agility\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing/","title":"What Fourteen-Century Apple Pie Teaches Us About Sharing\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds/","title":"Will Federal Contracting Officers Soon Have Their Heads in the Clouds?\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it/","title":"Free Trade in China? Just Google it."},{"url":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/","title":"Twitter Mentions as Comments WordPress Plugin\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes/","title":"The Internet is Series of Tubes (oh, and Tollgates too)\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/","title":"Late-Night Infomercials: Guaranteed to Extend the 4th Amendment or Your Money Back"}]}
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2  2011/01/25/gw-course-schedule-and-campus-api.json
@@ -1 +1 @@
-{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"GW Course Schedule and Campus API","excerpt":"George Washington University recently released an iPhone app that allows students to look up the course schedule and each course's open/closed status as well as browse an interactive map of the campus. Below you can find the details on GW's course schedule and campus map API endpoints, as well as an API wrapper to interact with it written in PHP.","layout":"post","category":["Technology"],"tags":["api","code","gw","hack","open source"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2011/01/25/gw-course-schedule-and-campus-api/","date":"2011-01-25 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2011/01/25/gw-course-schedule-and-campus-api","categories":[["Technology"]],"next":"![][1]Violating due process is one thing, but violating web standards… well that's another story.\n\nThe Department of Homeland Security (DHS) recently began protecting America's shores from threats of a different kind: online copyright infringement. In the days before the Superbowl, the agency set out to enforce the \"express written consent of the NFL\" provision attached to most broadcasts by slamming the iron fist of the law down on [six sports-streaming websites][2]. This is troubling on multiple levels. As the Vololkh Conspiracy's David Post [put it][3]:\n\n> There's a good reason we don't generally allow agents of the State to march into judge's chambers and deprive people of their property without an adversary hearing, viz., they're likely to make errors that can be difficult to correct ex post.\n\nAnd that's exactly what happened when the Feds [seized riojadirecta.org][4].However, the law in the area is a bit more nuanced than a single form can satisfy. Riojadirecta did not actually host any infringing content — it merely aggregated links to such content — potentially invoking the safe harbor provisions of the copyright act. [^1] Compounding the issue, Spanish Courts had found the Spanish-based site to be [perfectly legal][6], just a few months prior.\n\nSeizures of this type are nothing new. Back in November, DHS [commandeered][7] some [80 bit torrent domains][8] (PDF) as part of the broader \"[Operation In Our Sites][9]\". One such site, dajaz1.com, a music blog dedicated to hip-hop, was claimed to have infringed on music copyrights, however it was later revealed that the [music in question was provided to the site by music industry executives][10]. Despite this revelation, DHS made no apparent move to look into the case or restore the domain, and [the site remains down][11] to this day.\n\nPart of the problem may stem from law enforcement being out of touch with today's trends. Even the agent in charge of the investigation [referred to the infringing material as \"a bit torrent,\"][12] suggesting a sophomoric understand of just what exactly was being seized.\n\nMore worrisome, however, is the fact that the statute cited to authorize such seizures, 18 U.S.C. § 2323, provides no safeguard to prevent such errors from occurring [^2] nor does it [prohibit its expanded use][14]. [^3] As Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR) [argued][16]:\n\n> In contrast to ordinary copyright litigation, the domain name seizure process does not appear to give targeted websites an opportunity to defend themselves before sanctions are imposed… I worry that domain name seizures could function as a means for end-running the normal legal process in order to target websites that may prevail in full court. The new enforcement approach used by Operation In Our Sites is alarmingly unprecedented in the breadth of its potential reach.\n\nEven looking beyond the due process issues and to the underlying copyright infringement, simply put, the government's efforts fail to solve the problem. In Riojadirecta's case, for example, the site [used Twitter][17] to [direct users to one of its five other domains][4] rending the seizure a moot point. The problem is that the government is not seizing the infringing material, but rather, an [alias for the network address][18] of a site that in many cases, only contains links to infringing material. It would be as if DHS seized my cell phone number because my friends could use it to call and find out the location of a weekly poker game — the game would still take place, I would just get a new phone number.\n\nThe most upsetting part, at least for the web developer in me, has to be [the seizure notice][19] itself. Putting text in images like that has to be up there with [using Comic Sans][20]. While I do not expect DHS to hire a legion of designers and developers to make an HTML5 seizure notice (although that would be awesome), some in-document text would go a long way to making the web a whole lot less ugly. [^4] Additionally, it looks like their policy has changed since the initial seizures, however, at least as late as November, DHS was [placing Google Analytics and Piwik tracking codes on its seized domains][22], arguably in violation of [OMB memorandum M-10-22][23] (PDF).\n\nAs seen in the recent [Wikileaks domain shell game][24], its clear that domain servers are the weak link in the online content-delivery chain. When the state can no longer seize something that represent the forefront of our ability to communicate with one another (decentralized information sharing) and replace it with a technology the web collectively deprecated with the rise of CSS1 (sites which rely on .GIFs to render text), legality and politics aside, the internet will undoubtedly be a better place.\n\nNotes:\n\n[^1]: 17 U.S.C. § 512(d). [25]\n[^2]: The relevant provisions of § 2323 allow for the forfeiture of \"(A) Any article, the making or trafficking of which is, prohibited under section 506 of title 17″ prohibiting \"willful copyright infringement\" and \"(B) Any property used, or intended to be used, in any manner or part to commit or facilitate the commission of an offense referred to in subparagraph (A).\" [26]\n[^3]: As [Post noted back then][27], and even more relevant now in light of Egypt's recent flipping of its internet kill switch, \"our ability to defend the principle of the single global Internet – the Internet where all of humanity has equal access to knowledge and ideas, the Internet that looks the same to, and allows free and unfettered communication between, users located in Shanghai and Seattle and Santiago, free of locally imposed censorship regimes – will be deeply compromised by [seizures of this kind], which would enshrine in U.S. law for the first time the contrary principle: that all countries have a right to insist on the removal of content, wherever located, from the global Internet in service of the exigencies of local law.\" (Quoting a [letter he authored][27] criticizing the Senate's Combating Online Infringements and Counterfeits Act). [28]\n[^4]: Beyond being reminiscent of Geocities (and most of the 90s), text in images is not machine readable, a requirement of section 508 (codified at 29 U.S.C. § 794(d)) . That means that neither screen readers nor search engines can accurately parse the site's content. [29]\n\n [1]: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/IPRC_Seized_2010_11-300x225.gif \"DHS Seizure Notice\"\n [2]: http://itwel.com/atdhe-live-sports-streaming-website-seized-by-us-authorities.php\n [3]: http://volokh.com/2011/02/02/more-outrageous-domain-name-seizures-by-our-vigilant-dept-of-homeland-security/\n [4]: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/02/rojadirecta-org-seized_n_817458.html\n [5]: #note-2020-1 \"17 U.S.C. § 512(d).\"\n [6]: http://torrentfreak.com/sports-streaming-torrent-links-site-victorious-in-court-100510/\n [7]: http://torrentfreak.com/u-s-government-seizes-bittorrent-search-engine-domain-and-more-101126/\n [8]: http://www.ice.gov/doclib/news/releases/2010/domain_names.pdf\n [9]: http://www.ice.gov/news/releases/1006/100630losangeles.htm\n [10]: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/20/business/media/20music.html?_r=1&ref=todayspaper\n [11]: http://dajaz1.com/\n [12]: http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2010/12/busting-bittorrent.ars\n [13]: #note-2020-2 \"The relevant provisions of § 2323 allow for the forfeiture of \"(A) Any article, the making or trafficking of which is, prohibited under section 506 of title 17″ prohibiting \"willful copyright infringement\" and \"(B) Any property used, or intended to be used, in any manner or part to commit or facilitate the commission of an offense referred to in subparagraph (A).\"\"\n [14]: http://www.copyhype.com/2011/02/can-google-be-seized-by-ice/\n [15]: #note-2020-3 \"As Post noted back then, and even more relevant now in light of Egypt's recent flipping of its internet kill switch, \"our ability to defend the principle of the single global Internet – the Internet where all of humanity has equal access to knowledge and ideas, the Internet that looks the same to, and allows free and unfettered communication between, users located in Shanghai and Seattle and Santiago, free of locally imposed censorship regimes – will be deeply compromised by [seizures of this kind], which would enshrine in U.S. law for the first time the contrary principle: that all countries have a right to insist on the removal of content, wherever located, from the global Internet in service of the exigencies of local law.\" (Quoting a letter he authored criticizing the Senate's Combating Online Infringements and Counterfeits Act).\"\n [16]: http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2011/02/senator-us-domain-name-seizures-alarmingly-unprecedented.ars?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=rss\n [17]: http://twitter.com/#!/rojadirecta/status/32348722188779520\n [18]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain_name\n [19]: http://dajaz1.com/IPRC_Seized_2010_11.gif\n [20]: http://bancomicsans.com/\n [21]: #note-2020-4 \"Beyond being reminiscent of Geocities (and most of the 90s), text in images is not machine readable, a requirement of section 508 (codified at 29 U.S.C. § 794(d)) . That means that neither screen readers nor search engines can accurately parse the site's content.\"\n [22]: http://qbit.cc/homeland-security-tracking-visits-to-seized-domains-using-google-analytics-and-piwik/\n [23]: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/memoranda_2010/m10-22.pdf\n [24]: http://gawker.com/#!5704966/wikileaks-loses-its-domain\n \n \n [27]: http://volokh.com/2010/12/01/copyright-enforcement-tail-wags-internet-dog-contd-or-what-the-hell-ever-happened-to-due-process/","previous":"<p><img alt='' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/emphasis-screenshot.png' />The New York Times <a href='http://open.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/11/emphasis-update-and-source/'>recently open-sourced</a> their nifty wizardry which allows users to highlight and link to specific text within an article or post. In their own words:</p><blockquote>\n<p>Emphasis provides dynamic paragraph-specific anchor links and the ability to highlight text in a document, all of which is made available in the URL hash so it can be emailed, bookmarked, or shared.</p>\n</blockquote><p>I adapted the New York Time&#8217;s implementation into a three-line WordPress plugin for my own site, and it is available in the <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-emphasis/'>WordPress plugin repository</a> as a one-click install, if you would like to add it to your own.</p><p>The &#8220;deep links&#8221; plugin allows for permalinking and highlighting of text on a paragraph and sentance level. No need to set anything up. Just install, tap shift twice, and start highlighting.</p><p><em>See</em> <a href='http://open.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/11/emphasis-update-and-source/'>The New York Times post on the script</a> for syntax and more information on general usage or you can double tap the <em>shift</em> key right now to give it a try.</p><p>Neat, huh? <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-emphasis/'>Download it</a> today.</p><p><em>Enjoy using WP Emphasis? Feel free to <a href='http://ben.balter.com/donate/' title='Donate'>make a small donation</a> to support the software&#8217;s continued development.</em></p><p><strong>Update (1/18):</strong> For an interesting perspective on the underlying technology and what it could mean for the net, <a href='http://zachseward.com/emphasis/'>Zach Seward&#8217;s take</a> is well worth the read.</p>","content":"<p><img alt='Course Schedule' class='alignright' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/1430289931_beb7ff6428_b-300x225.jpg' />George Washington University recently released an <a href='http://acadtech.gwu.edu/pages/gwmobile'>iPhone app</a> that allows students to look up the course schedule and each course&#8217;s open/closed status as well as browse an interactive map of the campus. Naturally, upon installing the app, the first thing to do is to try and ferret out the underlying XML API that powers it, a simple enough task given <a href='http://blog.jerodsanto.net/2009/06/sniff-your-iphones-network-traffic/'>the right tools</a>.</p><p>Below you can find the details on GW&#8217;s course schedule and campus map API endpoints, as well as an API wrapper to interact with it written in PHP. Feel free to grab the code below, or fork and contribute in the <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/GW-API'>GitHub repo</a>. Cool data that deserves to be shared with the world, no doubt.</p><p>Creative ideas on how best to leverage the information welcome in the <a href='#comments'>comments below</a>.</p><p><em>Please Note: I am not a GW employee, nor is use of the API explicitly authorized by the University. The code below is provided &#8220;as is&#8221; solely for educational purposes. If for any reason you would like this page removed, please <a href='http://ben.balter.com/contact/'>contact me</a> immediately and I will do so.</em></p><hr /><h3 id='course_schedule'>Course Schedule</h3><ol>\n<li>\n<p>Departments</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li>Endpoint: <code>http://my.gwu.edu/mod/pws/scheduleXML.cfm</code></li>\n\n<li>Parameters: <code>termCode=[YYYY][01=spring, 02=summer, 03=fall]</code></li>\n\n<li>Returns</li>\n</ol>\n\n<p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p>\n</li>\n\n<li>\n<p>Courses</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li>\n<p>Endpoint: <code>http://my.gwu.edu/mod/pws/scheduleXML.cfm</code></p>\n</li>\n\n<li>\n<p>Parameters:</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li><code>termCode=[YYYY][01=spring, 02=summer, 03=fall]</code></li>\n\n<li><code>deptCode=[Dept. Code]</code></li>\n</ol>\n</li>\n\n<li>\n<p>Returns:</p>\n</li>\n</ol>\n</li>\n</ol><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h3 id='campus_map'>Campus Map</h3><ol>\n<li>\n<p>Categories</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li>Endpoint: <code>http://citl.gwu.edu/iphonedev/maps/categories.xml</code></li>\n\n<li>Return:</li>\n</ol>\n\n<p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p>\n</li>\n\n<li>\n<p>Buildings</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li>Endpoint: <code>http://citl.gwu.edu/iphonedev/maps/[shortname].xml</code></li>\n\n<li>Return:</li>\n</ol>\n\n<p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p>\n</li>\n</ol><h3 id='api_wrapper'>API Wrapper</h3><ol>\n<li>Source</li>\n</ol><script src='http://gist-it.appspot.com/github/benbalter/GW-API/raw/master/gw-api.php'> </script><ol>\n<li>Usage</li>\n</ol><h4 id='initialize'>Initialize:</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='list_departments'>List Departments</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='get_course_schedule_for_fall_2011'>Get Course Schedule for Fall 2011</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='get_course_schedule_for_current_term'>Get Course Schedule for current term</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='get_map_categories'>Get map categories</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='get_buildings'>Get Buildings</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><p><span>Photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/atomicbartbeans/1430289931/'>atomicbartbeans</a></span></p>","related_posts":[{"url":"/about/","title":"About"},{"url":"/contact/","title":"Contact"},{"url":"/donate/","title":"Donate"},{"url":"/fine-print/","title":"Fine Print"},{"url":"/resume/","title":"Resume"},{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"}]}
+{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"GW Course Schedule and Campus API","excerpt":"George Washington University recently released an iPhone app that allows students to look up the course schedule and each course's open/closed status as well as browse an interactive map of the campus. Below you can find the details on GW's course schedule and campus map API endpoints, as well as an API wrapper to interact with it written in PHP.","layout":"post","category":["Technology"],"tags":["api","code","gw","hack","open source"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2011/01/25/gw-course-schedule-and-campus-api/","date":"2011-01-25 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2011/01/25/gw-course-schedule-and-campus-api","categories":[["Technology"]],"next":"![][1]Violating due process is one thing, but violating web standards… well that's another story.\n\nThe Department of Homeland Security (DHS) recently began protecting America's shores from threats of a different kind: online copyright infringement. In the days before the Superbowl, the agency set out to enforce the \"express written consent of the NFL\" provision attached to most broadcasts by slamming the iron fist of the law down on [six sports-streaming websites][2]. This is troubling on multiple levels. As the Vololkh Conspiracy's David Post [put it][3]:\n\n> There's a good reason we don't generally allow agents of the State to march into judge's chambers and deprive people of their property without an adversary hearing, viz., they're likely to make errors that can be difficult to correct ex post.\n\nAnd that's exactly what happened when the Feds [seized riojadirecta.org][4].However, the law in the area is a bit more nuanced than a single form can satisfy. Riojadirecta did not actually host any infringing content — it merely aggregated links to such content — potentially invoking the safe harbor provisions of the copyright act. [^1] Compounding the issue, Spanish Courts had found the Spanish-based site to be [perfectly legal][6], just a few months prior.\n\nSeizures of this type are nothing new. Back in November, DHS [commandeered][7] some [80 bit torrent domains][8] (PDF) as part of the broader \"[Operation In Our Sites][9]\". One such site, dajaz1.com, a music blog dedicated to hip-hop, was claimed to have infringed on music copyrights, however it was later revealed that the [music in question was provided to the site by music industry executives][10]. Despite this revelation, DHS made no apparent move to look into the case or restore the domain, and [the site remains down][11] to this day.\n\nPart of the problem may stem from law enforcement being out of touch with today's trends. Even the agent in charge of the investigation [referred to the infringing material as \"a bit torrent,\"][12] suggesting a sophomoric understand of just what exactly was being seized.\n\nMore worrisome, however, is the fact that the statute cited to authorize such seizures, 18 U.S.C. § 2323, provides no safeguard to prevent such errors from occurring [^2] nor does it [prohibit its expanded use][14]. [^3] As Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR) [argued][16]:\n\n> In contrast to ordinary copyright litigation, the domain name seizure process does not appear to give targeted websites an opportunity to defend themselves before sanctions are imposed… I worry that domain name seizures could function as a means for end-running the normal legal process in order to target websites that may prevail in full court. The new enforcement approach used by Operation In Our Sites is alarmingly unprecedented in the breadth of its potential reach.\n\nEven looking beyond the due process issues and to the underlying copyright infringement, simply put, the government's efforts fail to solve the problem. In Riojadirecta's case, for example, the site [used Twitter][17] to [direct users to one of its five other domains][4] rending the seizure a moot point. The problem is that the government is not seizing the infringing material, but rather, an [alias for the network address][18] of a site that in many cases, only contains links to infringing material. It would be as if DHS seized my cell phone number because my friends could use it to call and find out the location of a weekly poker game — the game would still take place, I would just get a new phone number.\n\nThe most upsetting part, at least for the web developer in me, has to be [the seizure notice][19] itself. Putting text in images like that has to be up there with [using Comic Sans][20]. While I do not expect DHS to hire a legion of designers and developers to make an HTML5 seizure notice (although that would be awesome), some in-document text would go a long way to making the web a whole lot less ugly. [^4] Additionally, it looks like their policy has changed since the initial seizures, however, at least as late as November, DHS was [placing Google Analytics and Piwik tracking codes on its seized domains][22], arguably in violation of [OMB memorandum M-10-22][23] (PDF).\n\nAs seen in the recent [Wikileaks domain shell game][24], its clear that domain servers are the weak link in the online content-delivery chain. When the state can no longer seize something that represent the forefront of our ability to communicate with one another (decentralized information sharing) and replace it with a technology the web collectively deprecated with the rise of CSS1 (sites which rely on .GIFs to render text), legality and politics aside, the internet will undoubtedly be a better place.\n\nNotes:\n\n[^1]: 17 U.S.C. § 512(d). [25]\n[^2]: The relevant provisions of § 2323 allow for the forfeiture of \"(A) Any article, the making or trafficking of which is, prohibited under section 506 of title 17″ prohibiting \"willful copyright infringement\" and \"(B) Any property used, or intended to be used, in any manner or part to commit or facilitate the commission of an offense referred to in subparagraph (A).\" [26]\n[^3]: As [Post noted back then][27], and even more relevant now in light of Egypt's recent flipping of its internet kill switch, \"our ability to defend the principle of the single global Internet – the Internet where all of humanity has equal access to knowledge and ideas, the Internet that looks the same to, and allows free and unfettered communication between, users located in Shanghai and Seattle and Santiago, free of locally imposed censorship regimes – will be deeply compromised by [seizures of this kind], which would enshrine in U.S. law for the first time the contrary principle: that all countries have a right to insist on the removal of content, wherever located, from the global Internet in service of the exigencies of local law.\" (Quoting a [letter he authored][27] criticizing the Senate's Combating Online Infringements and Counterfeits Act). [28]\n[^4]: Beyond being reminiscent of Geocities (and most of the 90s), text in images is not machine readable, a requirement of section 508 (codified at 29 U.S.C. § 794(d)) . That means that neither screen readers nor search engines can accurately parse the site's content. [29]\n\n [1]: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/IPRC_Seized_2010_11-300x225.gif \"DHS Seizure Notice\"\n [2]: http://itwel.com/atdhe-live-sports-streaming-website-seized-by-us-authorities.php\n [3]: http://volokh.com/2011/02/02/more-outrageous-domain-name-seizures-by-our-vigilant-dept-of-homeland-security/\n [4]: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/02/rojadirecta-org-seized_n_817458.html\n [5]: #note-2020-1 \"17 U.S.C. § 512(d).\"\n [6]: http://torrentfreak.com/sports-streaming-torrent-links-site-victorious-in-court-100510/\n [7]: http://torrentfreak.com/u-s-government-seizes-bittorrent-search-engine-domain-and-more-101126/\n [8]: http://www.ice.gov/doclib/news/releases/2010/domain_names.pdf\n [9]: http://www.ice.gov/news/releases/1006/100630losangeles.htm\n [10]: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/20/business/media/20music.html?_r=1&ref=todayspaper\n [11]: http://dajaz1.com/\n [12]: http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2010/12/busting-bittorrent.ars\n [13]: #note-2020-2 \"The relevant provisions of § 2323 allow for the forfeiture of \"(A) Any article, the making or trafficking of which is, prohibited under section 506 of title 17″ prohibiting \"willful copyright infringement\" and \"(B) Any property used, or intended to be used, in any manner or part to commit or facilitate the commission of an offense referred to in subparagraph (A).\"\"\n [14]: http://www.copyhype.com/2011/02/can-google-be-seized-by-ice/\n [15]: #note-2020-3 \"As Post noted back then, and even more relevant now in light of Egypt's recent flipping of its internet kill switch, \"our ability to defend the principle of the single global Internet – the Internet where all of humanity has equal access to knowledge and ideas, the Internet that looks the same to, and allows free and unfettered communication between, users located in Shanghai and Seattle and Santiago, free of locally imposed censorship regimes – will be deeply compromised by [seizures of this kind], which would enshrine in U.S. law for the first time the contrary principle: that all countries have a right to insist on the removal of content, wherever located, from the global Internet in service of the exigencies of local law.\" (Quoting a letter he authored criticizing the Senate's Combating Online Infringements and Counterfeits Act).\"\n [16]: http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2011/02/senator-us-domain-name-seizures-alarmingly-unprecedented.ars?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=rss\n [17]: http://twitter.com/#!/rojadirecta/status/32348722188779520\n [18]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain_name\n [19]: http://dajaz1.com/IPRC_Seized_2010_11.gif\n [20]: http://bancomicsans.com/\n [21]: #note-2020-4 \"Beyond being reminiscent of Geocities (and most of the 90s), text in images is not machine readable, a requirement of section 508 (codified at 29 U.S.C. § 794(d)) . That means that neither screen readers nor search engines can accurately parse the site's content.\"\n [22]: http://qbit.cc/homeland-security-tracking-visits-to-seized-domains-using-google-analytics-and-piwik/\n [23]: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/memoranda_2010/m10-22.pdf\n [24]: http://gawker.com/#!5704966/wikileaks-loses-its-domain\n \n \n [27]: http://volokh.com/2010/12/01/copyright-enforcement-tail-wags-internet-dog-contd-or-what-the-hell-ever-happened-to-due-process/","previous":"<p><img alt='' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/emphasis-screenshot.png' />The New York Times <a href='http://open.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/11/emphasis-update-and-source/'>recently open-sourced</a> their nifty wizardry which allows users to highlight and link to specific text within an article or post. In their own words:</p><blockquote>\n<p>Emphasis provides dynamic paragraph-specific anchor links and the ability to highlight text in a document, all of which is made available in the URL hash so it can be emailed, bookmarked, or shared.</p>\n</blockquote><p>I adapted the New York Time&#8217;s implementation into a three-line WordPress plugin for my own site, and it is available in the <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-emphasis/'>WordPress plugin repository</a> as a one-click install, if you would like to add it to your own.</p><p>The &#8220;deep links&#8221; plugin allows for permalinking and highlighting of text on a paragraph and sentance level. No need to set anything up. Just install, tap shift twice, and start highlighting.</p><p><em>See</em> <a href='http://open.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/11/emphasis-update-and-source/'>The New York Times post on the script</a> for syntax and more information on general usage or you can double tap the <em>shift</em> key right now to give it a try.</p><p>Neat, huh? <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-emphasis/'>Download it</a> today.</p><p><em>Enjoy using WP Emphasis? Feel free to <a href='http://ben.balter.com/donate/' title='Donate'>make a small donation</a> to support the software&#8217;s continued development.</em></p><p><strong>Update (1/18):</strong> For an interesting perspective on the underlying technology and what it could mean for the net, <a href='http://zachseward.com/emphasis/'>Zach Seward&#8217;s take</a> is well worth the read.</p>","content":"<p><img alt='Course Schedule' class='alignright' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/1430289931_beb7ff6428_b-300x225.jpg' />George Washington University recently released an <a href='http://acadtech.gwu.edu/pages/gwmobile'>iPhone app</a> that allows students to look up the course schedule and each course&#8217;s open/closed status as well as browse an interactive map of the campus. Naturally, upon installing the app, the first thing to do is to try and ferret out the underlying XML API that powers it, a simple enough task given <a href='http://blog.jerodsanto.net/2009/06/sniff-your-iphones-network-traffic/'>the right tools</a>.</p><p>Below you can find the details on GW&#8217;s course schedule and campus map API endpoints, as well as an API wrapper to interact with it written in PHP. Feel free to grab the code below, or fork and contribute in the <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/GW-API'>GitHub repo</a>. Cool data that deserves to be shared with the world, no doubt.</p><p>Creative ideas on how best to leverage the information welcome in the <a href='#comments'>comments below</a>.</p><p><em>Please Note: I am not a GW employee, nor is use of the API explicitly authorized by the University. The code below is provided &#8220;as is&#8221; solely for educational purposes. If for any reason you would like this page removed, please <a href='http://ben.balter.com/contact/'>contact me</a> immediately and I will do so.</em></p><hr /><h3 id='course_schedule'>Course Schedule</h3><ol>\n<li>\n<p>Departments</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li>Endpoint: <code>http://my.gwu.edu/mod/pws/scheduleXML.cfm</code></li>\n\n<li>Parameters: <code>termCode=[YYYY][01=spring, 02=summer, 03=fall]</code></li>\n\n<li>Returns</li>\n</ol>\n\n<p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p>\n</li>\n\n<li>\n<p>Courses</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li>\n<p>Endpoint: <code>http://my.gwu.edu/mod/pws/scheduleXML.cfm</code></p>\n</li>\n\n<li>\n<p>Parameters:</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li><code>termCode=[YYYY][01=spring, 02=summer, 03=fall]</code></li>\n\n<li><code>deptCode=[Dept. Code]</code></li>\n</ol>\n</li>\n\n<li>\n<p>Returns:</p>\n</li>\n</ol>\n</li>\n</ol><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h3 id='campus_map'>Campus Map</h3><ol>\n<li>\n<p>Categories</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li>Endpoint: <code>http://citl.gwu.edu/iphonedev/maps/categories.xml</code></li>\n\n<li>Return:</li>\n</ol>\n\n<p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p>\n</li>\n\n<li>\n<p>Buildings</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li>Endpoint: <code>http://citl.gwu.edu/iphonedev/maps/[shortname].xml</code></li>\n\n<li>Return:</li>\n</ol>\n\n<p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p>\n</li>\n</ol><h3 id='api_wrapper'>API Wrapper</h3><ol>\n<li>Source</li>\n</ol><script src='http://gist-it.appspot.com/github/benbalter/GW-API/raw/master/gw-api.php'> </script><ol>\n<li>Usage</li>\n</ol><h4 id='initialize'>Initialize:</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='list_departments'>List Departments</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='get_course_schedule_for_fall_2011'>Get Course Schedule for Fall 2011</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='get_course_schedule_for_current_term'>Get Course Schedule for current term</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='get_map_categories'>Get map categories</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='get_buildings'>Get Buildings</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><p><span>Photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/atomicbartbeans/1430289931/'>atomicbartbeans</a></span></p>","related_posts":[{"url":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/","title":"WordPress Resume Plugin"},{"url":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party/","title":"New Media Flak: Megaphone vs. Cocktail Party"},{"url":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/","title":"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?"},{"url":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility/","title":"Removing the Barriers to Organizational Agility\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing/","title":"What Fourteen-Century Apple Pie Teaches Us About Sharing\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds/","title":"Will Federal Contracting Officers Soon Have Their Heads in the Clouds?\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it/","title":"Free Trade in China? Just Google it."},{"url":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/","title":"Twitter Mentions as Comments WordPress Plugin\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes/","title":"The Internet is Series of Tubes (oh, and Tollgates too)\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/","title":"Late-Night Infomercials: Guaranteed to Extend the 4th Amendment or Your Money Back"}]}
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2  2011/02/03/a-site-by-any-other-name.json
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-{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"A Site By Any Other Name...","excerpt":"DHS recently began protecting America's shores from threats of a different kind: online copyright infringement. In the days before the Superbowl, the agency set out to enforce the \"express written consent of the NFL\" provision attached to most broadcasts by slamming the iron fist of the law down on six sports-streaming websites.\n","layout":"post","category":["Law","Technology"],"tags":["censorship","copyright","digital due process","domains"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2011/02/03/a-site-by-any-other-name/","date":"2011-02-03 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2011/02/03/a-site-by-any-other-name","categories":[["Law","Technology"]],"next":"I gave a brief talk at March's joint [WordPressDC and Hacks/Hackers DC MeetUp][1] on leveraging WordPress to craft your personal brand. Below are slides and a recording of the livestream.\n\n**I invite you to watch, but in short, the main takeaways were:**\n\n* ![Why Brand?][2]In the olden days, people used to be scared to put personal information online; they felt the need to be pseudonymous (*see* handles like SparklePrincess87); life online was distinct from life offline.\n* As more of our analog lives became digital, the need for a second identity diminished; we no longer represent ourselves with anonymous screen names, but rather as ourselves.\n* Social networking and mobile computing contributed to this shift by interfacing the online and offline worlds. Today's radical transparency (*e.g.,* lifecasters posting pictures of their lunch) shows we have come a full 180.\n* We shift from corporate brand associations in the 50s (*e.g.,* \"I work for IBM\") to personal brands today (*e.g.,* \"I'm an independent contractor\").\n* Today we all have a unique opportunity to plant a flag on our corner of the internet, take control of our online identity, and declare to the world who we are by crafting a thought-out narrative.\n* Unlike in the real world where you are the only one in control of what you say, online, content has a life of its own — you must be proactive.\n* WordPress makes it dumb simple to tell the world your story.\n\n**My five big steps to launching your brand:**\n\n1. Grab a domain\n2. Define your personal brand\n3. Start a blog\n4. Socialize your content\n5. Upgrade your resume\n\n**Recording of the livestream:**\n\n*[Greg Linch][3] opens by discussing WordPress and Journalism, I begin at 30m 10s*\n\n\n\n**Accompanying slides if you wish to follow along:**\n\n\n\n**For those interested in the plugins mentioned:**\n\n* [Resume Plugin for WordPress][4]\n* [Emphasis Plugin for WordPress][5]\n* [All in One SEO][6]\n* [Google Analytics for WordPress][7]\n* [Simple Facebook Connect][8]\n* [Simple Twitter Connect][9]\n* [Subscribe to Comments][10]\n* [Syntax Highlighter Evolved][11]\n\n**Additional Resources:**\n\n* [Rapportive][12]\n* [How to generate a QR code][13]\n\nA special thanks to everyone who was able to come out or follow along on the livestream.\n\nComments? I'd love to hear your thoughts below.\n\n [1]: http://www.meetup.com/wordpressdc/events/16178194/\n [2]: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/branding-300x224.png \"Why Brand?\"\n [3]: http://www.greglinch.com/\n [4]: http://ben.balter.com/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/ \"WordPress Resume Plugin\"\n [5]: http://ben.balter.com/2011/01/11/wordpress-emphasis-plugin/ \"WordPress Emphasis Plugin: Highlight and Permalink Text\"\n [6]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/all-in-one-seo-pack/\n [7]: http://yoast.com/wordpress/google-analytics/\n [8]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/simple-facebook-connect/\n [9]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/simple-twitter-connect/\n [10]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/subscribe-to-comments/\n [11]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/syntaxhighlighter/\n [12]: http://rapportive.com/\n [13]: http://thenextweb.com/socialmedia/2010/10/13/bit-ly-now-lets-you-add-qr-codes-to-links-in-seconds/","previous":"<p><img alt='Course Schedule' class='alignright' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/1430289931_beb7ff6428_b-300x225.jpg' />George Washington University recently released an <a href='http://acadtech.gwu.edu/pages/gwmobile'>iPhone app</a> that allows students to look up the course schedule and each course&#8217;s open/closed status as well as browse an interactive map of the campus. Naturally, upon installing the app, the first thing to do is to try and ferret out the underlying XML API that powers it, a simple enough task given <a href='http://blog.jerodsanto.net/2009/06/sniff-your-iphones-network-traffic/'>the right tools</a>.</p><p>Below you can find the details on GW&#8217;s course schedule and campus map API endpoints, as well as an API wrapper to interact with it written in PHP. Feel free to grab the code below, or fork and contribute in the <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/GW-API'>GitHub repo</a>. Cool data that deserves to be shared with the world, no doubt.</p><p>Creative ideas on how best to leverage the information welcome in the <a href='#comments'>comments below</a>.</p><p><em>Please Note: I am not a GW employee, nor is use of the API explicitly authorized by the University. The code below is provided &#8220;as is&#8221; solely for educational purposes. If for any reason you would like this page removed, please <a href='http://ben.balter.com/contact/'>contact me</a> immediately and I will do so.</em></p><hr /><h3 id='course_schedule'>Course Schedule</h3><ol>\n<li>\n<p>Departments</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li>Endpoint: <code>http://my.gwu.edu/mod/pws/scheduleXML.cfm</code></li>\n\n<li>Parameters: <code>termCode=[YYYY][01=spring, 02=summer, 03=fall]</code></li>\n\n<li>Returns</li>\n</ol>\n\n<p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p>\n</li>\n\n<li>\n<p>Courses</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li>\n<p>Endpoint: <code>http://my.gwu.edu/mod/pws/scheduleXML.cfm</code></p>\n</li>\n\n<li>\n<p>Parameters:</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li><code>termCode=[YYYY][01=spring, 02=summer, 03=fall]</code></li>\n\n<li><code>deptCode=[Dept. Code]</code></li>\n</ol>\n</li>\n\n<li>\n<p>Returns:</p>\n</li>\n</ol>\n</li>\n</ol><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h3 id='campus_map'>Campus Map</h3><ol>\n<li>\n<p>Categories</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li>Endpoint: <code>http://citl.gwu.edu/iphonedev/maps/categories.xml</code></li>\n\n<li>Return:</li>\n</ol>\n\n<p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p>\n</li>\n\n<li>\n<p>Buildings</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li>Endpoint: <code>http://citl.gwu.edu/iphonedev/maps/[shortname].xml</code></li>\n\n<li>Return:</li>\n</ol>\n\n<p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p>\n</li>\n</ol><h3 id='api_wrapper'>API Wrapper</h3><ol>\n<li>Source</li>\n</ol><script src='http://gist-it.appspot.com/github/benbalter/GW-API/raw/master/gw-api.php'> </script><ol>\n<li>Usage</li>\n</ol><h4 id='initialize'>Initialize:</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='list_departments'>List Departments</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='get_course_schedule_for_fall_2011'>Get Course Schedule for Fall 2011</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='get_course_schedule_for_current_term'>Get Course Schedule for current term</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='get_map_categories'>Get map categories</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='get_buildings'>Get Buildings</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><p><span>Photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/atomicbartbeans/1430289931/'>atomicbartbeans</a></span></p>","content":"<p><img alt='' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/IPRC_Seized_2010_11-300x225.gif' />Violating due process is one thing, but violating web standards… well that&#8217;s another story.</p><p>The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) recently began protecting America&#8217;s shores from threats of a different kind: online copyright infringement. In the days before the Superbowl, the agency set out to enforce the &#8220;express written consent of the NFL&#8221; provision attached to most broadcasts by slamming the iron fist of the law down on <a href='http://itwel.com/atdhe-live-sports-streaming-website-seized-by-us-authorities.php'>six sports-streaming websites</a>. This is troubling on multiple levels. As the Vololkh Conspiracy&#8217;s David Post <a href='http://volokh.com/2011/02/02/more-outrageous-domain-name-seizures-by-our-vigilant-dept-of-homeland-security/'>put it</a>:</p><blockquote>\n<p>There&#8217;s a good reason we don&#8217;t generally allow agents of the State to march into judge&#8217;s chambers and deprive people of their property without an adversary hearing, viz., they&#8217;re likely to make errors that can be difficult to correct ex post.</p>\n</blockquote><p>And that&#8217;s exactly what happened when the Feds <a href='http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/02/rojadirecta-org-seized_n_817458.html'>seized riojadirecta.org</a>.However, the law in the area is a bit more nuanced than a single form can satisfy. Riojadirecta did not actually host any infringing content — it merely aggregated links to such content — potentially invoking the safe harbor provisions of the copyright act. <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> Compounding the issue, Spanish Courts had found the Spanish-based site to be <a href='http://torrentfreak.com/sports-streaming-torrent-links-site-victorious-in-court-100510/'>perfectly legal</a>, just a few months prior.</p><p>Seizures of this type are nothing new. Back in November, DHS <a href='http://torrentfreak.com/u-s-government-seizes-bittorrent-search-engine-domain-and-more-101126/'>commandeered</a> some <a href='http://www.ice.gov/doclib/news/releases/2010/domain_names.pdf'>80 bit torrent domains</a> (PDF) as part of the broader &#8221;<a href='http://www.ice.gov/news/releases/1006/100630losangeles.htm'>Operation In Our Sites</a>&#8221;. One such site, dajaz1.com, a music blog dedicated to hip-hop, was claimed to have infringed on music copyrights, however it was later revealed that the <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/20/business/media/20music.html?_r=1&amp;ref=todayspaper'>music in question was provided to the site by music industry executives</a>. Despite this revelation, DHS made no apparent move to look into the case or restore the domain, and <a href='http://dajaz1.com/'>the site remains down</a> to this day.</p><p>Part of the problem may stem from law enforcement being out of touch with today&#8217;s trends. Even the agent in charge of the investigation <a href='http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2010/12/busting-bittorrent.ars'>referred to the infringing material as &#8220;a bit torrent,&#8221;</a> suggesting a sophomoric understand of just what exactly was being seized.</p><p>More worrisome, however, is the fact that the statute cited to authorize such seizures, 18 U.S.C. § 2323, provides no safeguard to prevent such errors from occurring <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> nor does it <a href='http://www.copyhype.com/2011/02/can-google-be-seized-by-ice/'>prohibit its expanded use</a>. <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> As Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR) <a href='http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2011/02/senator-us-domain-name-seizures-alarmingly-unprecedented.ars?utm_source=rss&amp;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=rss'>argued</a>:</p><blockquote>\n<p>In contrast to ordinary copyright litigation, the domain name seizure process does not appear to give targeted websites an opportunity to defend themselves before sanctions are imposed… I worry that domain name seizures could function as a means for end-running the normal legal process in order to target websites that may prevail in full court. The new enforcement approach used by Operation In Our Sites is alarmingly unprecedented in the breadth of its potential reach.</p>\n</blockquote><p>Even looking beyond the due process issues and to the underlying copyright infringement, simply put, the government&#8217;s efforts fail to solve the problem. In Riojadirecta&#8217;s case, for example, the site <a href='http://twitter.com/#!/rojadirecta/status/32348722188779520'>used Twitter</a> to <a href='http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/02/rojadirecta-org-seized_n_817458.html'>direct users to one of its five other domains</a> rending the seizure a moot point. The problem is that the government is not seizing the infringing material, but rather, an <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain_name'>alias for the network address</a> of a site that in many cases, only contains links to infringing material. It would be as if DHS seized my cell phone number because my friends could use it to call and find out the location of a weekly poker game — the game would still take place, I would just get a new phone number.</p><p>The most upsetting part, at least for the web developer in me, has to be <a href='http://dajaz1.com/IPRC_Seized_2010_11.gif'>the seizure notice</a> itself. Putting text in images like that has to be up there with <a href='http://bancomicsans.com/'>using Comic Sans</a>. While I do not expect DHS to hire a legion of designers and developers to make an HTML5 seizure notice (although that would be awesome), some in-document text would go a long way to making the web a whole lot less ugly. <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup> Additionally, it looks like their policy has changed since the initial seizures, however, at least as late as November, DHS was <a href='http://qbit.cc/homeland-security-tracking-visits-to-seized-domains-using-google-analytics-and-piwik/'>placing Google Analytics and Piwik tracking codes on its seized domains</a>, arguably in violation of <a href='http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/memoranda_2010/m10-22.pdf'>OMB memorandum M-10-22</a> (PDF).</p><p>As seen in the recent <a href='http://gawker.com/#!5704966/wikileaks-loses-its-domain'>Wikileaks domain shell game</a>, its clear that domain servers are the weak link in the online content-delivery chain. When the state can no longer seize something that represent the forefront of our ability to communicate with one another (decentralized information sharing) and replace it with a technology the web collectively deprecated with the rise of CSS1 (sites which rely on .GIFs to render text), legality and politics aside, the internet will undoubtedly be a better place.</p><p>Notes:</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>17 U.S.C. § 512(d). <span>25</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>The relevant provisions of § 2323 allow for the forfeiture of &#8220;(A) Any article, the making or trafficking of which is, prohibited under section 506 of title 17″ prohibiting &#8220;willful copyright infringement&#8221; and &#8220;(B) Any property used, or intended to be used, in any manner or part to commit or facilitate the commission of an offense referred to in subparagraph (A).&#8221; <span>26</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>As <a href='http://volokh.com/2010/12/01/copyright-enforcement-tail-wags-internet-dog-contd-or-what-the-hell-ever-happened-to-due-process/'>Post noted back then</a>, and even more relevant now in light of Egypt&#8217;s recent flipping of its internet kill switch, &#8220;our ability to defend the principle of the single global Internet – the Internet where all of humanity has equal access to knowledge and ideas, the Internet that looks the same to, and allows free and unfettered communication between, users located in Shanghai and Seattle and Santiago, free of locally imposed censorship regimes – will be deeply compromised by <span>seizures of this kind</span>, which would enshrine in U.S. law for the first time the contrary principle: that all countries have a right to insist on the removal of content, wherever located, from the global Internet in service of the exigencies of local law.&#8221; (Quoting a <a href='http://volokh.com/2010/12/01/copyright-enforcement-tail-wags-internet-dog-contd-or-what-the-hell-ever-happened-to-due-process/'>letter he authored</a> criticizing the Senate&#8217;s Combating Online Infringements and Counterfeits Act). <span>28</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>Beyond being reminiscent of Geocities (and most of the 90s), text in images is not machine readable, a requirement of section 508 (codified at 29 U.S.C. § 794(d)) . That means that neither screen readers nor search engines can accurately parse the site&#8217;s content. <span>29</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/about/","title":"About"},{"url":"/contact/","title":"Contact"},{"url":"/donate/","title":"Donate"},{"url":"/fine-print/","title":"Fine Print"},{"url":"/resume/","title":"Resume"},{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"}]}
+{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"A Site By Any Other Name...","excerpt":"DHS recently began protecting America's shores from threats of a different kind: online copyright infringement. In the days before the Superbowl, the agency set out to enforce the \"express written consent of the NFL\" provision attached to most broadcasts by slamming the iron fist of the law down on six sports-streaming websites.\n","layout":"post","category":["Law","Technology"],"tags":["censorship","copyright","digital due process","domains"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2011/02/03/a-site-by-any-other-name/","date":"2011-02-03 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2011/02/03/a-site-by-any-other-name","categories":[["Law","Technology"]],"next":"I gave a brief talk at March's joint [WordPressDC and Hacks/Hackers DC MeetUp][1] on leveraging WordPress to craft your personal brand. Below are slides and a recording of the livestream.\n\n**I invite you to watch, but in short, the main takeaways were:**\n\n* ![Why Brand?][2]In the olden days, people used to be scared to put personal information online; they felt the need to be pseudonymous (*see* handles like SparklePrincess87); life online was distinct from life offline.\n* As more of our analog lives became digital, the need for a second identity diminished; we no longer represent ourselves with anonymous screen names, but rather as ourselves.\n* Social networking and mobile computing contributed to this shift by interfacing the online and offline worlds. Today's radical transparency (*e.g.,* lifecasters posting pictures of their lunch) shows we have come a full 180.\n* We shift from corporate brand associations in the 50s (*e.g.,* \"I work for IBM\") to personal brands today (*e.g.,* \"I'm an independent contractor\").\n* Today we all have a unique opportunity to plant a flag on our corner of the internet, take control of our online identity, and declare to the world who we are by crafting a thought-out narrative.\n* Unlike in the real world where you are the only one in control of what you say, online, content has a life of its own — you must be proactive.\n* WordPress makes it dumb simple to tell the world your story.\n\n**My five big steps to launching your brand:**\n\n1. Grab a domain\n2. Define your personal brand\n3. Start a blog\n4. Socialize your content\n5. Upgrade your resume\n\n**Recording of the livestream:**\n\n*[Greg Linch][3] opens by discussing WordPress and Journalism, I begin at 30m 10s*\n\n\n\n**Accompanying slides if you wish to follow along:**\n\n\n\n**For those interested in the plugins mentioned:**\n\n* [Resume Plugin for WordPress][4]\n* [Emphasis Plugin for WordPress][5]\n* [All in One SEO][6]\n* [Google Analytics for WordPress][7]\n* [Simple Facebook Connect][8]\n* [Simple Twitter Connect][9]\n* [Subscribe to Comments][10]\n* [Syntax Highlighter Evolved][11]\n\n**Additional Resources:**\n\n* [Rapportive][12]\n* [How to generate a QR code][13]\n\nA special thanks to everyone who was able to come out or follow along on the livestream.\n\nComments? I'd love to hear your thoughts below.\n\n [1]: http://www.meetup.com/wordpressdc/events/16178194/\n [2]: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/branding-300x224.png \"Why Brand?\"\n [3]: http://www.greglinch.com/\n [4]: http://ben.balter.com/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/ \"WordPress Resume Plugin\"\n [5]: http://ben.balter.com/2011/01/11/wordpress-emphasis-plugin/ \"WordPress Emphasis Plugin: Highlight and Permalink Text\"\n [6]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/all-in-one-seo-pack/\n [7]: http://yoast.com/wordpress/google-analytics/\n [8]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/simple-facebook-connect/\n [9]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/simple-twitter-connect/\n [10]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/subscribe-to-comments/\n [11]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/syntaxhighlighter/\n [12]: http://rapportive.com/\n [13]: http://thenextweb.com/socialmedia/2010/10/13/bit-ly-now-lets-you-add-qr-codes-to-links-in-seconds/","previous":"<p><img alt='Course Schedule' class='alignright' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/1430289931_beb7ff6428_b-300x225.jpg' />George Washington University recently released an <a href='http://acadtech.gwu.edu/pages/gwmobile'>iPhone app</a> that allows students to look up the course schedule and each course&#8217;s open/closed status as well as browse an interactive map of the campus. Naturally, upon installing the app, the first thing to do is to try and ferret out the underlying XML API that powers it, a simple enough task given <a href='http://blog.jerodsanto.net/2009/06/sniff-your-iphones-network-traffic/'>the right tools</a>.</p><p>Below you can find the details on GW&#8217;s course schedule and campus map API endpoints, as well as an API wrapper to interact with it written in PHP. Feel free to grab the code below, or fork and contribute in the <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/GW-API'>GitHub repo</a>. Cool data that deserves to be shared with the world, no doubt.</p><p>Creative ideas on how best to leverage the information welcome in the <a href='#comments'>comments below</a>.</p><p><em>Please Note: I am not a GW employee, nor is use of the API explicitly authorized by the University. The code below is provided &#8220;as is&#8221; solely for educational purposes. If for any reason you would like this page removed, please <a href='http://ben.balter.com/contact/'>contact me</a> immediately and I will do so.</em></p><hr /><h3 id='course_schedule'>Course Schedule</h3><ol>\n<li>\n<p>Departments</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li>Endpoint: <code>http://my.gwu.edu/mod/pws/scheduleXML.cfm</code></li>\n\n<li>Parameters: <code>termCode=[YYYY][01=spring, 02=summer, 03=fall]</code></li>\n\n<li>Returns</li>\n</ol>\n\n<p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p>\n</li>\n\n<li>\n<p>Courses</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li>\n<p>Endpoint: <code>http://my.gwu.edu/mod/pws/scheduleXML.cfm</code></p>\n</li>\n\n<li>\n<p>Parameters:</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li><code>termCode=[YYYY][01=spring, 02=summer, 03=fall]</code></li>\n\n<li><code>deptCode=[Dept. Code]</code></li>\n</ol>\n</li>\n\n<li>\n<p>Returns:</p>\n</li>\n</ol>\n</li>\n</ol><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h3 id='campus_map'>Campus Map</h3><ol>\n<li>\n<p>Categories</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li>Endpoint: <code>http://citl.gwu.edu/iphonedev/maps/categories.xml</code></li>\n\n<li>Return:</li>\n</ol>\n\n<p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p>\n</li>\n\n<li>\n<p>Buildings</p>\n\n<ol>\n<li>Endpoint: <code>http://citl.gwu.edu/iphonedev/maps/[shortname].xml</code></li>\n\n<li>Return:</li>\n</ol>\n\n<p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p>\n</li>\n</ol><h3 id='api_wrapper'>API Wrapper</h3><ol>\n<li>Source</li>\n</ol><script src='http://gist-it.appspot.com/github/benbalter/GW-API/raw/master/gw-api.php'> </script><ol>\n<li>Usage</li>\n</ol><h4 id='initialize'>Initialize:</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='list_departments'>List Departments</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='get_course_schedule_for_fall_2011'>Get Course Schedule for Fall 2011</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='get_course_schedule_for_current_term'>Get Course Schedule for current term</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='get_map_categories'>Get map categories</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><h4 id='get_buildings'>Get Buildings</h4><p>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</p><p><span>Photo: <a href='http://www.flickr.com/photos/atomicbartbeans/1430289931/'>atomicbartbeans</a></span></p>","content":"<p><img alt='' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/IPRC_Seized_2010_11-300x225.gif' />Violating due process is one thing, but violating web standards… well that&#8217;s another story.</p><p>The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) recently began protecting America&#8217;s shores from threats of a different kind: online copyright infringement. In the days before the Superbowl, the agency set out to enforce the &#8220;express written consent of the NFL&#8221; provision attached to most broadcasts by slamming the iron fist of the law down on <a href='http://itwel.com/atdhe-live-sports-streaming-website-seized-by-us-authorities.php'>six sports-streaming websites</a>. This is troubling on multiple levels. As the Vololkh Conspiracy&#8217;s David Post <a href='http://volokh.com/2011/02/02/more-outrageous-domain-name-seizures-by-our-vigilant-dept-of-homeland-security/'>put it</a>:</p><blockquote>\n<p>There&#8217;s a good reason we don&#8217;t generally allow agents of the State to march into judge&#8217;s chambers and deprive people of their property without an adversary hearing, viz., they&#8217;re likely to make errors that can be difficult to correct ex post.</p>\n</blockquote><p>And that&#8217;s exactly what happened when the Feds <a href='http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/02/rojadirecta-org-seized_n_817458.html'>seized riojadirecta.org</a>.However, the law in the area is a bit more nuanced than a single form can satisfy. Riojadirecta did not actually host any infringing content — it merely aggregated links to such content — potentially invoking the safe harbor provisions of the copyright act. <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> Compounding the issue, Spanish Courts had found the Spanish-based site to be <a href='http://torrentfreak.com/sports-streaming-torrent-links-site-victorious-in-court-100510/'>perfectly legal</a>, just a few months prior.</p><p>Seizures of this type are nothing new. Back in November, DHS <a href='http://torrentfreak.com/u-s-government-seizes-bittorrent-search-engine-domain-and-more-101126/'>commandeered</a> some <a href='http://www.ice.gov/doclib/news/releases/2010/domain_names.pdf'>80 bit torrent domains</a> (PDF) as part of the broader &#8221;<a href='http://www.ice.gov/news/releases/1006/100630losangeles.htm'>Operation In Our Sites</a>&#8221;. One such site, dajaz1.com, a music blog dedicated to hip-hop, was claimed to have infringed on music copyrights, however it was later revealed that the <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/20/business/media/20music.html?_r=1&amp;ref=todayspaper'>music in question was provided to the site by music industry executives</a>. Despite this revelation, DHS made no apparent move to look into the case or restore the domain, and <a href='http://dajaz1.com/'>the site remains down</a> to this day.</p><p>Part of the problem may stem from law enforcement being out of touch with today&#8217;s trends. Even the agent in charge of the investigation <a href='http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2010/12/busting-bittorrent.ars'>referred to the infringing material as &#8220;a bit torrent,&#8221;</a> suggesting a sophomoric understand of just what exactly was being seized.</p><p>More worrisome, however, is the fact that the statute cited to authorize such seizures, 18 U.S.C. § 2323, provides no safeguard to prevent such errors from occurring <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> nor does it <a href='http://www.copyhype.com/2011/02/can-google-be-seized-by-ice/'>prohibit its expanded use</a>. <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> As Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR) <a href='http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2011/02/senator-us-domain-name-seizures-alarmingly-unprecedented.ars?utm_source=rss&amp;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=rss'>argued</a>:</p><blockquote>\n<p>In contrast to ordinary copyright litigation, the domain name seizure process does not appear to give targeted websites an opportunity to defend themselves before sanctions are imposed… I worry that domain name seizures could function as a means for end-running the normal legal process in order to target websites that may prevail in full court. The new enforcement approach used by Operation In Our Sites is alarmingly unprecedented in the breadth of its potential reach.</p>\n</blockquote><p>Even looking beyond the due process issues and to the underlying copyright infringement, simply put, the government&#8217;s efforts fail to solve the problem. In Riojadirecta&#8217;s case, for example, the site <a href='http://twitter.com/#!/rojadirecta/status/32348722188779520'>used Twitter</a> to <a href='http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/02/rojadirecta-org-seized_n_817458.html'>direct users to one of its five other domains</a> rending the seizure a moot point. The problem is that the government is not seizing the infringing material, but rather, an <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain_name'>alias for the network address</a> of a site that in many cases, only contains links to infringing material. It would be as if DHS seized my cell phone number because my friends could use it to call and find out the location of a weekly poker game — the game would still take place, I would just get a new phone number.</p><p>The most upsetting part, at least for the web developer in me, has to be <a href='http://dajaz1.com/IPRC_Seized_2010_11.gif'>the seizure notice</a> itself. Putting text in images like that has to be up there with <a href='http://bancomicsans.com/'>using Comic Sans</a>. While I do not expect DHS to hire a legion of designers and developers to make an HTML5 seizure notice (although that would be awesome), some in-document text would go a long way to making the web a whole lot less ugly. <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup> Additionally, it looks like their policy has changed since the initial seizures, however, at least as late as November, DHS was <a href='http://qbit.cc/homeland-security-tracking-visits-to-seized-domains-using-google-analytics-and-piwik/'>placing Google Analytics and Piwik tracking codes on its seized domains</a>, arguably in violation of <a href='http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/memoranda_2010/m10-22.pdf'>OMB memorandum M-10-22</a> (PDF).</p><p>As seen in the recent <a href='http://gawker.com/#!5704966/wikileaks-loses-its-domain'>Wikileaks domain shell game</a>, its clear that domain servers are the weak link in the online content-delivery chain. When the state can no longer seize something that represent the forefront of our ability to communicate with one another (decentralized information sharing) and replace it with a technology the web collectively deprecated with the rise of CSS1 (sites which rely on .GIFs to render text), legality and politics aside, the internet will undoubtedly be a better place.</p><p>Notes:</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>17 U.S.C. § 512(d). <span>25</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>The relevant provisions of § 2323 allow for the forfeiture of &#8220;(A) Any article, the making or trafficking of which is, prohibited under section 506 of title 17″ prohibiting &#8220;willful copyright infringement&#8221; and &#8220;(B) Any property used, or intended to be used, in any manner or part to commit or facilitate the commission of an offense referred to in subparagraph (A).&#8221; <span>26</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>As <a href='http://volokh.com/2010/12/01/copyright-enforcement-tail-wags-internet-dog-contd-or-what-the-hell-ever-happened-to-due-process/'>Post noted back then</a>, and even more relevant now in light of Egypt&#8217;s recent flipping of its internet kill switch, &#8220;our ability to defend the principle of the single global Internet – the Internet where all of humanity has equal access to knowledge and ideas, the Internet that looks the same to, and allows free and unfettered communication between, users located in Shanghai and Seattle and Santiago, free of locally imposed censorship regimes – will be deeply compromised by <span>seizures of this kind</span>, which would enshrine in U.S. law for the first time the contrary principle: that all countries have a right to insist on the removal of content, wherever located, from the global Internet in service of the exigencies of local law.&#8221; (Quoting a <a href='http://volokh.com/2010/12/01/copyright-enforcement-tail-wags-internet-dog-contd-or-what-the-hell-ever-happened-to-due-process/'>letter he authored</a> criticizing the Senate&#8217;s Combating Online Infringements and Counterfeits Act). <span>28</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>Beyond being reminiscent of Geocities (and most of the 90s), text in images is not machine readable, a requirement of section 508 (codified at 29 U.S.C. § 794(d)) . That means that neither screen readers nor search engines can accurately parse the site&#8217;s content. <span>29</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/","title":"WordPress Resume Plugin"},{"url":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party/","title":"New Media Flak: Megaphone vs. Cocktail Party"},{"url":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/","title":"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?"},{"url":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility/","title":"Removing the Barriers to Organizational Agility\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing/","title":"What Fourteen-Century Apple Pie Teaches Us About Sharing\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds/","title":"Will Federal Contracting Officers Soon Have Their Heads in the Clouds?\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it/","title":"Free Trade in China? Just Google it."},{"url":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/","title":"Twitter Mentions as Comments WordPress Plugin\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes/","title":"The Internet is Series of Tubes (oh, and Tollgates too)\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/","title":"Late-Night Infomercials: Guaranteed to Extend the 4th Amendment or Your Money Back"}]}
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@@ -1 +1 @@
-{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"Using WordPress to Craft Your Personal Brand\n","excerpt":"Recording and slides from my brief talk at March's joint WordCampDC and Hacks/Hackers DC MeetUp on leveraging WordPress to craft your personal brand.","layout":"post","category":["Technology"],"tags":["journalism","online reputation","personal branding","presentation","Resume","wordpress"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2011/03/09/craft-your-personal-brand/","date":"2011-03-09 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2011/03/09/craft-your-personal-brand","categories":[["Technology"]],"next":"I needed a quick-and-easy way to parse Microsoft Word's footnote format into a more web-friendly format for a recent project. After a bit of regular expression hacking, I was able to build a WordPress plugin to automatically convert content pasted from Word into a format readable by [Andrew Nacin's][1] popular [Simple Footnotes][2] plugin. \n \nThe process is surprisingly simple given [WordPress's extensive filter API][3]. First, to grab the footnotes from Word's `ftnref` format:\n\n<div>{% highlight php %}<?php\n\n//grab all the Word-style footnotes into an array\n$pattern = '#<a href\\=\"\\#_ftnref([0-9]+)\">\\[([0-9]+)\\]</a> (.*)#';\npreg_match_all( $pattern, $content, $footnotes, PREG_SET_ORDER);\n\n?>{% endhighlight %}</div>\n\nThis creates an array (`$footnotes`) with the both the footnote number and the text of the footnote. We then need a way to replace the in-text reference with the parsed footnotes so that Simple Footnotes can understand them. I did this by creating two arrays, a find array and a replace array with each Word-style footnote reference and its Simple Footnote formatted counterpart:\n\n<div>{% highlight php %}<?php\n\n//build find and replace arrays\nforeach ($footnotes as $footnote) {\n $find[] = '#<a href\\=\"\\#_ftn'.$footnote[1].'\">\\['.$footnote[1].'\\]</a>#';\n $replace[] = '[ref]' . str_replace( array(\"\\r\\n\", \"\\r\", \"\\n\"), \"\", $footnote[3]) . '[/ref]';\n} \n\n?>{% endhighlight %}</div>\n\nFinally, so that the entire replacement can be done in a single pass, push a final find/replace pair into the end of the array, to remove the original footnotes:\n\n<div>{% highlight php %}<?php\n\n //remove all the original footnotes when done\n $find[] = '#<div>\\s*<a href\\=\"\\#_ftnref([0-9]+)\">\\[([0-9]+)\\]</a> (.*)\\s*</div>\\s+#';\n $replace[] = '';\n\n?>{% endhighlight %}</div>\n\nBecause PHP's `preg_replace` function can handle arrays, all we have to do is run a single function:\n\n<div>{% highlight php %}<?php\n\n$content = preg_replace( $find, $replace, $content );\n\n?>{% endhighlight %}</div>\n \nPutting it all together, including a filter hook to call our function and a `meta_value` flag to prevent parsing on subsequent saves, the result is:\n\n<script src=\"http://gist-it.appspot.com/github/benbalter/Convert-Microsoft-Word-Footnotes-to-WordPress-Simple-Footnotes/raw/master/parse-footnotes.php\"> </script>\n\nTo use, you can [download the plugin file][5][^1] and activate (be sure you already have [Simple Footnotes][2] installed). Copy the content from Word, and Paste into the \"*Paste from Word*\" box (may need to toggle the \"[*Kitchen Sink*][6]\".[^2]\n\nThoughts? Improvements? The above code solved a rather stubborn workflow problem in a project I was working on, and hopefully it can do the same for you. Feel free to use/improve the above code.\n\n[^1]: Licensed under [GPLv2][10]\n[^2]: You can even [Fork the plugin over on Github][8]\n\n [1]: http://andrewnacin.com\n [2]: http://andrewnacin.com/2010/07/24/simple-footnotes-0-3/\n [3]: http://codex.wordpress.org/Plugin_API/Filter_Reference\n [4]: #note-2020-1 \"' . str_replace( array(\"\\r\\n\", \"\\r\", \"\\n\"), \"\", $footnote[4]) . '\"\n [5]: https://github.com/benbalter/Convert-Microsoft-Word-Footnotes-to-WordPress-Simple-Footnotes\n [6]: http://www.bloggingteacher.com/writing-posts-with-the-wordpress-visual-editor-the-kitchen-sink\n [7]: #note-2020-2 \"Licensed under GPLv2\"\n [8]: http://ben.balter.com/2011/03/20/regular-expression-to-parse-word-style-footnotes/\n \n [10]: http://wordpress.org/about/gpl/","previous":"<p><img alt='' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/IPRC_Seized_2010_11-300x225.gif' />Violating due process is one thing, but violating web standards… well that&#8217;s another story.</p><p>The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) recently began protecting America&#8217;s shores from threats of a different kind: online copyright infringement. In the days before the Superbowl, the agency set out to enforce the &#8220;express written consent of the NFL&#8221; provision attached to most broadcasts by slamming the iron fist of the law down on <a href='http://itwel.com/atdhe-live-sports-streaming-website-seized-by-us-authorities.php'>six sports-streaming websites</a>. This is troubling on multiple levels. As the Vololkh Conspiracy&#8217;s David Post <a href='http://volokh.com/2011/02/02/more-outrageous-domain-name-seizures-by-our-vigilant-dept-of-homeland-security/'>put it</a>:</p><blockquote>\n<p>There&#8217;s a good reason we don&#8217;t generally allow agents of the State to march into judge&#8217;s chambers and deprive people of their property without an adversary hearing, viz., they&#8217;re likely to make errors that can be difficult to correct ex post.</p>\n</blockquote><p>And that&#8217;s exactly what happened when the Feds <a href='http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/02/rojadirecta-org-seized_n_817458.html'>seized riojadirecta.org</a>.However, the law in the area is a bit more nuanced than a single form can satisfy. Riojadirecta did not actually host any infringing content — it merely aggregated links to such content — potentially invoking the safe harbor provisions of the copyright act. <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> Compounding the issue, Spanish Courts had found the Spanish-based site to be <a href='http://torrentfreak.com/sports-streaming-torrent-links-site-victorious-in-court-100510/'>perfectly legal</a>, just a few months prior.</p><p>Seizures of this type are nothing new. Back in November, DHS <a href='http://torrentfreak.com/u-s-government-seizes-bittorrent-search-engine-domain-and-more-101126/'>commandeered</a> some <a href='http://www.ice.gov/doclib/news/releases/2010/domain_names.pdf'>80 bit torrent domains</a> (PDF) as part of the broader &#8221;<a href='http://www.ice.gov/news/releases/1006/100630losangeles.htm'>Operation In Our Sites</a>&#8221;. One such site, dajaz1.com, a music blog dedicated to hip-hop, was claimed to have infringed on music copyrights, however it was later revealed that the <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/20/business/media/20music.html?_r=1&amp;ref=todayspaper'>music in question was provided to the site by music industry executives</a>. Despite this revelation, DHS made no apparent move to look into the case or restore the domain, and <a href='http://dajaz1.com/'>the site remains down</a> to this day.</p><p>Part of the problem may stem from law enforcement being out of touch with today&#8217;s trends. Even the agent in charge of the investigation <a href='http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2010/12/busting-bittorrent.ars'>referred to the infringing material as &#8220;a bit torrent,&#8221;</a> suggesting a sophomoric understand of just what exactly was being seized.</p><p>More worrisome, however, is the fact that the statute cited to authorize such seizures, 18 U.S.C. § 2323, provides no safeguard to prevent such errors from occurring <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> nor does it <a href='http://www.copyhype.com/2011/02/can-google-be-seized-by-ice/'>prohibit its expanded use</a>. <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> As Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR) <a href='http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2011/02/senator-us-domain-name-seizures-alarmingly-unprecedented.ars?utm_source=rss&amp;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=rss'>argued</a>:</p><blockquote>\n<p>In contrast to ordinary copyright litigation, the domain name seizure process does not appear to give targeted websites an opportunity to defend themselves before sanctions are imposed… I worry that domain name seizures could function as a means for end-running the normal legal process in order to target websites that may prevail in full court. The new enforcement approach used by Operation In Our Sites is alarmingly unprecedented in the breadth of its potential reach.</p>\n</blockquote><p>Even looking beyond the due process issues and to the underlying copyright infringement, simply put, the government&#8217;s efforts fail to solve the problem. In Riojadirecta&#8217;s case, for example, the site <a href='http://twitter.com/#!/rojadirecta/status/32348722188779520'>used Twitter</a> to <a href='http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/02/rojadirecta-org-seized_n_817458.html'>direct users to one of its five other domains</a> rending the seizure a moot point. The problem is that the government is not seizing the infringing material, but rather, an <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain_name'>alias for the network address</a> of a site that in many cases, only contains links to infringing material. It would be as if DHS seized my cell phone number because my friends could use it to call and find out the location of a weekly poker game — the game would still take place, I would just get a new phone number.</p><p>The most upsetting part, at least for the web developer in me, has to be <a href='http://dajaz1.com/IPRC_Seized_2010_11.gif'>the seizure notice</a> itself. Putting text in images like that has to be up there with <a href='http://bancomicsans.com/'>using Comic Sans</a>. While I do not expect DHS to hire a legion of designers and developers to make an HTML5 seizure notice (although that would be awesome), some in-document text would go a long way to making the web a whole lot less ugly. <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup> Additionally, it looks like their policy has changed since the initial seizures, however, at least as late as November, DHS was <a href='http://qbit.cc/homeland-security-tracking-visits-to-seized-domains-using-google-analytics-and-piwik/'>placing Google Analytics and Piwik tracking codes on its seized domains</a>, arguably in violation of <a href='http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/memoranda_2010/m10-22.pdf'>OMB memorandum M-10-22</a> (PDF).</p><p>As seen in the recent <a href='http://gawker.com/#!5704966/wikileaks-loses-its-domain'>Wikileaks domain shell game</a>, its clear that domain servers are the weak link in the online content-delivery chain. When the state can no longer seize something that represent the forefront of our ability to communicate with one another (decentralized information sharing) and replace it with a technology the web collectively deprecated with the rise of CSS1 (sites which rely on .GIFs to render text), legality and politics aside, the internet will undoubtedly be a better place.</p><p>Notes:</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>17 U.S.C. § 512(d). <span>25</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>The relevant provisions of § 2323 allow for the forfeiture of &#8220;(A) Any article, the making or trafficking of which is, prohibited under section 506 of title 17″ prohibiting &#8220;willful copyright infringement&#8221; and &#8220;(B) Any property used, or intended to be used, in any manner or part to commit or facilitate the commission of an offense referred to in subparagraph (A).&#8221; <span>26</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>As <a href='http://volokh.com/2010/12/01/copyright-enforcement-tail-wags-internet-dog-contd-or-what-the-hell-ever-happened-to-due-process/'>Post noted back then</a>, and even more relevant now in light of Egypt&#8217;s recent flipping of its internet kill switch, &#8220;our ability to defend the principle of the single global Internet – the Internet where all of humanity has equal access to knowledge and ideas, the Internet that looks the same to, and allows free and unfettered communication between, users located in Shanghai and Seattle and Santiago, free of locally imposed censorship regimes – will be deeply compromised by <span>seizures of this kind</span>, which would enshrine in U.S. law for the first time the contrary principle: that all countries have a right to insist on the removal of content, wherever located, from the global Internet in service of the exigencies of local law.&#8221; (Quoting a <a href='http://volokh.com/2010/12/01/copyright-enforcement-tail-wags-internet-dog-contd-or-what-the-hell-ever-happened-to-due-process/'>letter he authored</a> criticizing the Senate&#8217;s Combating Online Infringements and Counterfeits Act). <span>28</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>Beyond being reminiscent of Geocities (and most of the 90s), text in images is not machine readable, a requirement of section 508 (codified at 29 U.S.C. § 794(d)) . That means that neither screen readers nor search engines can accurately parse the site&#8217;s content. <span>29</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p>I gave a brief talk at March&#8217;s joint <a href='http://www.meetup.com/wordpressdc/events/16178194/'>WordPressDC and Hacks/Hackers DC MeetUp</a> on leveraging WordPress to craft your personal brand. Below are slides and a recording of the livestream.</p><p><strong>I invite you to watch, but in short, the main takeaways were:</strong></p><ul>\n<li><img alt='Why Brand?' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/branding-300x224.png' />In the olden days, people used to be scared to put personal information online; they felt the need to be pseudonymous (<em>see</em> handles like SparklePrincess87); life online was distinct from life offline.</li>\n\n<li>As more of our analog lives became digital, the need for a second identity diminished; we no longer represent ourselves with anonymous screen names, but rather as ourselves.</li>\n\n<li>Social networking and mobile computing contributed to this shift by interfacing the online and offline worlds. Today&#8217;s radical transparency (<em>e.g.,</em> lifecasters posting pictures of their lunch) shows we have come a full 180.</li>\n\n<li>We shift from corporate brand associations in the 50s (<em>e.g.,</em> &#8220;I work for IBM&#8221;) to personal brands today (<em>e.g.,</em> &#8221;I&#8217;m an independent contractor&#8221;).</li>\n\n<li>Today we all have a unique opportunity to plant a flag on our corner of the internet, take control of our online identity, and declare to the world who we are by crafting a thought-out narrative.</li>\n\n<li>Unlike in the real world where you are the only one in control of what you say, online, content has a life of its own — you must be proactive.</li>\n\n<li>WordPress makes it dumb simple to tell the world your story.</li>\n</ul><p><strong>My five big steps to launching your brand:</strong></p><ol>\n<li>Grab a domain</li>\n\n<li>Define your personal brand</li>\n\n<li>Start a blog</li>\n\n<li>Socialize your content</li>\n\n<li>Upgrade your resume</li>\n</ol><p><strong>Recording of the livestream:</strong></p><p><em><a href='http://www.greglinch.com/'>Greg Linch</a> opens by discussing WordPress and Journalism, I begin at 30m 10s</em></p><p><strong>Accompanying slides if you wish to follow along:</strong></p><p><strong>For those interested in the plugins mentioned:</strong></p><ul>\n<li><a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/' title='WordPress Resume Plugin'>Resume Plugin for WordPress</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/01/11/wordpress-emphasis-plugin/' title='WordPress Emphasis Plugin: Highlight and Permalink Text'>Emphasis Plugin for WordPress</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/all-in-one-seo-pack/'>All in One SEO</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://yoast.com/wordpress/google-analytics/'>Google Analytics for WordPress</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/simple-facebook-connect/'>Simple Facebook Connect</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/simple-twitter-connect/'>Simple Twitter Connect</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/subscribe-to-comments/'>Subscribe to Comments</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/syntaxhighlighter/'>Syntax Highlighter Evolved</a></li>\n</ul><p><strong>Additional Resources:</strong></p><ul>\n<li><a href='http://rapportive.com/'>Rapportive</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://thenextweb.com/socialmedia/2010/10/13/bit-ly-now-lets-you-add-qr-codes-to-links-in-seconds/'>How to generate a QR code</a></li>\n</ul><p>A special thanks to everyone who was able to come out or follow along on the livestream.</p><p>Comments? I&#8217;d love to hear your thoughts below.</p>","related_posts":[{"url":"/about/","title":"About"},{"url":"/contact/","title":"Contact"},{"url":"/donate/","title":"Donate"},{"url":"/fine-print/","title":"Fine Print"},{"url":"/resume/","title":"Resume"},{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"}]}
+{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"Using WordPress to Craft Your Personal Brand\n","excerpt":"Recording and slides from my brief talk at March's joint WordCampDC and Hacks/Hackers DC MeetUp on leveraging WordPress to craft your personal brand.","layout":"post","category":["Technology"],"tags":["journalism","online reputation","personal branding","presentation","Resume","wordpress"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2011/03/09/craft-your-personal-brand/","date":"2011-03-09 00:00:00 -0500","id":"/2011/03/09/craft-your-personal-brand","categories":[["Technology"]],"next":"I needed a quick-and-easy way to parse Microsoft Word's footnote format into a more web-friendly format for a recent project. After a bit of regular expression hacking, I was able to build a WordPress plugin to automatically convert content pasted from Word into a format readable by [Andrew Nacin's][1] popular [Simple Footnotes][2] plugin. \n \nThe process is surprisingly simple given [WordPress's extensive filter API][3]. First, to grab the footnotes from Word's `ftnref` format:\n\n<div>{% highlight php %}<?php\n\n//grab all the Word-style footnotes into an array\n$pattern = '#<a href\\=\"\\#_ftnref([0-9]+)\">\\[([0-9]+)\\]</a> (.*)#';\npreg_match_all( $pattern, $content, $footnotes, PREG_SET_ORDER);\n\n?>{% endhighlight %}</div>\n\nThis creates an array (`$footnotes`) with the both the footnote number and the text of the footnote. We then need a way to replace the in-text reference with the parsed footnotes so that Simple Footnotes can understand them. I did this by creating two arrays, a find array and a replace array with each Word-style footnote reference and its Simple Footnote formatted counterpart:\n\n<div>{% highlight php %}<?php\n\n//build find and replace arrays\nforeach ($footnotes as $footnote) {\n $find[] = '#<a href\\=\"\\#_ftn'.$footnote[1].'\">\\['.$footnote[1].'\\]</a>#';\n $replace[] = '[ref]' . str_replace( array(\"\\r\\n\", \"\\r\", \"\\n\"), \"\", $footnote[3]) . '[/ref]';\n} \n\n?>{% endhighlight %}</div>\n\nFinally, so that the entire replacement can be done in a single pass, push a final find/replace pair into the end of the array, to remove the original footnotes:\n\n<div>{% highlight php %}<?php\n\n //remove all the original footnotes when done\n $find[] = '#<div>\\s*<a href\\=\"\\#_ftnref([0-9]+)\">\\[([0-9]+)\\]</a> (.*)\\s*</div>\\s+#';\n $replace[] = '';\n\n?>{% endhighlight %}</div>\n\nBecause PHP's `preg_replace` function can handle arrays, all we have to do is run a single function:\n\n<div>{% highlight php %}<?php\n\n$content = preg_replace( $find, $replace, $content );\n\n?>{% endhighlight %}</div>\n \nPutting it all together, including a filter hook to call our function and a `meta_value` flag to prevent parsing on subsequent saves, the result is:\n\n<script src=\"http://gist-it.appspot.com/github/benbalter/Convert-Microsoft-Word-Footnotes-to-WordPress-Simple-Footnotes/raw/master/parse-footnotes.php\"> </script>\n\nTo use, you can [download the plugin file][5][^1] and activate (be sure you already have [Simple Footnotes][2] installed). Copy the content from Word, and Paste into the \"*Paste from Word*\" box (may need to toggle the \"[*Kitchen Sink*][6]\".[^2]\n\nThoughts? Improvements? The above code solved a rather stubborn workflow problem in a project I was working on, and hopefully it can do the same for you. Feel free to use/improve the above code.\n\n[^1]: Licensed under [GPLv2][10]\n[^2]: You can even [Fork the plugin over on Github][8]\n\n [1]: http://andrewnacin.com\n [2]: http://andrewnacin.com/2010/07/24/simple-footnotes-0-3/\n [3]: http://codex.wordpress.org/Plugin_API/Filter_Reference\n [4]: #note-2020-1 \"' . str_replace( array(\"\\r\\n\", \"\\r\", \"\\n\"), \"\", $footnote[4]) . '\"\n [5]: https://github.com/benbalter/Convert-Microsoft-Word-Footnotes-to-WordPress-Simple-Footnotes\n [6]: http://www.bloggingteacher.com/writing-posts-with-the-wordpress-visual-editor-the-kitchen-sink\n [7]: #note-2020-2 \"Licensed under GPLv2\"\n [8]: http://ben.balter.com/2011/03/20/regular-expression-to-parse-word-style-footnotes/\n \n [10]: http://wordpress.org/about/gpl/","previous":"<p><img alt='' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/IPRC_Seized_2010_11-300x225.gif' />Violating due process is one thing, but violating web standards… well that&#8217;s another story.</p><p>The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) recently began protecting America&#8217;s shores from threats of a different kind: online copyright infringement. In the days before the Superbowl, the agency set out to enforce the &#8220;express written consent of the NFL&#8221; provision attached to most broadcasts by slamming the iron fist of the law down on <a href='http://itwel.com/atdhe-live-sports-streaming-website-seized-by-us-authorities.php'>six sports-streaming websites</a>. This is troubling on multiple levels. As the Vololkh Conspiracy&#8217;s David Post <a href='http://volokh.com/2011/02/02/more-outrageous-domain-name-seizures-by-our-vigilant-dept-of-homeland-security/'>put it</a>:</p><blockquote>\n<p>There&#8217;s a good reason we don&#8217;t generally allow agents of the State to march into judge&#8217;s chambers and deprive people of their property without an adversary hearing, viz., they&#8217;re likely to make errors that can be difficult to correct ex post.</p>\n</blockquote><p>And that&#8217;s exactly what happened when the Feds <a href='http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/02/rojadirecta-org-seized_n_817458.html'>seized riojadirecta.org</a>.However, the law in the area is a bit more nuanced than a single form can satisfy. Riojadirecta did not actually host any infringing content — it merely aggregated links to such content — potentially invoking the safe harbor provisions of the copyright act. <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> Compounding the issue, Spanish Courts had found the Spanish-based site to be <a href='http://torrentfreak.com/sports-streaming-torrent-links-site-victorious-in-court-100510/'>perfectly legal</a>, just a few months prior.</p><p>Seizures of this type are nothing new. Back in November, DHS <a href='http://torrentfreak.com/u-s-government-seizes-bittorrent-search-engine-domain-and-more-101126/'>commandeered</a> some <a href='http://www.ice.gov/doclib/news/releases/2010/domain_names.pdf'>80 bit torrent domains</a> (PDF) as part of the broader &#8221;<a href='http://www.ice.gov/news/releases/1006/100630losangeles.htm'>Operation In Our Sites</a>&#8221;. One such site, dajaz1.com, a music blog dedicated to hip-hop, was claimed to have infringed on music copyrights, however it was later revealed that the <a href='http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/20/business/media/20music.html?_r=1&amp;ref=todayspaper'>music in question was provided to the site by music industry executives</a>. Despite this revelation, DHS made no apparent move to look into the case or restore the domain, and <a href='http://dajaz1.com/'>the site remains down</a> to this day.</p><p>Part of the problem may stem from law enforcement being out of touch with today&#8217;s trends. Even the agent in charge of the investigation <a href='http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2010/12/busting-bittorrent.ars'>referred to the infringing material as &#8220;a bit torrent,&#8221;</a> suggesting a sophomoric understand of just what exactly was being seized.</p><p>More worrisome, however, is the fact that the statute cited to authorize such seizures, 18 U.S.C. § 2323, provides no safeguard to prevent such errors from occurring <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> nor does it <a href='http://www.copyhype.com/2011/02/can-google-be-seized-by-ice/'>prohibit its expanded use</a>. <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> As Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR) <a href='http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2011/02/senator-us-domain-name-seizures-alarmingly-unprecedented.ars?utm_source=rss&amp;utm_medium=rss&amp;utm_campaign=rss'>argued</a>:</p><blockquote>\n<p>In contrast to ordinary copyright litigation, the domain name seizure process does not appear to give targeted websites an opportunity to defend themselves before sanctions are imposed… I worry that domain name seizures could function as a means for end-running the normal legal process in order to target websites that may prevail in full court. The new enforcement approach used by Operation In Our Sites is alarmingly unprecedented in the breadth of its potential reach.</p>\n</blockquote><p>Even looking beyond the due process issues and to the underlying copyright infringement, simply put, the government&#8217;s efforts fail to solve the problem. In Riojadirecta&#8217;s case, for example, the site <a href='http://twitter.com/#!/rojadirecta/status/32348722188779520'>used Twitter</a> to <a href='http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/02/02/rojadirecta-org-seized_n_817458.html'>direct users to one of its five other domains</a> rending the seizure a moot point. The problem is that the government is not seizing the infringing material, but rather, an <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain_name'>alias for the network address</a> of a site that in many cases, only contains links to infringing material. It would be as if DHS seized my cell phone number because my friends could use it to call and find out the location of a weekly poker game — the game would still take place, I would just get a new phone number.</p><p>The most upsetting part, at least for the web developer in me, has to be <a href='http://dajaz1.com/IPRC_Seized_2010_11.gif'>the seizure notice</a> itself. Putting text in images like that has to be up there with <a href='http://bancomicsans.com/'>using Comic Sans</a>. While I do not expect DHS to hire a legion of designers and developers to make an HTML5 seizure notice (although that would be awesome), some in-document text would go a long way to making the web a whole lot less ugly. <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup> Additionally, it looks like their policy has changed since the initial seizures, however, at least as late as November, DHS was <a href='http://qbit.cc/homeland-security-tracking-visits-to-seized-domains-using-google-analytics-and-piwik/'>placing Google Analytics and Piwik tracking codes on its seized domains</a>, arguably in violation of <a href='http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/memoranda_2010/m10-22.pdf'>OMB memorandum M-10-22</a> (PDF).</p><p>As seen in the recent <a href='http://gawker.com/#!5704966/wikileaks-loses-its-domain'>Wikileaks domain shell game</a>, its clear that domain servers are the weak link in the online content-delivery chain. When the state can no longer seize something that represent the forefront of our ability to communicate with one another (decentralized information sharing) and replace it with a technology the web collectively deprecated with the rise of CSS1 (sites which rely on .GIFs to render text), legality and politics aside, the internet will undoubtedly be a better place.</p><p>Notes:</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>17 U.S.C. § 512(d). <span>25</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>The relevant provisions of § 2323 allow for the forfeiture of &#8220;(A) Any article, the making or trafficking of which is, prohibited under section 506 of title 17″ prohibiting &#8220;willful copyright infringement&#8221; and &#8220;(B) Any property used, or intended to be used, in any manner or part to commit or facilitate the commission of an offense referred to in subparagraph (A).&#8221; <span>26</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p>As <a href='http://volokh.com/2010/12/01/copyright-enforcement-tail-wags-internet-dog-contd-or-what-the-hell-ever-happened-to-due-process/'>Post noted back then</a>, and even more relevant now in light of Egypt&#8217;s recent flipping of its internet kill switch, &#8220;our ability to defend the principle of the single global Internet – the Internet where all of humanity has equal access to knowledge and ideas, the Internet that looks the same to, and allows free and unfettered communication between, users located in Shanghai and Seattle and Santiago, free of locally imposed censorship regimes – will be deeply compromised by <span>seizures of this kind</span>, which would enshrine in U.S. law for the first time the contrary principle: that all countries have a right to insist on the removal of content, wherever located, from the global Internet in service of the exigencies of local law.&#8221; (Quoting a <a href='http://volokh.com/2010/12/01/copyright-enforcement-tail-wags-internet-dog-contd-or-what-the-hell-ever-happened-to-due-process/'>letter he authored</a> criticizing the Senate&#8217;s Combating Online Infringements and Counterfeits Act). <span>28</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>Beyond being reminiscent of Geocities (and most of the 90s), text in images is not machine readable, a requirement of section 508 (codified at 29 U.S.C. § 794(d)) . That means that neither screen readers nor search engines can accurately parse the site&#8217;s content. <span>29</span></p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p>I gave a brief talk at March&#8217;s joint <a href='http://www.meetup.com/wordpressdc/events/16178194/'>WordPressDC and Hacks/Hackers DC MeetUp</a> on leveraging WordPress to craft your personal brand. Below are slides and a recording of the livestream.</p><p><strong>I invite you to watch, but in short, the main takeaways were:</strong></p><ul>\n<li><img alt='Why Brand?' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/branding-300x224.png' />In the olden days, people used to be scared to put personal information online; they felt the need to be pseudonymous (<em>see</em> handles like SparklePrincess87); life online was distinct from life offline.</li>\n\n<li>As more of our analog lives became digital, the need for a second identity diminished; we no longer represent ourselves with anonymous screen names, but rather as ourselves.</li>\n\n<li>Social networking and mobile computing contributed to this shift by interfacing the online and offline worlds. Today&#8217;s radical transparency (<em>e.g.,</em> lifecasters posting pictures of their lunch) shows we have come a full 180.</li>\n\n<li>We shift from corporate brand associations in the 50s (<em>e.g.,</em> &#8220;I work for IBM&#8221;) to personal brands today (<em>e.g.,</em> &#8221;I&#8217;m an independent contractor&#8221;).</li>\n\n<li>Today we all have a unique opportunity to plant a flag on our corner of the internet, take control of our online identity, and declare to the world who we are by crafting a thought-out narrative.</li>\n\n<li>Unlike in the real world where you are the only one in control of what you say, online, content has a life of its own — you must be proactive.</li>\n\n<li>WordPress makes it dumb simple to tell the world your story.</li>\n</ul><p><strong>My five big steps to launching your brand:</strong></p><ol>\n<li>Grab a domain</li>\n\n<li>Define your personal brand</li>\n\n<li>Start a blog</li>\n\n<li>Socialize your content</li>\n\n<li>Upgrade your resume</li>\n</ol><p><strong>Recording of the livestream:</strong></p><p><em><a href='http://www.greglinch.com/'>Greg Linch</a> opens by discussing WordPress and Journalism, I begin at 30m 10s</em></p><p><strong>Accompanying slides if you wish to follow along:</strong></p><p><strong>For those interested in the plugins mentioned:</strong></p><ul>\n<li><a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/' title='WordPress Resume Plugin'>Resume Plugin for WordPress</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/01/11/wordpress-emphasis-plugin/' title='WordPress Emphasis Plugin: Highlight and Permalink Text'>Emphasis Plugin for WordPress</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/all-in-one-seo-pack/'>All in One SEO</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://yoast.com/wordpress/google-analytics/'>Google Analytics for WordPress</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/simple-facebook-connect/'>Simple Facebook Connect</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/simple-twitter-connect/'>Simple Twitter Connect</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/subscribe-to-comments/'>Subscribe to Comments</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/syntaxhighlighter/'>Syntax Highlighter Evolved</a></li>\n</ul><p><strong>Additional Resources:</strong></p><ul>\n<li><a href='http://rapportive.com/'>Rapportive</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://thenextweb.com/socialmedia/2010/10/13/bit-ly-now-lets-you-add-qr-codes-to-links-in-seconds/'>How to generate a QR code</a></li>\n</ul><p>A special thanks to everyone who was able to come out or follow along on the livestream.</p><p>Comments? I&#8217;d love to hear your thoughts below.</p>","related_posts":[{"url":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/","title":"WordPress Resume Plugin"},{"url":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party/","title":"New Media Flak: Megaphone vs. Cocktail Party"},{"url":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/","title":"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?"},{"url":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility/","title":"Removing the Barriers to Organizational Agility\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing/","title":"What Fourteen-Century Apple Pie Teaches Us About Sharing\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds/","title":"Will Federal Contracting Officers Soon Have Their Heads in the Clouds?\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it/","title":"Free Trade in China? Just Google it."},{"url":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/","title":"Twitter Mentions as Comments WordPress Plugin\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes/","title":"The Internet is Series of Tubes (oh, and Tollgates too)\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/","title":"Late-Night Infomercials: Guaranteed to Extend the 4th Amendment or Your Money Back"}]}
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2  2011/03/20/regular-expression-to-parse-word-style-footnotes.json
@@ -1 +1 @@
-{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"Regular Expression to Parse Word-style Footnotes into WordPress's Simple Footnotes Format","excerpt":"Regular Expression to automatically parse Microsoft Word's footnote format into a more web-friendly format for WordPress's Simple Footnotes plugin","layout":"post","category":["Technology"],"tags":["code","footnotes","hack","open source","plugin","wordpress"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2011/03/20/regular-expression-to-parse-word-style-footnotes/","date":"2011-03-20 00:00:00 -0400","id":"/2011/03/20/regular-expression-to-parse-word-style-footnotes","categories":[["Technology"]],"next":"[![Golden Hammer](http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/golden_hammer.png){.aligncenter}][1]\n\nMy biggest gripe with [WordPress][2], the open-source [content management system][3] that silently works behind the scenes to power [more than 13%][4] of the Internet, is that it sets far too high a bar with which other applications must compete. I cannot count the number of times that I have used a proprietary or commercial system and silently thought to myself, \"*WordPress can do this so much better*.\" [^1]\n\nThis ritual saw no deviation, when I sat down to setup [SharePoint][6] in support of my [law journal][7]‘s upcoming publication workflow. Like Alice stumbling down the rabbit hole, it quickly became apparent that in the counterintuitive world of Sharepoint, each step was going to be more and more alien than the last. And then it dawned on me: a corollary of [Uncle Ben's law][8], *with great power does not have to come great complexity*.\n\nWordPress does many things right. It is an incredibly versatile tool, but like a body builder with a heart of gold, it is as friendly and approachable as it is powerful. WordPress has [more than eight years of rock-solid experience][9] storing, organizing, sorting, and searching all sorts of user-generated content. Its got a set of slick attachment functions to allow users to safely and securely upload and store their non-WordPress files in WordPress. For the past three years, it even has a proto-version control system in the form of its much-envied [post revisions][10]. [^2] And it does all this through an interface so dumb-simple that [even your grandparents could start their own site][12]. It seems like a no brainer then, to marry these tools to create a WordPress-based document management system.\n\nImagine a workflow management and version control system [building on WordPress's existing core competencies][13]. By treating documents as a custom post type, users can leverage the power of WordPress's extensive attachment, revision, taxonomy, and URL rewriting functionalities. Document permalinks can be routed through the traditional rewrite structure such that the latest revision of a file always remains at a static, authenticated URL, and users can toggle the visibility of documents (both internally and externally) as they currently do with post statuses and permissions. Similarly, file locking can extend WordPress's autosave functionality (as a ping), revision logs can extend WordPress's existing revision relationship and can be outputted as a traditional RSS feed, etc.\n\n![][14]\n\nAs seen in the above wireframe, document revisions would be inextricably linked to the essential WordPress experience. If you know WordPress, you know document revisions. Why reinvent the wheel when you have the best wheel the world has ever seen, and a passionate global community dedicated to improving it? This approach would not simply be limited to traditional documents. Images, PDFs, code — anything the user wants to collaborate with others on, or have a secure revision history can be thrown at it. Academics, lawyers, government folks, the possibilities are endless.\n\nTo be fair, WordPress has been arguably overextended in some cases, [^3] but I do not believe that to be the case here. Sure any WordPress enthusiast may be guilty of the [bolt-cutter mentality][16] every now and then, but I believe, if anything, it is enterprise stakeholders' tendency to gravitate toward bloated, commercial systems that is more akin to Wolf Blitzer's boat house, and a big reason why is because with the exception of an unnamed [^4] content management system's poorly executed attempt at document management, no open-source alternatives exist.\n\nI am working on submitting this idea as a proposed [Google Summer of Code][18] project, [^5] with the goal of giving WordPress parity with commercial and proprietary applications and hopefully injecting some open-source goodness into government and other enterprise environments, but before I do, I would love to hear your thoughts. [Get in touch][20], or [leave a comment below][21].\n\n**Update (8/29)**: The final result of the project is an [Open Source Document Management and Version Control System][22] for WordPress. An overview of its top-level features including a screencast of a typical use case is available on the [WP Document Revisions][22] page.\n\n[^1]: *See, e.g., *[Documentum][23], [Liferay][24], [Melange][25], and [Gawker's CMS][26]. \n[^2]: Nearly three years ago, at the time of the feature's inception, [WordPress founder Matt Mullenweg noted][28], \"*With the power of modern computers, it's silly that we still use save and editing metaphors from the time when the most common method of storage was floppy disks… now we're taking that to another level by allowing you to view who made what changes when… through a super-easy interface, much like Wikipedia or a version control system.*\" \n[^3]: *See, e.g., *WordPress as an [e-mail newsletter][30], [contact manager][31], [CRM][32], [task list][33], [invoice system][34], [job bank][35], or [real estate directory][36]. \n[^4]: Let's just call it \"Frupal\" for the sake of discussion. \n[^5]: In hindsight, I probably shouldn't have ripped on Melange. *See supra note 1.* \n\n [1]: http://xkcd.com/801/\n [2]: http://wordpress.org\n [3]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Content_management_system\n [4]: http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_management/all\n [5]: #note-2020-1 \"See, e.g., Documentum, Liferay, Melange, and Gawker's CMS.\"\n [6]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_SharePoint\n [7]: http://pcjl.org\n [8]: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8DfztIIqbTI#t=1m3s\n [9]: http://core.trac.wordpress.org/browser/trunk?rev=3\n [10]: http://codex.wordpress.org/Revision_Management\n [11]: #note-2020-2 \"Nearly three years ago, at the time of the feature's inception, WordPress founder Matt Mullenweg noted, \"With the power of modern computers, it's silly that we still use save and editing metaphors from the time when the most common method of storage was floppy disks… now we're taking that to another level by allowing you to view who made what changes when… through a super-easy interface, much like Wikipedia or a version control system.\"\"\n [12]: http://www.thegrandparentsblog.com/\n [13]: http://lists.automattic.com/pipermail/wp-hackers/2011-March/038727.html\n [14]: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/wireframe.png \"WP Document Revisions Wireframe\"\n [15]: #note-2020-3 \"See, e.g., WordPress as an e-mail newsletter, contact manager, CRM, task list, invoice system, job bank, or real estate directory.\"\n [16]: http://xkcd.com/801\n [17]: #note-2020-4 \"Let's just call it \"Frupal\" for the sake of discussion.\"\n [18]: http://www.google-melange.com/gsoc/homepage/google/gsoc2011\n [19]: #note-2020-5 \"In hindsight, I probably shouldn't have ripped on Melange. See supra note 1.\"\n [20]: http://ben.balter.com/contact/\n [21]: #comments\n [22]: http://ben.balter.com/2011/08/29/document-management-version-control-for-wordpress/\n [23]: http://www.emc.com/domains/documentum/index.htm\n [24]: http://www.liferay.com/\n [25]: http://code.google.com/p/soc/wiki/MelangeIntro\n [26]: http://www.mediaite.com/online/worse-than-previously-thought-gawker-content-management-system-hacked/\n \n [28]: http://wordpress.org/news/2008/07/wordpress-26-tyner/\n \n [30]: http://net.tutsplus.com/tutorials/wordpress/build-a-wordburner-email-newsletter-manager-using-wordpress-and-feedburner/\n [31]: http://publisherblog.automattic.com/2008/02/13/wp-contact-manager/\n [32]: http://slipfire.com/wp-crm/\n [33]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-task-manager/\n [34]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-invoice/\n [35]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/job-manager/\n [36]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/great-real-estate/","previous":"<p>I gave a brief talk at March&#8217;s joint <a href='http://www.meetup.com/wordpressdc/events/16178194/'>WordPressDC and Hacks/Hackers DC MeetUp</a> on leveraging WordPress to craft your personal brand. Below are slides and a recording of the livestream.</p><p><strong>I invite you to watch, but in short, the main takeaways were:</strong></p><ul>\n<li><img alt='Why Brand?' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/branding-300x224.png' />In the olden days, people used to be scared to put personal information online; they felt the need to be pseudonymous (<em>see</em> handles like SparklePrincess87); life online was distinct from life offline.</li>\n\n<li>As more of our analog lives became digital, the need for a second identity diminished; we no longer represent ourselves with anonymous screen names, but rather as ourselves.</li>\n\n<li>Social networking and mobile computing contributed to this shift by interfacing the online and offline worlds. Today&#8217;s radical transparency (<em>e.g.,</em> lifecasters posting pictures of their lunch) shows we have come a full 180.</li>\n\n<li>We shift from corporate brand associations in the 50s (<em>e.g.,</em> &#8220;I work for IBM&#8221;) to personal brands today (<em>e.g.,</em> &#8221;I&#8217;m an independent contractor&#8221;).</li>\n\n<li>Today we all have a unique opportunity to plant a flag on our corner of the internet, take control of our online identity, and declare to the world who we are by crafting a thought-out narrative.</li>\n\n<li>Unlike in the real world where you are the only one in control of what you say, online, content has a life of its own — you must be proactive.</li>\n\n<li>WordPress makes it dumb simple to tell the world your story.</li>\n</ul><p><strong>My five big steps to launching your brand:</strong></p><ol>\n<li>Grab a domain</li>\n\n<li>Define your personal brand</li>\n\n<li>Start a blog</li>\n\n<li>Socialize your content</li>\n\n<li>Upgrade your resume</li>\n</ol><p><strong>Recording of the livestream:</strong></p><p><em><a href='http://www.greglinch.com/'>Greg Linch</a> opens by discussing WordPress and Journalism, I begin at 30m 10s</em></p><p><strong>Accompanying slides if you wish to follow along:</strong></p><p><strong>For those interested in the plugins mentioned:</strong></p><ul>\n<li><a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/' title='WordPress Resume Plugin'>Resume Plugin for WordPress</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/01/11/wordpress-emphasis-plugin/' title='WordPress Emphasis Plugin: Highlight and Permalink Text'>Emphasis Plugin for WordPress</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/all-in-one-seo-pack/'>All in One SEO</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://yoast.com/wordpress/google-analytics/'>Google Analytics for WordPress</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/simple-facebook-connect/'>Simple Facebook Connect</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/simple-twitter-connect/'>Simple Twitter Connect</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/subscribe-to-comments/'>Subscribe to Comments</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/syntaxhighlighter/'>Syntax Highlighter Evolved</a></li>\n</ul><p><strong>Additional Resources:</strong></p><ul>\n<li><a href='http://rapportive.com/'>Rapportive</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://thenextweb.com/socialmedia/2010/10/13/bit-ly-now-lets-you-add-qr-codes-to-links-in-seconds/'>How to generate a QR code</a></li>\n</ul><p>A special thanks to everyone who was able to come out or follow along on the livestream.</p><p>Comments? I&#8217;d love to hear your thoughts below.</p>","content":"<p>I needed a quick-and-easy way to parse Microsoft Word&#8217;s footnote format into a more web-friendly format for a recent project. After a bit of regular expression hacking, I was able to build a WordPress plugin to automatically convert content pasted from Word into a format readable by <span>Andrew Nacin&#8217;s</span> popular <span>Simple Footnotes</span> plugin.</p><p>The process is surprisingly simple given <span>WordPress&#8217;s extensive filter API</span>. First, to grab the footnotes from Word&#8217;s <code>ftnref</code> format:</p><div>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</div>\n<p>This creates an array (<code>$footnotes</code>) with the both the footnote number and the text of the footnote. We then need a way to replace the in-text reference with the parsed footnotes so that Simple Footnotes can understand them. I did this by creating two arrays, a find array and a replace array with each Word-style footnote reference and its Simple Footnote formatted counterpart:</p>\n<div>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</div>\n<p>Finally, so that the entire replacement can be done in a single pass, push a final find/replace pair into the end of the array, to remove the original footnotes:</p>\n<div>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</div>\n<p>Because PHP&#8217;s <code>preg_replace</code> function can handle arrays, all we have to do is run a single function:</p>\n<div>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</div>\n<p>Putting it all together, including a filter hook to call our function and a <code>meta_value</code> flag to prevent parsing on subsequent saves, the result is:</p>\n<script src='http://gist-it.appspot.com/github/benbalter/Convert-Microsoft-Word-Footnotes-to-WordPress-Simple-Footnotes/raw/master/parse-footnotes.php'> </script>\n<p>To use, you can <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/Convert-Microsoft-Word-Footnotes-to-WordPress-Simple-Footnotes'>download the plugin file</a><sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> and activate (be sure you already have <a href='http://andrewnacin.com/2010/07/24/simple-footnotes-0-3/'>Simple Footnotes</a> installed). Copy the content from Word, and Paste into the &#8221;<em>Paste from Word</em>&#8221; box (may need to toggle the &#8221;<a href='http://www.bloggingteacher.com/writing-posts-with-the-wordpress-visual-editor-the-kitchen-sink'><em>Kitchen Sink</em></a>&#8221;.<sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup></p>\n\n<p>Thoughts? Improvements? The above code solved a rather stubborn workflow problem in a project I was working on, and hopefully it can do the same for you. Feel free to use/improve the above code.</p>\n<div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>Licensed under <a href='http://wordpress.org/about/gpl/'>GPLv2</a></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>You can even <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/03/20/regular-expression-to-parse-word-style-footnotes/'>Fork the plugin over on Github</a></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/about/","title":"About"},{"url":"/contact/","title":"Contact"},{"url":"/donate/","title":"Donate"},{"url":"/fine-print/","title":"Fine Print"},{"url":"/resume/","title":"Resume"},{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"}]}
+{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"Regular Expression to Parse Word-style Footnotes into WordPress's Simple Footnotes Format","excerpt":"Regular Expression to automatically parse Microsoft Word's footnote format into a more web-friendly format for WordPress's Simple Footnotes plugin","layout":"post","category":["Technology"],"tags":["code","footnotes","hack","open source","plugin","wordpress"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2011/03/20/regular-expression-to-parse-word-style-footnotes/","date":"2011-03-20 00:00:00 -0400","id":"/2011/03/20/regular-expression-to-parse-word-style-footnotes","categories":[["Technology"]],"next":"[![Golden Hammer](http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/golden_hammer.png){.aligncenter}][1]\n\nMy biggest gripe with [WordPress][2], the open-source [content management system][3] that silently works behind the scenes to power [more than 13%][4] of the Internet, is that it sets far too high a bar with which other applications must compete. I cannot count the number of times that I have used a proprietary or commercial system and silently thought to myself, \"*WordPress can do this so much better*.\" [^1]\n\nThis ritual saw no deviation, when I sat down to setup [SharePoint][6] in support of my [law journal][7]‘s upcoming publication workflow. Like Alice stumbling down the rabbit hole, it quickly became apparent that in the counterintuitive world of Sharepoint, each step was going to be more and more alien than the last. And then it dawned on me: a corollary of [Uncle Ben's law][8], *with great power does not have to come great complexity*.\n\nWordPress does many things right. It is an incredibly versatile tool, but like a body builder with a heart of gold, it is as friendly and approachable as it is powerful. WordPress has [more than eight years of rock-solid experience][9] storing, organizing, sorting, and searching all sorts of user-generated content. Its got a set of slick attachment functions to allow users to safely and securely upload and store their non-WordPress files in WordPress. For the past three years, it even has a proto-version control system in the form of its much-envied [post revisions][10]. [^2] And it does all this through an interface so dumb-simple that [even your grandparents could start their own site][12]. It seems like a no brainer then, to marry these tools to create a WordPress-based document management system.\n\nImagine a workflow management and version control system [building on WordPress's existing core competencies][13]. By treating documents as a custom post type, users can leverage the power of WordPress's extensive attachment, revision, taxonomy, and URL rewriting functionalities. Document permalinks can be routed through the traditional rewrite structure such that the latest revision of a file always remains at a static, authenticated URL, and users can toggle the visibility of documents (both internally and externally) as they currently do with post statuses and permissions. Similarly, file locking can extend WordPress's autosave functionality (as a ping), revision logs can extend WordPress's existing revision relationship and can be outputted as a traditional RSS feed, etc.\n\n![][14]\n\nAs seen in the above wireframe, document revisions would be inextricably linked to the essential WordPress experience. If you know WordPress, you know document revisions. Why reinvent the wheel when you have the best wheel the world has ever seen, and a passionate global community dedicated to improving it? This approach would not simply be limited to traditional documents. Images, PDFs, code — anything the user wants to collaborate with others on, or have a secure revision history can be thrown at it. Academics, lawyers, government folks, the possibilities are endless.\n\nTo be fair, WordPress has been arguably overextended in some cases, [^3] but I do not believe that to be the case here. Sure any WordPress enthusiast may be guilty of the [bolt-cutter mentality][16] every now and then, but I believe, if anything, it is enterprise stakeholders' tendency to gravitate toward bloated, commercial systems that is more akin to Wolf Blitzer's boat house, and a big reason why is because with the exception of an unnamed [^4] content management system's poorly executed attempt at document management, no open-source alternatives exist.\n\nI am working on submitting this idea as a proposed [Google Summer of Code][18] project, [^5] with the goal of giving WordPress parity with commercial and proprietary applications and hopefully injecting some open-source goodness into government and other enterprise environments, but before I do, I would love to hear your thoughts. [Get in touch][20], or [leave a comment below][21].\n\n**Update (8/29)**: The final result of the project is an [Open Source Document Management and Version Control System][22] for WordPress. An overview of its top-level features including a screencast of a typical use case is available on the [WP Document Revisions][22] page.\n\n[^1]: *See, e.g., *[Documentum][23], [Liferay][24], [Melange][25], and [Gawker's CMS][26]. \n[^2]: Nearly three years ago, at the time of the feature's inception, [WordPress founder Matt Mullenweg noted][28], \"*With the power of modern computers, it's silly that we still use save and editing metaphors from the time when the most common method of storage was floppy disks… now we're taking that to another level by allowing you to view who made what changes when… through a super-easy interface, much like Wikipedia or a version control system.*\" \n[^3]: *See, e.g., *WordPress as an [e-mail newsletter][30], [contact manager][31], [CRM][32], [task list][33], [invoice system][34], [job bank][35], or [real estate directory][36]. \n[^4]: Let's just call it \"Frupal\" for the sake of discussion. \n[^5]: In hindsight, I probably shouldn't have ripped on Melange. *See supra note 1.* \n\n [1]: http://xkcd.com/801/\n [2]: http://wordpress.org\n [3]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Content_management_system\n [4]: http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_management/all\n [5]: #note-2020-1 \"See, e.g., Documentum, Liferay, Melange, and Gawker's CMS.\"\n [6]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_SharePoint\n [7]: http://pcjl.org\n [8]: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8DfztIIqbTI#t=1m3s\n [9]: http://core.trac.wordpress.org/browser/trunk?rev=3\n [10]: http://codex.wordpress.org/Revision_Management\n [11]: #note-2020-2 \"Nearly three years ago, at the time of the feature's inception, WordPress founder Matt Mullenweg noted, \"With the power of modern computers, it's silly that we still use save and editing metaphors from the time when the most common method of storage was floppy disks… now we're taking that to another level by allowing you to view who made what changes when… through a super-easy interface, much like Wikipedia or a version control system.\"\"\n [12]: http://www.thegrandparentsblog.com/\n [13]: http://lists.automattic.com/pipermail/wp-hackers/2011-March/038727.html\n [14]: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/wireframe.png \"WP Document Revisions Wireframe\"\n [15]: #note-2020-3 \"See, e.g., WordPress as an e-mail newsletter, contact manager, CRM, task list, invoice system, job bank, or real estate directory.\"\n [16]: http://xkcd.com/801\n [17]: #note-2020-4 \"Let's just call it \"Frupal\" for the sake of discussion.\"\n [18]: http://www.google-melange.com/gsoc/homepage/google/gsoc2011\n [19]: #note-2020-5 \"In hindsight, I probably shouldn't have ripped on Melange. See supra note 1.\"\n [20]: http://ben.balter.com/contact/\n [21]: #comments\n [22]: http://ben.balter.com/2011/08/29/document-management-version-control-for-wordpress/\n [23]: http://www.emc.com/domains/documentum/index.htm\n [24]: http://www.liferay.com/\n [25]: http://code.google.com/p/soc/wiki/MelangeIntro\n [26]: http://www.mediaite.com/online/worse-than-previously-thought-gawker-content-management-system-hacked/\n \n [28]: http://wordpress.org/news/2008/07/wordpress-26-tyner/\n \n [30]: http://net.tutsplus.com/tutorials/wordpress/build-a-wordburner-email-newsletter-manager-using-wordpress-and-feedburner/\n [31]: http://publisherblog.automattic.com/2008/02/13/wp-contact-manager/\n [32]: http://slipfire.com/wp-crm/\n [33]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-task-manager/\n [34]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-invoice/\n [35]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/job-manager/\n [36]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/great-real-estate/","previous":"<p>I gave a brief talk at March&#8217;s joint <a href='http://www.meetup.com/wordpressdc/events/16178194/'>WordPressDC and Hacks/Hackers DC MeetUp</a> on leveraging WordPress to craft your personal brand. Below are slides and a recording of the livestream.</p><p><strong>I invite you to watch, but in short, the main takeaways were:</strong></p><ul>\n<li><img alt='Why Brand?' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/branding-300x224.png' />In the olden days, people used to be scared to put personal information online; they felt the need to be pseudonymous (<em>see</em> handles like SparklePrincess87); life online was distinct from life offline.</li>\n\n<li>As more of our analog lives became digital, the need for a second identity diminished; we no longer represent ourselves with anonymous screen names, but rather as ourselves.</li>\n\n<li>Social networking and mobile computing contributed to this shift by interfacing the online and offline worlds. Today&#8217;s radical transparency (<em>e.g.,</em> lifecasters posting pictures of their lunch) shows we have come a full 180.</li>\n\n<li>We shift from corporate brand associations in the 50s (<em>e.g.,</em> &#8220;I work for IBM&#8221;) to personal brands today (<em>e.g.,</em> &#8221;I&#8217;m an independent contractor&#8221;).</li>\n\n<li>Today we all have a unique opportunity to plant a flag on our corner of the internet, take control of our online identity, and declare to the world who we are by crafting a thought-out narrative.</li>\n\n<li>Unlike in the real world where you are the only one in control of what you say, online, content has a life of its own — you must be proactive.</li>\n\n<li>WordPress makes it dumb simple to tell the world your story.</li>\n</ul><p><strong>My five big steps to launching your brand:</strong></p><ol>\n<li>Grab a domain</li>\n\n<li>Define your personal brand</li>\n\n<li>Start a blog</li>\n\n<li>Socialize your content</li>\n\n<li>Upgrade your resume</li>\n</ol><p><strong>Recording of the livestream:</strong></p><p><em><a href='http://www.greglinch.com/'>Greg Linch</a> opens by discussing WordPress and Journalism, I begin at 30m 10s</em></p><p><strong>Accompanying slides if you wish to follow along:</strong></p><p><strong>For those interested in the plugins mentioned:</strong></p><ul>\n<li><a href='http://ben.balter.com/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/' title='WordPress Resume Plugin'>Resume Plugin for WordPress</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/01/11/wordpress-emphasis-plugin/' title='WordPress Emphasis Plugin: Highlight and Permalink Text'>Emphasis Plugin for WordPress</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/all-in-one-seo-pack/'>All in One SEO</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://yoast.com/wordpress/google-analytics/'>Google Analytics for WordPress</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/simple-facebook-connect/'>Simple Facebook Connect</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/simple-twitter-connect/'>Simple Twitter Connect</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/subscribe-to-comments/'>Subscribe to Comments</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/syntaxhighlighter/'>Syntax Highlighter Evolved</a></li>\n</ul><p><strong>Additional Resources:</strong></p><ul>\n<li><a href='http://rapportive.com/'>Rapportive</a></li>\n\n<li><a href='http://thenextweb.com/socialmedia/2010/10/13/bit-ly-now-lets-you-add-qr-codes-to-links-in-seconds/'>How to generate a QR code</a></li>\n</ul><p>A special thanks to everyone who was able to come out or follow along on the livestream.</p><p>Comments? I&#8217;d love to hear your thoughts below.</p>","content":"<p>I needed a quick-and-easy way to parse Microsoft Word&#8217;s footnote format into a more web-friendly format for a recent project. After a bit of regular expression hacking, I was able to build a WordPress plugin to automatically convert content pasted from Word into a format readable by <span>Andrew Nacin&#8217;s</span> popular <span>Simple Footnotes</span> plugin.</p><p>The process is surprisingly simple given <span>WordPress&#8217;s extensive filter API</span>. First, to grab the footnotes from Word&#8217;s <code>ftnref</code> format:</p><div>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</div>\n<p>This creates an array (<code>$footnotes</code>) with the both the footnote number and the text of the footnote. We then need a way to replace the in-text reference with the parsed footnotes so that Simple Footnotes can understand them. I did this by creating two arrays, a find array and a replace array with each Word-style footnote reference and its Simple Footnote formatted counterpart:</p>\n<div>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</div>\n<p>Finally, so that the entire replacement can be done in a single pass, push a final find/replace pair into the end of the array, to remove the original footnotes:</p>\n<div>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</div>\n<p>Because PHP&#8217;s <code>preg_replace</code> function can handle arrays, all we have to do is run a single function:</p>\n<div>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</div>\n<p>Putting it all together, including a filter hook to call our function and a <code>meta_value</code> flag to prevent parsing on subsequent saves, the result is:</p>\n<script src='http://gist-it.appspot.com/github/benbalter/Convert-Microsoft-Word-Footnotes-to-WordPress-Simple-Footnotes/raw/master/parse-footnotes.php'> </script>\n<p>To use, you can <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/Convert-Microsoft-Word-Footnotes-to-WordPress-Simple-Footnotes'>download the plugin file</a><sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> and activate (be sure you already have <a href='http://andrewnacin.com/2010/07/24/simple-footnotes-0-3/'>Simple Footnotes</a> installed). Copy the content from Word, and Paste into the &#8221;<em>Paste from Word</em>&#8221; box (may need to toggle the &#8221;<a href='http://www.bloggingteacher.com/writing-posts-with-the-wordpress-visual-editor-the-kitchen-sink'><em>Kitchen Sink</em></a>&#8221;.<sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup></p>\n\n<p>Thoughts? Improvements? The above code solved a rather stubborn workflow problem in a project I was working on, and hopefully it can do the same for you. Feel free to use/improve the above code.</p>\n<div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>Licensed under <a href='http://wordpress.org/about/gpl/'>GPLv2</a></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>You can even <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/03/20/regular-expression-to-parse-word-style-footnotes/'>Fork the plugin over on Github</a></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/2010/09/12/wordpress-resume-plugin/","title":"WordPress Resume Plugin"},{"url":"/2010/09/13/new-media-flak-megaphone-vs-cocktail-party/","title":"New Media Flak: Megaphone vs. Cocktail Party"},{"url":"/2010/10/10/does-every-cloud-have-a-silver-lining/","title":"Does Every Cloud Have a Silver Lining?"},{"url":"/2010/11/06/removing-the-barriers-to-organizational-agility/","title":"Removing the Barriers to Organizational Agility\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/08/what-fourteen-century-apple-pie-teaches-us-about-sharing/","title":"What Fourteen-Century Apple Pie Teaches Us About Sharing\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/15/will-federal-contracting-officers-soon-have-their-heads-in-the-clouds/","title":"Will Federal Contracting Officers Soon Have Their Heads in the Clouds?\n"},{"url":"/2010/11/29/free-trade-in-china-just-google-it/","title":"Free Trade in China? Just Google it."},{"url":"/2010/11/29/twitter-mentions-as-comments/","title":"Twitter Mentions as Comments WordPress Plugin\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/01/the-internet-is-series-of-tubes/","title":"The Internet is Series of Tubes (oh, and Tollgates too)\n"},{"url":"/2010/12/20/late-night-infomercials/","title":"Late-Night Infomercials: Guaranteed to Extend the 4th Amendment or Your Money Back"}]}
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2  2011/04/04/when-all-you-have-is-a-pair-of-bolt-cutters.json
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-{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"When all you have is a pair of bolt cutters...\n","excerpt":"A workflow management and version control system building on WordPress's existing core competencies. By treating documents as a custom post type, users can leverage the power of WordPress's extensive attachment, revision, taxonomy, and URL rewriting functionalities. ","layout":"post","category":["Technology"],"tags":["code","document management","google","gsoc","open source","plugin","wordpress"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2011/04/04/when-all-you-have-is-a-pair-of-bolt-cutters/","date":"2011-04-04 00:00:00 -0400","id":"/2011/04/04/when-all-you-have-is-a-pair-of-bolt-cutters","categories":[["Technology"]],"next":"I am gave a brief [lightning talk at April's WordPress DC Meetup][1] on the basics of HTML and PHP (\"coding for dummies\"). The goal: learn how to avoid breaking your website if you edit it. Below are the [slides][2] and [recording][3].\n\n**In invite you to [watch][2], but in short, the Cliff's Notes are:**\n\n* The process \n * The server executes PHP and outputs HTML, CSS, JavaScript, etc.![][4]\n * The user's browser takes that output and renders a visual representation of the page\n* Client-side Languages \n * HTML – Static (unchanging) content; provides structure\n * CSS – Provides style and form\n * JavaScript – Provides interactivity\n* PHP – Wrapped with \"`php`\" and \"`?>`\" \n * Variable - Text, a number, true/false, or a group of variable; identified by \"`$`\"\n * `If` Statement – performs an action *if* a statement is true\n * `While` Loop – performs an action *while* a statement is true\n * `For` / `Foreach` – combines elements of `while` and `if`\n * Functions – predefined set of actions; always followed by \"`( )`\"\n * Don't forget semicolons\n\n****\n\n**Deck**\n\n\n\n**Recording **(I'm first up)\n\n\n\n**Links to Resources Mentioned**\n\n* HTML \n * [Google: HTML, CSS, & js from the Ground Up ][5]\n * [HTML Dog ][6]\n * [W3 Learning Wiki ][7]\n * [W3 Element Wiki ][8]\n* Text Editor \n * [Notepad++][9] (Windows)\n * [TextWrangler][10], [Coda][11] (Mac)\n* FTP Client (to connect to server) \n * [WinSCP][12], [Notepad++][9] (Windows)\n * [CyberDuck][13], [Coda][11] (Mac)\n* WordPress \n * [Define( WP_DEBUG, true);][14] in wp-config.php\n * [Debug bar][15] plugin\n * [WordPress Codex][16]\n\n*Thanks to all who came out or tuned into the live stream. Comments? Questions? I'd love to hear your thoughts [below][17] or feel free to [contact me][18].*\n\n [1]: http://www.meetup.com/wordpressdc/events/16887732/\n [2]: #deck\n [3]: #recording\n [4]: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/infographic-300x138.png \"infographic\"\n [5]: http://code.google.com/edu/submissions/html-css-javascript/\n [6]: http://htmldog.com\n [7]: http://www.w3.org/wiki/HTML/Training\n [8]: http://www.w3.org/wiki/HTML/Elements\n [9]: http://notepad-plus-plus.org/\n [10]: http://www.barebones.com/products/textwrangler/\n [11]: http://www.panic.com/coda/\n [12]: http://winscp.net/eng/index.php\n [13]: http://cyberduck.ch/\n [14]: http://codex.wordpress.org/Editing_wp-config.php#Debug\n [15]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/debug-bar/\n [16]: http://codex.wordpress.org/\n [17]: #comments\n [18]: http://ben.balter.com/contact/","previous":"<p>I needed a quick-and-easy way to parse Microsoft Word&#8217;s footnote format into a more web-friendly format for a recent project. After a bit of regular expression hacking, I was able to build a WordPress plugin to automatically convert content pasted from Word into a format readable by <span>Andrew Nacin&#8217;s</span> popular <span>Simple Footnotes</span> plugin.</p><p>The process is surprisingly simple given <span>WordPress&#8217;s extensive filter API</span>. First, to grab the footnotes from Word&#8217;s <code>ftnref</code> format:</p><div>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</div>\n<p>This creates an array (<code>$footnotes</code>) with the both the footnote number and the text of the footnote. We then need a way to replace the in-text reference with the parsed footnotes so that Simple Footnotes can understand them. I did this by creating two arrays, a find array and a replace array with each Word-style footnote reference and its Simple Footnote formatted counterpart:</p>\n<div>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</div>\n<p>Finally, so that the entire replacement can be done in a single pass, push a final find/replace pair into the end of the array, to remove the original footnotes:</p>\n<div>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</div>\n<p>Because PHP&#8217;s <code>preg_replace</code> function can handle arrays, all we have to do is run a single function:</p>\n<div>Liquid error: No such file or directory - posix_spawnp</div>\n<p>Putting it all together, including a filter hook to call our function and a <code>meta_value</code> flag to prevent parsing on subsequent saves, the result is:</p>\n<script src='http://gist-it.appspot.com/github/benbalter/Convert-Microsoft-Word-Footnotes-to-WordPress-Simple-Footnotes/raw/master/parse-footnotes.php'> </script>\n<p>To use, you can <a href='https://github.com/benbalter/Convert-Microsoft-Word-Footnotes-to-WordPress-Simple-Footnotes'>download the plugin file</a><sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup> and activate (be sure you already have <a href='http://andrewnacin.com/2010/07/24/simple-footnotes-0-3/'>Simple Footnotes</a> installed). Copy the content from Word, and Paste into the &#8221;<em>Paste from Word</em>&#8221; box (may need to toggle the &#8221;<a href='http://www.bloggingteacher.com/writing-posts-with-the-wordpress-visual-editor-the-kitchen-sink'><em>Kitchen Sink</em></a>&#8221;.<sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup></p>\n\n<p>Thoughts? Improvements? The above code solved a rather stubborn workflow problem in a project I was working on, and hopefully it can do the same for you. Feel free to use/improve the above code.</p>\n<div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p>Licensed under <a href='http://wordpress.org/about/gpl/'>GPLv2</a></p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>You can even <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/03/20/regular-expression-to-parse-word-style-footnotes/'>Fork the plugin over on Github</a></p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","content":"<p><a href='http://xkcd.com/801/'><img alt='Golden Hammer' class='aligncenter' src='http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/golden_hammer.png' /></a></p><p>My biggest gripe with <a href='http://wordpress.org'>WordPress</a>, the open-source <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Content_management_system'>content management system</a> that silently works behind the scenes to power <a href='http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_management/all'>more than 13%</a> of the Internet, is that it sets far too high a bar with which other applications must compete. I cannot count the number of times that I have used a proprietary or commercial system and silently thought to myself, &#8221;<em>WordPress can do this so much better</em>.&#8221; <sup id='fnref:1'><a href='#fn:1' rel='footnote'>1</a></sup></p><p>This ritual saw no deviation, when I sat down to setup <a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_SharePoint'>SharePoint</a> in support of my <a href='http://pcjl.org'>law journal</a>‘s upcoming publication workflow. Like Alice stumbling down the rabbit hole, it quickly became apparent that in the counterintuitive world of Sharepoint, each step was going to be more and more alien than the last. And then it dawned on me: a corollary of <a href='http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8DfztIIqbTI#t=1m3s'>Uncle Ben&#8217;s law</a>, <em>with great power does not have to come great complexity</em>.</p><p>WordPress does many things right. It is an incredibly versatile tool, but like a body builder with a heart of gold, it is as friendly and approachable as it is powerful. WordPress has <a href='http://core.trac.wordpress.org/browser/trunk?rev=3'>more than eight years of rock-solid experience</a> storing, organizing, sorting, and searching all sorts of user-generated content. Its got a set of slick attachment functions to allow users to safely and securely upload and store their non-WordPress files in WordPress. For the past three years, it even has a proto-version control system in the form of its much-envied <a href='http://codex.wordpress.org/Revision_Management'>post revisions</a>. <sup id='fnref:2'><a href='#fn:2' rel='footnote'>2</a></sup> And it does all this through an interface so dumb-simple that <a href='http://www.thegrandparentsblog.com/'>even your grandparents could start their own site</a>. It seems like a no brainer then, to marry these tools to create a WordPress-based document management system.</p><p>Imagine a workflow management and version control system <a href='http://lists.automattic.com/pipermail/wp-hackers/2011-March/038727.html'>building on WordPress&#8217;s existing core competencies</a>. By treating documents as a custom post type, users can leverage the power of WordPress&#8217;s extensive attachment, revision, taxonomy, and URL rewriting functionalities. Document permalinks can be routed through the traditional rewrite structure such that the latest revision of a file always remains at a static, authenticated URL, and users can toggle the visibility of documents (both internally and externally) as they currently do with post statuses and permissions. Similarly, file locking can extend WordPress&#8217;s autosave functionality (as a ping), revision logs can extend WordPress&#8217;s existing revision relationship and can be outputted as a traditional RSS feed, etc.</p><p><img alt='' src='http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/wireframe.png' /></p><p>As seen in the above wireframe, document revisions would be inextricably linked to the essential WordPress experience. If you know WordPress, you know document revisions. Why reinvent the wheel when you have the best wheel the world has ever seen, and a passionate global community dedicated to improving it? This approach would not simply be limited to traditional documents. Images, PDFs, code — anything the user wants to collaborate with others on, or have a secure revision history can be thrown at it. Academics, lawyers, government folks, the possibilities are endless.</p><p>To be fair, WordPress has been arguably overextended in some cases, <sup id='fnref:3'><a href='#fn:3' rel='footnote'>3</a></sup> but I do not believe that to be the case here. Sure any WordPress enthusiast may be guilty of the <a href='http://xkcd.com/801'>bolt-cutter mentality</a> every now and then, but I believe, if anything, it is enterprise stakeholders&#8217; tendency to gravitate toward bloated, commercial systems that is more akin to Wolf Blitzer&#8217;s boat house, and a big reason why is because with the exception of an unnamed <sup id='fnref:4'><a href='#fn:4' rel='footnote'>4</a></sup> content management system&#8217;s poorly executed attempt at document management, no open-source alternatives exist.</p><p>I am working on submitting this idea as a proposed <a href='http://www.google-melange.com/gsoc/homepage/google/gsoc2011'>Google Summer of Code</a> project, <sup id='fnref:5'><a href='#fn:5' rel='footnote'>5</a></sup> with the goal of giving WordPress parity with commercial and proprietary applications and hopefully injecting some open-source goodness into government and other enterprise environments, but before I do, I would love to hear your thoughts. <a href='http://ben.balter.com/contact/'>Get in touch</a>, or <a href='#comments'>leave a comment below</a>.</p><p><strong>Update (8/29)</strong>: The final result of the project is an <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/08/29/document-management-version-control-for-wordpress/'>Open Source Document Management and Version Control System</a> for WordPress. An overview of its top-level features including a screencast of a typical use case is available on the <a href='http://ben.balter.com/2011/08/29/document-management-version-control-for-wordpress/'>WP Document Revisions</a> page.</p><div class='footnotes'><hr /><ol><li id='fn:1'>\n<p><em>See, e.g.,</em><a href='http://www.emc.com/domains/documentum/index.htm'>Documentum</a>, <a href='http://www.liferay.com/'>Liferay</a>, <a href='http://code.google.com/p/soc/wiki/MelangeIntro'>Melange</a>, and <a href='http://www.mediaite.com/online/worse-than-previously-thought-gawker-content-management-system-hacked/'>Gawker&#8217;s CMS</a>.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:1' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:2'>\n<p>Nearly three years ago, at the time of the feature&#8217;s inception, <a href='http://wordpress.org/news/2008/07/wordpress-26-tyner/'>WordPress founder Matt Mullenweg noted</a>, &#8221;<em>With the power of modern computers, it&#8217;s silly that we still use save and editing metaphors from the time when the most common method of storage was floppy disks… now we&#8217;re taking that to another level by allowing you to view who made what changes when… through a super-easy interface, much like Wikipedia or a version control system.</em>&#8221;</p>\n<a href='#fnref:2' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:3'>\n<p><em>See, e.g.,</em>WordPress as an <a href='http://net.tutsplus.com/tutorials/wordpress/build-a-wordburner-email-newsletter-manager-using-wordpress-and-feedburner/'>e-mail newsletter</a>, <a href='http://publisherblog.automattic.com/2008/02/13/wp-contact-manager/'>contact manager</a>, <a href='http://slipfire.com/wp-crm/'>CRM</a>, <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-task-manager/'>task list</a>, <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/wp-invoice/'>invoice system</a>, <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/job-manager/'>job bank</a>, or <a href='http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/great-real-estate/'>real estate directory</a>.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:3' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:4'>\n<p>Let&#8217;s just call it &#8220;Frupal&#8221; for the sake of discussion.</p>\n<a href='#fnref:4' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li><li id='fn:5'>\n<p>In hindsight, I probably shouldn&#8217;t have ripped on Melange. <em>See supra note 1.</em></p>\n<a href='#fnref:5' rev='footnote'>&#8617;</a></li></ol></div>","related_posts":[{"url":"/about/","title":"About"},{"url":"/contact/","title":"Contact"},{"url":"/donate/","title":"Donate"},{"url":"/fine-print/","title":"Fine Print"},{"url":"/resume/","title":"Resume"},{"url":"/0001/03/01/speaking-experience/","title":"Speaking Experience"},{"url":"/0001/03/10/web-development-and-management/","title":"Web Development and Management"},{"url":"/0001/05/01/bachelor-of-arts-political-science/","title":"Bachelor of Arts, Political Science"},{"url":"/0001/05/05/master-of-business-administration-strategic-management-and-public-policy/","title":"Master of Business Administration — Strategic Management and Public Policy\n"},{"url":"/0001/05/10/juris-doctorate-candidate/","title":"Juris Doctorate Candidate"}]}
+{"author":"Benjamin J. Balter","title":"When all you have is a pair of bolt cutters...\n","excerpt":"A workflow management and version control system building on WordPress's existing core competencies. By treating documents as a custom post type, users can leverage the power of WordPress's extensive attachment, revision, taxonomy, and URL rewriting functionalities. ","layout":"post","category":["Technology"],"tags":["code","document management","google","gsoc","open source","plugin","wordpress"],"post_format":[],"url":"/2011/04/04/when-all-you-have-is-a-pair-of-bolt-cutters/","date":"2011-04-04 00:00:00 -0400","id":"/2011/04/04/when-all-you-have-is-a-pair-of-bolt-cutters","categories":[["Technology"]],"next":"I am gave a brief [lightning talk at April's WordPress DC Meetup][1] on the basics of HTML and PHP (\"coding for dummies\"). The goal: learn how to avoid breaking your website if you edit it. Below are the [slides][2] and [recording][3].\n\n**In invite you to [watch][2], but in short, the Cliff's Notes are:**\n\n* The process \n * The server executes PHP and outputs HTML, CSS, JavaScript, etc.![][4]\n * The user's browser takes that output and renders a visual representation of the page\n* Client-side Languages \n * HTML – Static (unchanging) content; provides structure\n * CSS – Provides style and form\n * JavaScript – Provides interactivity\n* PHP – Wrapped with \"`php`\" and \"`?>`\" \n * Variable - Text, a number, true/false, or a group of variable; identified by \"`$`\"\n * `If` Statement – performs an action *if* a statement is true\n * `While` Loop – performs an action *while* a statement is true\n * `For` / `Foreach` – combines elements of `while` and `if`\n * Functions – predefined set of actions; always followed by \"`( )`\"\n * Don't forget semicolons\n\n****\n\n**Deck**\n\n\n\n**Recording **(I'm first up)\n\n\n\n**Links to Resources Mentioned**\n\n* HTML \n * [Google: HTML, CSS, & js from the Ground Up ][5]\n * [HTML Dog ][6]\n * [W3 Learning Wiki ][7]\n * [W3 Element Wiki ][8]\n* Text Editor \n * [Notepad++][9] (Windows)\n * [TextWrangler][10], [Coda][11] (Mac)\n* FTP Client (to connect to server) \n * [WinSCP][12], [Notepad++][9] (Windows)\n * [CyberDuck][13], [Coda][11] (Mac)\n* WordPress \n * [Define( WP_DEBUG, true);][14] in wp-config.php\n * [Debug bar][15] plugin\n * [WordPress Codex][16]\n\n*Thanks to all who came out or tuned into the live stream. Comments? Questions? I'd love to hear your thoughts [below][17] or feel free to [contact me][18].*\n\n [1]: http://www.meetup.com/wordpressdc/events/16887732/\n [2]: #deck\n [3]: #recording\n [4]: http://ben.balter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/infographic-300x138.png \"infographic\"\n [5]: http://code.google.com/edu/submissions/html-css-javascript/\n [6]: http://htmldog.com\n [7]: http://www.w3.org/wiki/HTML/Training\n [8]: http://www.w3.org/wiki/HTML/Elements\n [9]: http://notepad-plus-plus.org/\n [10]: http://www.barebones.com/products/textwrangler/\n [11]: http://www.panic.com/coda/\n [12]: http://winscp.net/eng/index.php\n [13]: http://cyberduck.ch/\n [14]: http://codex.wordpress.org/Editing_wp-config.php#Debug\n [15]: http://wordpress.org/extend/plugins/debug-bar/\n [16]: http://codex.wordpress.org/\n [17]: #comments\n [18]: http://ben.balter.com/contact/","previous":"<p>I needed a quick-and-easy way to parse Microsoft Word&#8217;s footnote format into a more web-friendly format for a recent project. After a bit of regular expression hacking, I was able to build a WordPress plugin to automatically convert content pasted from Word into a format readable by <span>Andrew Nacin&#8217;s</span> popular <spa