Skip to content


Folders and files

Last commit message
Last commit date

Latest commit



40 Commits

Repository files navigation

LLL Coin is now live on Mainnet!

Send me a note (my email address is in the source code) with some comment about your interest in LLL and a Mainnet address, and I will send you a coin :-)



According to the Ethereum Homestead Documentation,

Lisp Like Language (LLL) is a low level language similar to Assembly. It is meant to be very simple and minimalistic; essentially just a tiny wrapper over coding in EVM directly.

LLL is one of the three living languages for Ethereum contract creation, alongside Solidity and Serpent/Viper (which itself compiles to LLL). If you have the Solidity compiler, then you may well have LLL already. It's bundled with some of the solc releases as lllc.

It's fair to say that LLL is lagging substantially behind Solidity in popularity for contract creation. But Daniel Ellison of ConsenSys is on a mission to revive it. Here as well.

LLL is a low-level language, just one step above Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) bytecode. Why would we choose to go back to the 1970s in programming terms when we have all the object-oriented joys of Solidity at our disposal?

Well, the EVM is a severely resource-constrained environment. Execution, memory and storage all have significant costs. For all its popularity, the Solidity compiler is not great at producing very efficient code. The bytecode generated by Solidity is full of redundancies, bloat, pointless jumps and other inefficiencies that cause steam come out of my ears, but, much more importantly, unnecessarily high gas usage.

The low-level nature of LLL reminds you constantly that you are dealing with a resource-constrained environment. The LLL compiler doesn't auto-generate any of the junk you see in Solidity bytecode. This typically results in LLL bytecode being substantially more compact and efficient to run than Solidity bytecode. It is for this reason that the deployed ENS registry was written in LLL.

Of course, there are downsides. High-level languages exist for a reason. But it's not as bad as you might imagine. After only a week's spare time dabbling with LLL I was able to code up the erc20.lll example here. And I'm not any kind of developer by profession (which may be apparent from the code).

erc20.lll: An implementation of Ethereum ERC20 tokens in LLL

A fully functional implementation of the ERC20 token standard.

I know it looks a bit long-winded, but of the (original) 349 lines, 84 are blank, 138 are comment, and only 127 are actual code. These Lisp-like languages lend themselves to sparse layout and lots of whitespace. I like this. It makes me feel calm. Actually, quite a lot of the preamble is re-usable and could be moved to an include file (yes, LLL has a mechanism for this).

It is possible to write LLL code much more compactly, but that makes my eyes hurt, and there's really no efficiency advantage in the compiled code.

Benchmarking the ERC20 contract against Solidity

If one of the premises is that LLL compiles to more efficient code than Solidity, I suppose we ought to do some benchmarking.

Some things to bear in mind:

  • The ERC20 contract is really, really simple: there isn't that much opportunity for LLL to shine.

  • The gas costs for the main functions are dominated by the enormous gas usage of SSTORE, which are identical for both the LLL and the Solidity versions.

  • The Solidity version is based on the StandardToken contract distributed with the Solidity source code. I've improved and modified it to bring it up to the functionality of my LLL contract, but the input validation of the Solidity contract remains a little weaker than my LLL version.

I've included both the optimised and unoptimised Solidity code in the benchmark; the LLL code generated is the same whether optimised or not (i.e. the optimiser can't improve it, which is noteworthy in and of itself).

Benchmarking environment is as follows,

> /opt/node/bin/testrpc
EthereumJS TestRPC v4.0.1 (ganache-core: 1.0.1)

> solc --version
solc, the solidity compiler commandline interface
Version: 0.4.14-develop.2017.7.9+commit.027cad77.mod.Linux.g++

> lllc --version
LLLC, the Lovely Little Language Compiler 
Version: 0.4.14-develop.2017.7.9+commit.027cad77.mod.Linux.g++

Deployment costs

This table shows the code sizes and deployment costs for each version. LLL scores a clear win here.

Size (bytes) Deployment Gas
Solidity 2879 813908
Solidity Opt 1730 515759
LLL 855 291859

Usage costs

In the chart below I've subtracted the following high essential fixed costs for each function which are common to both contracts and are unavoidable:

  • The cost of the sendTransaction operation (21000).

  • The costs (and refunds) from the SSTORE operations that persist the data.

  • The cost of transferring the call data to the contract (identical for both).

The point is to understand the overheads entailed by the choice of one or other of the languages, over and above the unavoidable costs that they have in common. We are not benchmarking the EVM, we are benchmarking the relative performance of the languages.

Comparison of gas costs: bar chart

Full details of the calculations are shown in the table below, and are also available on Google Drive along with some explanatory notes.

Comparison of gas costs: table

Of course, name(), symbol(), decimals(), totalSupply(), balanceOf() and allowance() are all constant functions, and are cost-less to evaluate off-blockchain. To make it more interesting, the chart is based on the cost of calling these functions from another contract (i.e. I invoked them with web3.eth.sendTransaction rather than


There are probably a couple of valid responses to all this. On the one hand, overall, using LLL saves about 1.5% of the gas used by a transfer() operation when compared to optimised Solidity. Big deal, right?

On the other hand, given the simplicity of this contract and the unavoidable overheads of dealing with permanent storage, I think LLL acquits itself pretty well. For the parts that the programmer and compiler actually have control over, LLL performs up to four times more efficiently than optimised Solidity. It is cheaper and smaller across the board. As we implement more complex functions the gains can only be expected to be greater.

Comparing the performance of the optimised and the unoptimised Solidity contracts, it's clear that changing the programming paradigm to LLL is vastly more effective than relying on the compiler to do the work for you.

Where LLL really shines is in the code size and deployment costs. Given that a contract's code will be on the blockchain in perpetuity, stored and executed on thousands and thousands of individual nodes worldwide, minimising its footprint must be a good thing per se.

Reflections on coding in LLL

This is obviously pretty personal, but for me coding in LLL seems like "cutting with the grain" of the EVM. The transparency of the language makes it easy to reason about resource usage, security, efficiency and so on.

I haven't done enough Solidity coding to form a firm view on it. While it certainly makes some things easier to code - by no means everything - that comes at a cost both in simple gas terms, but also in understanding of "what's going on under the hood". In the security critical environment of the blockchain, heavily resource constrained by the EVM, is that really a positive thing?


An implementation of Ethereum ERC20 tokens in LLL







No releases published


No packages published