Typechecked or Runtimechecked State Machines in Java
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README.md

State machines

State machines in Java.

Enables both type checked and runtime checked transitions

Typechecked, if we try to transition straight from green to red it will fail to compile

interface TrafficLight extends State<TrafficLight> {}
static class Green implements TrafficLight, TransitionTo<SolidAmber> {}
static class SolidAmber implements TrafficLight, TransitionTo<Red> {}
static class Red implements TrafficLight, TransitionTo<FlashingAmber> {}
static class FlashingAmber implements TrafficLight, TransitionTo<Green> {}


@Test
public void traffic_light_typechecked_example() {
    Green signal = new Green();
    //uncomment a transition and it will fail to compile.
    signal = signal
        .transition(SolidAmber::new)
        .transition(Red::new)
        .transition(FlashingAmber::new)
        .transition(Green::new);
}

We can still have typechecked transitions even where multiple state transitions are possible

static class Pending implements OrderStatus, BiTransitionTo<CheckingOut, Cancelled> {}

pending.transition(CheckingOut::new); // fine
pending.transition(Cancelled::new);   // fine
pending.transition(Refunded::new);   // Compile Error

When using the runtime checked transitions we'd throw an exception if we can't transition

@Test
public void runtime_transitions_possible() {
   TrafficLight light = new Green();
   light = light
       .tryTransition(SolidAmber::new)
       .unchecked();

   assertTrue(light instanceof SolidAmber);
}
@Test(expected = State.InvalidStateTransitionException.class)
public void runtime_transitions_throw_exception_when_not_possible() {
    TrafficLight light = new Green();
    light = light
            .tryTransition(Red::new)
            .unchecked();
}

We can add behaviour on states so that we can perform an appropriate action for the state we're in

@Test
public void behaviour_on_states() throws OhNoes {
    Customer customer = customer("spam@example.com");

    OrderStatus state = new Pending();
    state.notifyProgress(customer, emailSender);

    verifyZeroInteractions(emailSender);

    state = state
            .tryTransition(CheckingOut::new)
            .orElseThrow(OhNoes::new)
            .transition(Purchased::new);

    state.notifyProgress(customer, emailSender);

    verify(emailSender).sendEmail(customer.email(), "Your order is on its way");
    verify(emailSender).sendEmail("fulfillment@mycompany.com", "Customer order pending");
}

interface OrderStatus extends State<OrderStatus> {
    default void notifyProgress(Customer customer, EmailSender sender) {}
}
static class Purchased implements OrderStatus, BiTransitionTo<Shipped, Failed> {
    public void notifyProgress(Customer customer, EmailSender emailSender) {
        emailSender.sendEmail("fulfillment@mycompany.com", "Customer order pending");
        emailSender.sendEmail(customer.email(), "Your order is on its way");
    }
}
static class Cancelled implements OrderStatus {
    public void notifyProgress(Customer customer, EmailSender emailSender) {
        emailSender.sendEmail("fulfillment@mycompany.com", "Customer order cancelled");
        emailSender.sendEmail(customer.email(), "Your order has been cancelled");
    }
}

We can also have guards before and after transitions. Our states can be non-static classes if we want to access state in the enclosing class, like this logger.

Logger failureLog = Logger.getLogger("failures");
class Failed implements OrderStatus {
    @Override
    public void afterTransition(OrderStatus from) {
        failureLog.warning("Oh bother! failed from " + from.getClass().getSimpleName());
    }
}