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Dynamic instrumentation like DTrace, using aspects
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    dip - Dynamic instrumentation like DTrace, using aspects

        $ dip -e 'aspect Profiled => call qr/^Person::set_/'
        $ dip -s toolkit/count_new.dip -- -S
        $ dip -e 'before { count("constructor", ARGS(1), ustack(5)); $c{total}++ }
            call "URI::new"'

        $ cat quant-requests.dip
        # quantize request handling time, separated by request URI
        before { $ts_start = [gettimeofday] }
            call 'Dancer::Handler::handle_request';
        after { quantize ARGS(1)->request_uri => 10**6*tv_interval($ts_start) }
            call qr/Dancer::Handler::handle_request/;
        $ dip -s request-quant.dip
               value  ------------------ Distribution ------------------ count
                1024 |                                                   0
                2048 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@    95
                4096 |@@                                                 4
                8192 |                                                   0
               16384 |@                                                  1
               32768 |                                                   0

               value  ------------------ Distribution ------------------ count
                 512 |                                                   0
                1024 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@                70
                2048 |@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@                                    30
                4096 |                                                   0

    "dip" is a dynamic instrumentation framework for troubleshooting Perl
    programs in real time. "dip" can provide fine-grained information, such
    as a log of the arguments with which a specific function is being

    Conceptually, "dip" sits on top of Aspect and uses pointcuts and advice
    - to use Aspect-oriented programming jargon - to define dynamic
    instrumentation. These instruments are applied to the program from the
    outside, without having to change the program code at all. While most
    "dip" scripts will consist of aspect-oriented instrumentation, they can
    also use the full power of Perl.

    "dip" aims to bring some of the power of DTrace to perl. Therefore it is
    useful to stick to DTrace terminology. "dip" pointcuts resemble DTrace
    "probes"; "dip" advice resembles DTrace "actions".

    Whenever the condition for a probe is met, the associated action is
    executed; the probe "fires". A typical probe might fire when a certain
    function is entered or exited. The probe's action may analyze the
    run-time situation by accessing the call stack and context variables and
    evaluating expressions; it can then print out or log some information,
    record it in a database, or modify variables - an action is, after all,
    pure Perl code. Using variables allows probes to pass information to
    each other, allowing them to cooperatively analyze the correlation of
    different events. For example, a probe that fires when a function is
    entered could record the current time; another probe that fires when
    that function is exited could record how much time the function took.

    Because of the nature of Aspect-oriented programming in Perl, you only
    pay for what you use. When probes are defined, all existing possible
    locations for running the action are examined, and the probe is only
    activated for those locations that match the probe's condition.

    At the end of your program run, during "END" time, all aggregators - see
    below - will dump their results. Also any other hashes you have written
    to in your dip scripts will be dumped.

    For example, if you simply wanted to know which kinds of objects have
    been instantiated at least once, you could use:

        before { $c{total}++ } call qr/::new$/

    and then %c will be dumped.

  Aggregating functions
    "dip" provides aggregating functions that help in understanding a set of
    data. You can keep counts of occurrences, or quantize data, much like
    with DTrace.

    The "quantize" aggregating function generates a power-of-two
    distribution - see its documentation.

    Remembers the dip script given on the command-line so we can run it in
    "instrument()". Complains if there was no dip script. The "--delay"
    option is passed in this way as well.

    Evaluates the dip script we remembered in "import()". Dies if there was
    a problem evaluating it.

    Normally this function will be called automatically during "INIT" time,
    but you can delay by giving the "--delay" option to "dip"; you would use
    this if your program loads other code at runtime - using "do()", for
    example - that needs to be instrumented as well. In that case you have
    manually activate the instrumentation using:

        $dip::dip && $dip::dip->();

    Convenience function that takes a filename and runs the file via "do()".
    This is what "dip -s" uses. For example:

        dip -s myscript.dip

    is turned into:

        dip -e 'run q!$file!'

    and ultimately

        perl -Mdip='run q!$file!'

    Returns a concise stack trace. Takes an argument of how many levels deep
    the stack trace should be; the default is 20 levels. Stack frames that
    point to a package name in the "Aspect::" or "dip" namespace are

    Example: count how many times a "XML::LibXML::NodeList" object is
    created, and keep a separate counter for each place it is created from,
    remembering three stack frames for each place:

        before { count "constructor", ARGS(0), ustack(3) }
            call 'XML::LibXML::NodeList::new'

    Returns what Carp's "cluck()" would return, again with "Aspect::" and
    "dip" namespaces omitted.

    Returns what Carp's "longmess()" would return, again with "Aspect::" and
    "dip" namespaces omitted.

    This aggregator function takes a counter name and a value and keeps a
    count of how often this value was seen for this counter.

    You can pass several values; they will be concatenated using newlines.
    See the example for "ustack()".

    Example: For each class, count how many objects are created. Also keep a
    total count.

        before { count("constructor", ARGS(0)); $c{total}++ }
            call qr/::new$/

    Convenience method to dump a variable like Data::Dumper does.

    Example: Show all requests a Dancer web application handles:

        before { dump_var ARGS(1) }
            call 'Dancer::Handler::handle_request'

    Convenience function to right-trim a string.

    Convenience function that, if given a string - for example, a package
    name -, just returns the string, but if given an object, it returns that
    object's class.

    Useful if objects you want to instrument are sometimes created by
    calling "new()" on existing objects:

        before { count("constructor", rref ARGS(0)) } call qr/::new$/

    Convenience function to access the arguments of a function that you are
    instrumenting. ARGS(0), for example, returns the first argument. You can
    use several argument indices; in this case the indicated function
    arguments will be stringified and concatenated with a space.

    ARGS(0) is equivalent to "$_->{args}[0]"; "ARGS(1,2)" is equivalent to
    "join ' ' => ARGS(0), ARGS(1)" - see Aspect for the kind of context
    information that is passed to advice code.

    For example:

        # print SQL statements as they are prepared by DBI
        before { print ARGS(1) } call qr/DBI::.*::prepare/

    This aggregator function takes a name, or an reference to a list of
    names, and a value. For each name, it keeps track of a power-of-two
    frequency distribution of the values of the specified expressions.
    Increments the value in the highest power-of-two bucket that is less
    than the specified expression.

    The <p()> function from Data::Printer is available to dip scripts.

        # Print a stack trace every time the name is changed,
        # except when reading from the database.
        before { print longmess(p $_->{args}[1]) if $_->{args}[1] }
            call "MyObj::name" & !cflow("MyObj::read")

    The "gettimeofday()" function from Time::HiRes is available to dip

    The "tv_interval()" function from Time::HiRes is available to dip

    The following person is the author of all the files provided in this
    distribution unless explicitly noted otherwise.

    Marcel Gruenauer <>

    The following copyright notice applies to all the files provided in this
    distribution, including binary files, unless explicitly noted otherwise.

    This software is copyright (c) 2011 by Marcel Gruenauer.

    This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
    the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.

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