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Web API (wrapper around WSGI)
__all__ = [
"header", "debug",
"input", "data",
"setcookie", "cookies",
# 200, 201, 202
"OK", "Created", "Accepted",
"ok", "created", "accepted",
# 301, 302, 303, 304, 307
"Redirect", "Found", "SeeOther", "NotModified", "TempRedirect",
"redirect", "found", "seeother", "notmodified", "tempredirect",
# 400, 401, 403, 404, 405, 406, 409, 410, 412, 415
"BadRequest", "Unauthorized", "Forbidden", "NotFound", "NoMethod", "NotAcceptable", "Conflict", "Gone", "PreconditionFailed", "UnsupportedMediaType",
"badrequest", "unauthorized", "forbidden", "notfound", "nomethod", "notacceptable", "conflict", "gone", "preconditionfailed", "unsupportedmediatype",
# 500
import sys, cgi, Cookie, pprint, urlparse, urllib
from utils import storage, storify, threadeddict, dictadd, intget, safestr
config = storage()
config.__doc__ = """
A configuration object for various aspects of
: when True, enables reloading, disabled template caching and sets internalerror to debugerror.
class HTTPError(Exception):
def __init__(self, status, headers={}, data=""):
ctx.status = status
for k, v in headers.items():
header(k, v) = data
Exception.__init__(self, status)
def _status_code(status, data=None, classname=None, docstring=None):
if data is None:
data = status.split(" ", 1)[1]
classname = status.split(" ", 1)[1].replace(' ', '') # 304 Not Modified -> NotModified
docstring = docstring or '`%s` status' % status
def __init__(self, data=data, headers={}):
HTTPError.__init__(self, status, headers, data)
# trick to create class dynamically with dynamic docstring.
return type(classname, (HTTPError, object), {
'__doc__': docstring,
'__init__': __init__
ok = OK = _status_code("200 OK", data="")
created = Created = _status_code("201 Created")
accepted = Accepted = _status_code("202 Accepted")
class Redirect(HTTPError):
"""A `301 Moved Permanently` redirect."""
def __init__(self, url, status='301 Moved Permanently', absolute=False):
Returns a `status` redirect to the new URL.
`url` is joined with the base URL so that things like
`redirect("about") will work properly.
newloc = urlparse.urljoin(ctx.path, url)
if newloc.startswith('/'):
if absolute:
home = ctx.realhome
home = ctx.home
newloc = home + newloc
headers = {
'Content-Type': 'text/html',
'Location': newloc
HTTPError.__init__(self, status, headers, "")
redirect = Redirect
class Found(Redirect):
"""A `302 Found` redirect."""
def __init__(self, url, absolute=False):
Redirect.__init__(self, url, '302 Found', absolute=absolute)
found = Found
class SeeOther(Redirect):
"""A `303 See Other` redirect."""
def __init__(self, url, absolute=False):
Redirect.__init__(self, url, '303 See Other', absolute=absolute)
seeother = SeeOther
class NotModified(HTTPError):
"""A `304 Not Modified` status."""
def __init__(self):
HTTPError.__init__(self, "304 Not Modified")
notmodified = NotModified
class TempRedirect(Redirect):
"""A `307 Temporary Redirect` redirect."""
def __init__(self, url, absolute=False):
Redirect.__init__(self, url, '307 Temporary Redirect', absolute=absolute)
tempredirect = TempRedirect
class BadRequest(HTTPError):
"""`400 Bad Request` error."""
message = "bad request"
def __init__(self, message=None):
status = "400 Bad Request"
headers = {'Content-Type': 'text/html'}
HTTPError.__init__(self, status, headers, message or self.message)
badrequest = BadRequest
class Unauthorized(HTTPError):
"""`401 Unauthorized` error."""
message = "unauthorized"
def __init__(self, message=None):
status = "401 Unauthorized"
headers = {'Content-Type': 'text/html'}
HTTPError.__init__(self, status, headers, message or self.message)
unauthorized = Unauthorized
class Forbidden(HTTPError):
"""`403 Forbidden` error."""
message = "forbidden"
def __init__(self, message=None):
status = "403 Forbidden"
headers = {'Content-Type': 'text/html'}
HTTPError.__init__(self, status, headers, message or self.message)
forbidden = Forbidden
class _NotFound(HTTPError):
"""`404 Not Found` error."""
message = "not found"
def __init__(self, message=None):
status = '404 Not Found'
headers = {'Content-Type': 'text/html'}
HTTPError.__init__(self, status, headers, message or self.message)
def NotFound(message=None):
"""Returns HTTPError with '404 Not Found' error from the active application.
if message:
return _NotFound(message)
elif ctx.get('app_stack'):
return ctx.app_stack[-1].notfound()
return _NotFound()
notfound = NotFound
class NoMethod(HTTPError):
"""A `405 Method Not Allowed` error."""
def __init__(self, cls=None):
status = '405 Method Not Allowed'
headers = {}
headers['Content-Type'] = 'text/html'
methods = ['GET', 'HEAD', 'POST', 'PUT', 'DELETE']
if cls:
methods = [method for method in methods if hasattr(cls, method)]
headers['Allow'] = ', '.join(methods)
data = None
HTTPError.__init__(self, status, headers, data)
nomethod = NoMethod
class NotAcceptable(HTTPError):
"""`406 Not Acceptable` error."""
message = "not acceptable"
def __init__(self, message=None):
status = "406 Not Acceptable"
headers = {'Content-Type': 'text/html'}
HTTPError.__init__(self, status, headers, message or self.message)
notacceptable = NotAcceptable
class Conflict(HTTPError):
"""`409 Conflict` error."""
message = "conflict"
def __init__(self, message=None):
status = "409 Conflict"
headers = {'Content-Type': 'text/html'}
HTTPError.__init__(self, status, headers, message or self.message)
conflict = Conflict
class Gone(HTTPError):
"""`410 Gone` error."""
message = "gone"
def __init__(self, message=None):
status = '410 Gone'
headers = {'Content-Type': 'text/html'}
HTTPError.__init__(self, status, headers, message or self.message)
gone = Gone
class PreconditionFailed(HTTPError):
"""`412 Precondition Failed` error."""
message = "precondition failed"
def __init__(self, message=None):
status = "412 Precondition Failed"
headers = {'Content-Type': 'text/html'}
HTTPError.__init__(self, status, headers, message or self.message)
preconditionfailed = PreconditionFailed
class UnsupportedMediaType(HTTPError):
"""`415 Unsupported Media Type` error."""
message = "unsupported media type"
def __init__(self, message=None):
status = "415 Unsupported Media Type"
headers = {'Content-Type': 'text/html'}
HTTPError.__init__(self, status, headers, message or self.message)
unsupportedmediatype = UnsupportedMediaType
class _InternalError(HTTPError):
"""500 Internal Server Error`."""
message = "internal server error"
def __init__(self, message=None):
status = '500 Internal Server Error'
headers = {'Content-Type': 'text/html'}
HTTPError.__init__(self, status, headers, message or self.message)
def InternalError(message=None):
"""Returns HTTPError with '500 internal error' error from the active application.
if message:
return _InternalError(message)
elif ctx.get('app_stack'):
return ctx.app_stack[-1].internalerror()
return _InternalError()
internalerror = InternalError
def header(hdr, value, unique=False):
Adds the header `hdr: value` with the response.
If `unique` is True and a header with that name already exists,
it doesn't add a new one.
hdr, value = safestr(hdr), safestr(value)
# protection against HTTP response splitting attack
if '\n' in hdr or '\r' in hdr or '\n' in value or '\r' in value:
raise ValueError, 'invalid characters in header'
if unique is True:
for h, v in ctx.headers:
if h.lower() == hdr.lower(): return
ctx.headers.append((hdr, value))
def rawinput(method=None):
"""Returns storage object with GET or POST arguments.
method = method or "both"
from cStringIO import StringIO
def dictify(fs):
# hack to make web.input work with enctype='text/plain.
if fs.list is None:
fs.list = []
return dict([(k, fs[k]) for k in fs.keys()])
e = ctx.env.copy()
a = b = {}
if method.lower() in ['both', 'post', 'put']:
if e['REQUEST_METHOD'] in ['POST', 'PUT']:
if e.get('CONTENT_TYPE', '').lower().startswith('multipart/'):
# since wsgi.input is directly passed to cgi.FieldStorage,
# it can not be called multiple times. Saving the FieldStorage
# object in ctx to allow calling web.input multiple times.
a = ctx.get('_fieldstorage')
if not a:
fp = e['wsgi.input']
a = cgi.FieldStorage(fp=fp, environ=e, keep_blank_values=1)
ctx._fieldstorage = a
fp = StringIO(data())
a = cgi.FieldStorage(fp=fp, environ=e, keep_blank_values=1)
a = dictify(a)
if method.lower() in ['both', 'get']:
b = dictify(cgi.FieldStorage(environ=e, keep_blank_values=1))
def process_fieldstorage(fs):
if isinstance(fs, list):
return [process_fieldstorage(x) for x in fs]
elif fs.filename is None:
return fs.value
return fs
return storage([(k, process_fieldstorage(v)) for k, v in dictadd(b, a).items()])
def input(*requireds, **defaults):
Returns a `storage` object with the GET and POST arguments.
See `storify` for how `requireds` and `defaults` work.
_method = defaults.pop('_method', 'both')
out = rawinput(_method)
defaults.setdefault('_unicode', True) # force unicode conversion by default.
return storify(out, *requireds, **defaults)
except KeyError:
raise badrequest()
def data():
"""Returns the data sent with the request."""
if 'data' not in ctx:
cl = intget(ctx.env.get('CONTENT_LENGTH'), 0) = ctx.env['wsgi.input'].read(cl)
def setcookie(name, value, expires='', domain=None,
secure=False, httponly=False, path=None):
"""Sets a cookie."""
morsel = Cookie.Morsel()
name, value = safestr(name), safestr(value)
morsel.set(name, value, urllib.quote(value))
if expires < 0:
expires = -1000000000
morsel['expires'] = expires
morsel['path'] = path or ctx.homepath+'/'
if domain:
morsel['domain'] = domain
if secure:
morsel['secure'] = secure
value = morsel.OutputString()
if httponly:
value += '; httponly'
header('Set-Cookie', value)
def decode_cookie(value):
r"""Safely decodes a cookie value to unicode.
Tries us-ascii, utf-8 and io8859 encodings, in that order.
>>> decode_cookie('')
>>> decode_cookie('asdf')
>>> decode_cookie('foo \xC3\xA9 bar')
u'foo \xe9 bar'
>>> decode_cookie('foo \xE9 bar')
u'foo \xe9 bar'
# First try plain ASCII encoding
return unicode(value, 'us-ascii')
except UnicodeError:
# Then try UTF-8, and if that fails, ISO8859
return unicode(value, 'utf-8')
except UnicodeError:
return unicode(value, 'iso8859', 'ignore')
def parse_cookies(http_cookie):
r"""Parse a HTTP_COOKIE header and return dict of cookie names and decoded values.
>>> sorted(parse_cookies('').items())
>>> sorted(parse_cookies('a=1').items())
[('a', '1')]
>>> sorted(parse_cookies('a=1%202').items())
[('a', '1 2')]
>>> sorted(parse_cookies('a=Z%C3%A9Z').items())
[('a', 'Z\xc3\xa9Z')]
>>> sorted(parse_cookies('a=1; b=2; c=3').items())
[('a', '1'), ('b', '2'), ('c', '3')]
>>> sorted(parse_cookies('a=1; b=w("x")|y=z; c=3').items())
[('a', '1'), ('b', 'w('), ('c', '3')]
>>> sorted(parse_cookies('a=1; b=w(%22x%22)|y=z; c=3').items())
[('a', '1'), ('b', 'w("x")|y=z'), ('c', '3')]
>>> sorted(parse_cookies('keebler=E=mc2').items())
[('keebler', 'E=mc2')]
>>> sorted(parse_cookies(r'keebler="E=mc2; L=\"Loves\"; fudge=\012;"').items())
[('keebler', 'E=mc2; L="Loves"; fudge=\n;')]
#print "parse_cookies"
if '"' in http_cookie:
# HTTP_COOKIE has quotes in it, use slow but correct cookie parsing
cookie = Cookie.SimpleCookie()
except Cookie.CookieError:
# If HTTP_COOKIE header is malformed, try at least to load the cookies we can by
# first splitting on ';' and loading each attr=value pair separately
cookie = Cookie.SimpleCookie()
for attr_value in http_cookie.split(';'):
except Cookie.CookieError:
cookies = dict([(k, urllib.unquote(v.value)) for k, v in cookie.iteritems()])
# HTTP_COOKIE doesn't have quotes, use fast cookie parsing
cookies = {}
for key_value in http_cookie.split(';'):
key_value = key_value.split('=', 1)
if len(key_value) == 2:
key, value = key_value
cookies[key.strip()] = urllib.unquote(value.strip())
return cookies
def cookies(*requireds, **defaults):
r"""Returns a `storage` object with all the request cookies in it.
See `storify` for how `requireds` and `defaults` work.
This is forgiving on bad HTTP_COOKIE input, it tries to parse at least
the cookies it can.
The values are converted to unicode if _unicode=True is passed.
# If _unicode=True is specified, use decode_cookie to convert cookie value to unicode
if defaults.get("_unicode") is True:
defaults['_unicode'] = decode_cookie
# parse cookie string and cache the result for next time.
if '_parsed_cookies' not in ctx:
http_cookie = ctx.env.get("HTTP_COOKIE", "")
ctx._parsed_cookies = parse_cookies(http_cookie)
return storify(ctx._parsed_cookies, *requireds, **defaults)
except KeyError:
raise StopIteration
def debug(*args):
Prints a prettyprinted version of `args` to stderr.
out = ctx.environ['wsgi.errors']
out = sys.stderr
for arg in args:
print >> out, pprint.pformat(arg)
return ''
def _debugwrite(x):
out = ctx.environ['wsgi.errors']
out = sys.stderr
debug.write = _debugwrite
ctx = context = threadeddict()
ctx.__doc__ = """
A `storage` object containing various information about the request:
`environ` (aka `env`)
: A dictionary containing the standard WSGI environment variables.
: The domain (`Host` header) requested by the user.
: The base path for the application.
: The IP address of the requester.
: The HTTP method used.
: The path request.
: If there are no query arguments, the empty string. Otherwise, a `?` followed
by the query string.
: The full path requested, including query arguments (`== path + query`).
### Response Data
`status` (default: "200 OK")
: The status code to be used in the response.
: A list of 2-tuples to be used in the response.
: A string to be used as the response.
if __name__ == "__main__":
import doctest
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