Texas Instruments 99 Home Computer Emulator
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a Texas Instruments Home Computer Emulator


This is the latest incarnation of an emulator for the TI-99/4A that I've been working on, on and off, since 1993. At first it was a simple text-based simulation of the TI (ti99sim-console) running under MS-DOS™. Then it was ported to OS/2 and graphics support for the OS/2 Presentation Manager was added. Later, it was ported to Windows and had sound support added. Now it's been ported to Linux and Mac OS X and more features are still being added.

DISCLAIMER: I'm not one for writing a lot of documentation, so you're encouraged to look at the code to see how some things work if they're not described here. If you're interested in writing documentation, let me know.

NOTE: In order to run the emulator, you need to create a cartridge that contains the console ROM & GROMs from the TI-99/4A. Texas Instruments will not allow these to be distributed, so you'll need to find a way to get them yourself. If you have a working copy of v9t9, instructions are included to help you create the required cartridge. If you don't, I would suggest you download it as it contains documentation on how to get the files you need to do this.

Getting Started

Before building or running TI-99/Sim you must install the SDL library. The latest version is available at [http://www.libsdl.org/download-1.2.php](http:/ /www.libsdl.org/download-1.2.php). If you are planning on building TI-99/Sim, you will need to install the Development Libraries version otherwise, the Runtime Libraries package is sufficient.


If you downloaded the binary-only version, you can skip straight to Installation. Before building you should make sure that the SDL development code has been installed on your system and ensure that the sdl-config utility is in you search path.

If everything is installed properly, running 'make' will build all the executables found in the binary-only package. Any OS specific operations are detailed in the following sections.

NOTE: When building from the source, all the executables are left in their corresponding directories.


Since this is the primary development environment, you should have few problems building under Linux.

            **~/ti99sim>** make

Macintosh OS X

In order to build ti99sim under Macintosh OS X, you'll need to install the developer tools from Apple. You will also need to copy the SDL main files (SDLMain.m and SDLMain.h) from the development libraries to the src/sdl folder. Then, from a bash shell, just type:

            **~/ti99sim>** make

NOTE: I'm not a Mac OS X guru, so there is no neat little package for TI-99/Sim. This probably means that to run it you'll need to do so from a command window. (If anybody is interested in working on a proper Mac OS X install is more than welcome to do so.)


If you're building the win32 version, you'll need either a GNU-type environment (GNU make, g++, ld, rm, ...) or Microsoft Visual C++.

If your using Microsoft Visual Studio, you can use the solution file found in the vc9 subdirectory. These files assume that you have installed the SDL development files in a folder called SDL-1.2.14 in a directory at the same level as the TI-99/Sim directory.

The only GNU-type environment that I've tested is the mingw package, but others may work as well. You will also need to make sure you define the WIN32 environment variable before building (type set WIN32=1 at the command prompt). When you're ready, just type make in the directory where you placed the emulator.

            **c:\ti99sim>** set WIN32=1
            **c:\ti99sim>** make

NOTE: If you are using mingw build tool, you will need to extract SDL_main.o from libSDLmain.a (type: ar -x libSDLmain.a SDL_main.o) as well (until I can figure out why libSDLmain.a isn't linking correctly with the mingw tools).

NOTE: The win32 command line build has not been tested in ages and may no longer work correctly. Microsoft Visual Studio is the preferred development environment for ti99sim on Windows.


The Directories

Installing the emulator is easy. Make sure you have sufficient privileges to create/write to the installation directories and type:

            make install

This will create the default directories and install the binaries. The default directory is /opt/ti99sim and the binaries will be installed in /opt/ti99sim/bin. In addition to installing the binaries, symbolic links to them will be created in /usr/local/bin (which should already be in your path). When loading files (ROMs, cartridges, disk images, …), ti99sim will look in the current directory, ~/.ti99sim, and finally, /opt/ti99sim. Under Windows, the search is limited to the current directory followed by the directory specified in the environment variable HOME (if it is defined at all). In each of the directories searched, the following sub-directories may exist:

            ─┬─ cartridges
             ├─ disks
             └─ roms

When looking for a file, the appropriate sub-directory for that file type will be searched. If there is no logical directory for a given file, only the base directory will be searched.

The Console ROM & Cartridges

Once you have run make install, you will need to create the console ROM cartridge TI-994A.ctg (see convert-ctg below for instructions) in order to run the emulator. This ROM cartridge contains the operating system, the BASIC interpreter, and a description of the RAM configuration for the computer. Without it, the emulator will not do anything useful. Once you have created the console ROM cartridge, copy it to either ~/.ti99sim/roms or /opt/ti99sim/roms.

You should also place a copy of spchrom.bin into this directory to enable speech synthesis. If you don't have this file, you can use mkspch to create one that will keep the emulator happy.

If you want to use the disk emulation features, you will need to create another cartridge named ti-disk.ctg that contains a copy of the TI Disk Controller ROM (the section on convert-ctg contains information about creating cartridges for peripheral DSR ROMs).

A sample installation is shown below. In order to get up and running, however, the only file needed is the TI-994A.ctg file.

            ─┬─ cartridges
             │  ├─ Parsec.ctg
             │  ├─ Alpiner.ctg
             │  ├─ TI Extended BASIC.ctg
             │  └─ Editor-Assembler.ctg
             ├─ disks
             │  ├─ ASSM1                   - E/A Disk 1
             │  ├─ ASSM2                   - E/A Disk 2
             │  ├─ DISKASSM                - Miller Graphics' Disk-Assembler
             │  ├─ MG_DIAG                 - Miller Graphics' Advanced Diagnostics
             │  └─ dsk1.dsk                - Default disk image
             └─ roms
                ├─ Gram Kracker.ctg        - Miller Graphic's Gram Kracker ROMs
                ├─ TI-994A.ctg             - TI-99/4A ROM
                ├─ spchrom.bin             - TI Speech Synthesizer ROM
                └─ ti-disk.ctg             - TI ROM DSR module for disk access

Up and Running

Now you're all set to run the emulator, just type:


If everything is installed correctly, you should see a window on your screen with the TI-99/4A startup screen followed by a beep. Enjoy!

Using the sample configuration in the previous section, the following are valid commands:

            ti99sim-sdl --dsk2=ASSM1 --dsk3=ASSM2 Editor-Assembler.ctg   (DSK1 will default to using the dsk1.dsk image)
            ti99sim-sdl --dsk1=MG_DIAG "TI Extended BASIC.ctg"           (Note the use of quotes when using modules with spaces in their name)
            ti99sim-sdl -f Parsec.ctg                                    (OK, bring 'em on ...)



What good is a computer is you can't save information or programs? On the TI-99/4A, there are two standard storage media: floppy disks and cassette tapes. This section deals with floppy disks. Depending on your disk controller, the TI could access either 3 or 4 floppy drives. These drive could be either single-density (using FM encoding) or high-density (using MFM encoding). Finally, disks can be either single-sided or double-sided. The various disk sizes are listed in the following table.

TI-99/4A Disk Sizes & Nominal Values

Notation Sides Recording Mode Sectors/Tracks Tracks Capacity
SSSD 1 FM 9 40 90K
SSDD 1 MFM 18 40 180K
DSSD 2 FM 9 80 180K
DSDD 2 MFM 18 80 360K
CF7+ 2 CF* 20 80 400K
* CF7+ is not an actual floppy disk. This format was introduced by the CF7+/nanoPEB peripherals for the TI-99/4A. These devices use CompactFlash to store multiple disk images (referred to as volumes) on a single device. The number of images stored depends on the size of the CompactFlash memory. These disk images are larger than typical disk images and require a custom DSR to read them properly. The **disk** utility is able to read and write to these devices, but TI-99/Sim does not contain the DSR routines required to use them.

The problem with emulating the TI (besides finding a 5¼ʺ disk drive) on an IBM PC is that most PC's don't easily allow single-density (FM) disks to be read. In addition, modern operating system don't make it easy to access the disk at the level required to read TI disks. To get around this, disks are read (using special programs, usually written for MS-DOS, to get easy access to the disk) and converted to a single file on the local hard drive. However, there is no one standard file format for disks. The formats that I'm aware of, all of which are supported by TI-99/Sim, are shown in table below.

In addition to supporting disk images, TI-99/Sim also supports archive files. Archive files were developed by Barry Boone and use a Limpel-Zev compression scheme similar to .zip files on the PC. Each file stored in the archive contains all the information to completely recover the original file including the file descriptor record. One way of looking at an archive file is as a cross between a file and a disk (in fact, the disk and other utilities treat these files as disks).

TI-99/4A Emulator Disk Formats

Name Format Pros Cons
AnaDisk Header & Data Retains sector ordering and special formatting information None
v9t9 Raw sectors Compact image size Unable to distinguish between SSDD & DSSD disks
PC99 Raw tracks Stores a complete copy of a sector Hard to parse. Lots of extra data (roughly 40% more than v9t9's format)
Archive Compressed files Uses the least amount of space Not a real disk image


TI-99/Sim only deals with files contained within disk images. However, there are reasons to deal with individual files rather than entire disks. As with disks, there are a few different formats that individual files may use. The most common format for v9t9 systems is the FIAD format. This format allows the emulator to identify all of the attributes of the original file. A similar, but slightly different format is known as TIFILES. This is the format used to transfer files to/from the TI using the X-Modem protocol. Finally, files can be stored as 'native' files. When this format is used, the TI file is converted, as best as possible, to a native file on the host operating system.

TI-99/4A File Formats

Format Description
FIAD v9t9's native file format. The actual file descriptor record from the file is included in the header of the file, followed by the raw sectors that make up the file.
TIFILES Very similar to FIAD in structure. The difference is limited to the 128 byte header. There are at least 3 different flavors of this format. Each of flavor includes most or all of the information normally found in the file descriptor record (the original name is not always present).
'Native' This format has no header or formatting information.

Two of the utility applications, dumpcpu and list, access files. These files can be either standalone files or files contained within a disk. To access either a FIAD or TIFILES files, simply use the name of the file on the host filesystem. Files contained within a disk are identified by the name of the containing disk and the intended filename, separated by a colon. For example, to list a BASIC program called GAME on a disk named sample.dsk the syntax would be: list sample.dsk:GAME

Included Programs


The ti99sim emulator uses special .ctg files to store the ROM and/or GROM images contained within the computer console and plug-in cartridges. The convert-ctg program allows you to create these cartridges. It will convert your existing v9t9 ROMs or create cartridges using output from a hex dump of a ROM image. A set of sample files, TI-994A.dat, Mini-Memory.dat, and Gram Kracker.dat, located in the roms directory, are supplied as examples of the format of the hex dump file. NOTE: These files do not contain complete hex dumps of their corresponding ROMs but can be used as templates if you have the required information.

To convert existing v9t9 cartridges, type convert-ctg foo.bin where foo is the base name of a set of ROM files. The base name is usually the portion of the filenames that are common between all files associated with a particular cartridge. convert-ctg understands the naming conventions used by present and past versions of v9t9, and will attempt to determine which version of files that you have installed. For example, the following command will convert the files PARSECC.BIN and PARSECG.BIN to PARSEC.ctg:

convert-ctg /_your-path-here_/v9t9/v6.0/modules/PARSEC.BIN

Files to be converted can be in any directory. The new cartridge will be created in the current working directory. To create the console ROM cartridge you need to specify either 994a.bin or ti.hex (depending on your version of v9t9 or TI Emulator) as the filename. For example:

convert-ctg /_your-path-here_/v9t9/v6.0/roms/994a.bin

This will create the special TI-994A.ctg file that contains the console ROM, the system GROMs, scratch-pad RAM, and 32K memory expansion RAM. Without this file, ti99sim will not run!

There are three types of cartridges. The first is the special TI-994A.ctg file, the second are DSR ROMs, and the third are normal cartridges. The first two types are expected to be found in the 'roms' directories, while the last is expected in the 'cartridges' directories.

DSR ROMs are special ROM cartridges that are associated with a particular peripheral device. These cartridges must be associated with a particular CRU address. The ROM in these cartridges is located at a different address than the ROMs normally found in a cartridge and without a CRU address, the CPU won't be able to see the ROM within the cartridge. To create a DSR ROM cartridge, simply use the --cru=xxxx option to convert-ctg. This will instruct convert-ctg to store the ROM at the special DSR memory range, and mark the cartridge with the correct CRU information. In order to use the disk emulation features, you need to create a cartridge from a TI disk ROM with the name ti-disk.ctg with the CRU address 1100.

When creating cartridges, convert-ctg will attempt to add a cartridge title by searching for valid GROM headers in the files being converted. If it does not find any valid names, or if you want to change the one it uses, you can specify a title on the command line after the base filename. ti99sim uses the cartridge title when saving/loading memory images to ensure that the correct cartridges are present when loading. If you intend to use this feature, please make sure that all of your cartridges have unique names.

convert-ctg will also allow you to dump the contents of a cartridge to a specially formatted hex dump file. This feature is useful if you want to see the contents of a cartridge's ROM/GROM code, or to patch the code and rebuild the cartridge with your changes.

Command-line syntax:

Usage: convert-ctg [options] file 
  --cru=base Create a DSR cartridge at the indicated CRU address
  -d --dump Create a hex dump of the cartridge
  -v --verbose=n Display extra information


If you have old TI audio tapes hanging around, decode will convert them into binary files that can be used (in some future version) by ti99sim. It attempts to intelligently find sections of stored data while ignoring any other sounds it finds. This makes it easier to get all the data from a tape - just create a .wav file that covers the entire tape. There is no need to create a separate .wav file for each data file. Once it's done, you will have a separate file for each track of audio found on the tape. If you have a TI- BASIC or TI Extended BASIC program stored on tape, you can use the list utility to display a listing of the program from the file(s) created by decode.

Only .wav files are currently supported. Any .wav file stored using a standard format (i.e. non-compressed, PCM audio using integer samples) should work. decode can handle files at any sampling rate and bit depth. This means you can keep your recordings as small as possible by using 8-bit mono 8000Hz .wav files. If your file is not recorded in mono (i.e. stereo or multi-track), decode will only attempt to use data from the first channel (i.e. left (2,3), front left (4), left center (6), ...). Of course, a higher sampling rate or resolution may help the decoding process in cases where the audio is garbled. If you find that a file is not decoding properly, you may want to re- record the tape using higher settings. If you have the proper hardware, for example, you could record a 32-bit mono 44100Hz file (this will create a file over 20 times larger than the one mentioned earlier, so it should only be used as a last resort).

Command-line syntax:

Usage: decode [options] file.wav
  -v --verbose=n Display extra information


The emulator allows you to use disks created by a TI-99/4A computer within the emulator. The emulator can read disks created using the dump feature of AnaDisk - with or without the optional 8-byte header for each sector. The latter is the format used by v9t9 disks. The emulator can also read disks that contain raw track data (the format used by PC99). disk can understand both single and double density disk formats.

The disk utility allows you to look at the contents of a disk image and optionally create native files from those in the disk image. This allows you to create files that can be used by convert-ctg to create cartridge files that you can use with the emulator. There are two output formats for files extracted from a disk. The first (default) format is the v9t9 FIAD format. This format contains a 128-byte header that preserves all of the original file information. The second format is a naked file. These files use only a filename extension to convey the original file format. The actual contents of the file are converted to a conventional file as best as possible. Files using this format may be readable on the host computer (normally, DISPLAY type files are readable).

CF7+ devices can be read/written using the disk utility. The syntax for accessing a volume on the device is: #. Where can be either the device node where the CompactFlash card is located (e.g. /dev/sdb on a Linux machine) or a file image taken from an actual device. The is a number (starting at 1) indicating which volume on the device to access.

The disk utility can also be used to convert disk images between formats. By specifying --output={anadisk|v9t9|PC99}, a disk image can be converted to any format (NOTE: Currently CF7+ devices/images cannot be converted).

Command-line syntax:

Usage: disk [options] file
  -a --add=<filename> Add <filename> to the disk image
  --check Check the integrity of the disk structures
  -c --convert Convert extracted files to DOS files
  -d --dump Extract all files to FIAD files
  -l --layout Display the disk sector layout
  --output=PC99 Convert disk to PC99 format
  --output=v9t9 Convert disk to v9t9 DOAD format
  --output=anadisk Convert disk to AnaDisk format /w headers
  -r --remove=<filename> Remove <filename> from the disk image
  -v --verbose Display information about the disk image
  -e --extract=<filename> Extract <filename> to v9t9 FIAD file


This program will allow you to disassemble any CPU ROM section in a cartridge file, a DISPLAY/FIXED FIAD file, or RAM from a save image file. Through the use of an external configuration file, you can assign labels and EQUs to make the disassembly more readable.

NOTE: This program is a work in progress and does not always create good listings.

Command-line syntax:

Usage: dumpcpu [options] file
  --code Treat data as CODE by default
  --image Treat 'file' as a memory image file
  --no-overwrite Stop loading DF80 files when data is overwritten
  --range=lo-hi Only dump the indicate range
  --load=address Treat address as the start of code
  --scratch-pad Include scratch pad RAM in disassembly
  -v --verbose Display information about the file being analyzed


Ever wondered what the code behind that game looks like? This program is similar to dumpcpu but disassembles the GPL code in the GROM cartridge. It uses the standard GROM headers to find starting addresses and strings.

NOTE: This program is a work in progress and does not always create good listings.

Command-line syntax:

Usage: dumpgrom [options] file
  --range=lo-hi Only dump the indicate range


Here is a utility that can help you analyze the contents of your speech synthesizer's ROM (spchrom.bin). This program will create a text file, spchrom.dat, which contains the contents of the ROM that can later be used by mkspch to create a new speech ROM. It can create files in two different formats. The first (default) is a simple hexadecimal listing of the speech data for each phrase contained in the ROM file. The second breaks down the raw data into a 'parsed' format that exposes the individual LPC-10 speech frames. Each speech frame represents 25ms worth of sound. If you're feeling adventurous, you can edit the speech frames in the generated .dat file, create a new spchrom.bin file, and see how things sound!

For those that are interested, the parsed speech frames are of the form:

          STOP CODE      S                - Signals the end of the speech data
          ZERO CODE      Z                - Indicates 1 frames worth of silence
          REPEAT Frame   Pxx Exx R        - Repeats the previous frame using the indicated pitch and energy
          Unvoiced Frame Pxx Exx <Kxx>4   - An unvoiced (fricative) frame with 4 reflection coefficients
          Voiced Frame   Pxx Exx <Kxx>10  - A voiced frame with 10 reflection coefficients

NOTE: If you create a file using the 'spch' format, the resulting file will only contain the valid speech data. The actual TI speech ROM data contains a few extra bytes following several phrases. The parsed output file will not include this extraneous data. A spchrom.bin file created from the generated spchrom.dat file will not match the original ROM byte-for-byte, but will be a completely functional copy.

Command-line syntax:

Usage: dumpspch [options] file
  --format=hex Speech data listed in hexadecimal
  --format=spch Decoded speech data
  -o --output=<filename> Create output file <filename>
  -v --verbose Display extra information


This utility can be used to list TI-BASIC (and TI Extended BASIC) programs. Files can be either a native file that has been extracted from a disk image (using 'disk -d xyz.dsk'), or a file inside a disk image (using xyz.dsk:filename, or cf7#5:filename). Find the file you want listed (i.e. HELLO) and type 'list HELLO'. If you have selected a valid BASIC file, a listing similar to the one printed by the BASIC interpreter should print.

Command-line syntax:

Usage: list [options] file
  -v --verbose=n Display extra information about the file


If you can't find a copy of spchrom.bin, you can use this utility to create one that can be used by the ti99sim. The spchrom.dat file located in the roms directory contains the information required to create a stripped down speech ROM. This file does not contain any actual speech data, but instead contains the bare minimum number of phrases required for the proper operation of TI Extended BASIC's CALL SAY logic. If you have your own LPC-10 coded speech samples (I have no idea how you would create them - yet, so please don't ask), you can use this utility to create a speech ROM using your own voice samples!

Command-line syntax:

Usage: mkspch [options] file
  -o --output=<filename> Create output file <filename>
  -v --verbose Display extra information


Do you miss being able to type CALL SAY("HELLO") and hear the TI's speech synthesizer? Well, say is your answer. This program attempts to mimic the behavior of the TI Extended BASIC routine SAY. It will look through the spchrom.bin file for the indicated pattern and do it's best to produce synthesized speech. Some phrases in the speech library contain spaces. If you want to say one of these ("Texas Instruments" for example), you will need to put quotes around it on the command line, otherwise say will look for two or more separate words that are probably not present.

Command-line syntax:

Usage: say [options] <Text-to-speak>
  -s --sample=<freq> Select sampling frequency for audio playback
  -v --verbose=n Display extra information
  --volume=n Set the audio volume


A simple text-based version of the emulator. It includes an interface, similar to Miller Graphics' Explorer, which allows you to step through code at the assembly or GPL instruction level. It has two modes: command and run. While it is in command mode, the CPU is paused. You can edit any of the register values, clear the PC breakpoint, load/save memory images, exit... In run mode, the CPU is running and all keystrokes go to the TI. Pressing will stop the CPU and return to command mode. Since its text-mode only, it does not support graphics or sprites. If you just want to see what the computer is doing, this is the program to do it with.

Command-line syntax:

Usage: ti99sim-console [options] [cartrigde.ctg] [memory.img]
  --dskn=<filename> Use <filename> disk image for DSKn
  --NTSC Emulate a NTSC display (60Hz)
  --PAL Emulate a PAL display (50Hz)
  -v --verbose=n Display extra information

NOTE: If you try to load a memory image, you must make sure that any cartridge(s) that were running when the image was made are also specified.

Command Mode:

  • C - Clear the PC interrupt
  • <Space> - Single step
  • G - Enter Run Mode
  • R - Edit CPU registers
  • Q - Exit the program
  • L - Load Image
  • S - Save Image
  • B - Set 'BASIC' display bias
  • N - Set 'normal' display bias

Run Mode:

  • <Esc> - Return to command mode


The SDL-based emulator

Command-line syntax:

Usage: ti99sim-sdl [options] [cartridge] [image]
  -4 Double width/height window
  --dskn=<filename> Use <filename> disk image for DSKn
  --framerate={n/d|p} Reduce frame rate to fraction n/d or percentage p
  -f --fullscreen=n Fullscreen
  --joystickn=i Use system joystick i as TI joystick n
  --list-joysticks Print a list of all detected joysticks
  --list-resolutions Print a list of available fullscreen resolutions
  --no-joystick Disable hardware joystick support
  -q --no-sound Turn off all sound/speech
  --no-speech Disable speech synthesis
  --NTSC Emulate a NTSC display (60Hz)
  --PAL Emulate a PAL display (50Hz)
  -p --palette=n Select a color palette (1-3)
  -s --sample=<freq> Select sampling frequency for audio playback
  --scale2x Use the Scale2X algorithm to scale display
  -v --verbose=n Display extra information
  --volume=n Set the audio volume

NOTE: If you try to load a memory image, you must make sure that any cartridge(s) that were running when the image was made are also specified.

There is no GUI yet. The following keys are defined:

  • ESC - exit
  • F2 - Save memory image
  • F3 - Load memory image
  • F10 - Reboot

For those of you that don't have easy access to the TI-99/4A keyboard or overlay, here is a summary of the special function keys:

  • <Alt>-1 - DEL

  • <Alt>-2 - INS

  • <Alt>-3 - ERASE

  • <Alt>-4 - CLEAR

  • <Alt>-5 - BEGIN

  • <Alt>-6 - PROC'D

  • <Alt>-7 - AID

  • <Alt>-8 - REDO

  • <Alt>-9 - BACK

  • <Alt>-= - QUIT

  • <Alt>-W - ~

  • <Alt>-E -

  • <Alt>-R - [

  • <Alt>-T - ]

  • <Alt>-U - _

  • <Alt>-I - ?

  • <Alt>-O - '

  • <Alt>-P - "

  • <Alt>-A - |

  • <Alt>-S -

  • <Alt>-D -

  • <Alt>-F - {

  • <Alt>-G - }

  • <Alt>-Z - \

  • <Alt>-X -

  • <Alt>-C - `

Disk support

Using the ti-disk.ctg cartridge, the emulator is capable of reading and writing single-density disk images. The TI disk controller is not capable of accessing double-density disks. Internally, the emulator is ready to support double-density disks, but I don't have access to a controller ROM that supports them, so I haven't been able to test them yet.

The emulator supports all operations on a disk image. When the emulator shuts down, any changes made to the disk image are saved. A disk can be made write- protected by making the file read-only.

NOTE: The disk routines can read and write files in the PC99 format, but disks formatted in the emulator by routines other than those in the DSR ROM (like those formatted using a program like Miller Graphics' Advanced Diagnostics) may not be readable by PC99 or other PC99-compatible software.

RS-232 support

Sorry, this feature is not implemented - yet.

Gram Kracker™ emulation

If you have created the Gram Kracker cartridge properly and placed the cartridge in the roms directory (the one where you placed the TI-994A.ctg file), the following extra keys are active:

  • <Ctrl>-F1 - Toggle Gram Kracker On/Off
  • <Ctrl>-F2 - Toggle GROM 0/Operating System
  • <Ctrl>-F3 - Toggle GROMs 1&2/TI-BASIC
  • <Ctrl>-F4 - Disable write-protect/Select BANK 1
  • <Ctrl>-F5 - Enable write-protect
  • <Ctrl>-F6 - Disable write-protect/Select BANK 2
  • <Ctrl>-F7 - Toggle loader On/Off

Consult your Gram Kracker manual for a description of each of these switches.

To create a Gram Kracker cartridge, the loader ROM must be added to the Gram Kracker.dat file supplied in the roms directory. Getting the loader ROM is left as an exercise for the reader. (Hints: Save it to disk, transfer it to the PC using AnaDisk, extract it using the disk utility, and a) make a hex dump after stripping off the header or b) create a normal cartridge file using the convert-ctg utility then create a .dat file using the -d option. OR Use the dump feature built into the Edit Memory option of the Gram Kracker loader to send a hex dump to the serial port and capture it on the PC to a disk file).

Homepage: [http://www.mrousseau.org/programs/ti99sim/](http://www.mrousseau.or g/programs/ti99sim/)

Contact: [ti99sim@mrousseau.nonsense.org](mailto:ti99sim at mrousseau.org?subject=ti99sim)