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# Name:
# Purpose: To carve out Windows schedule task (.JOB) files from BLOBs of data,
# such as a memory dump or a page file. The script relies on two
# observations:
# 1) AT job files have the same comment,
# 2) the value for Error Code field is always 0x00000000, while
# Status field is one of three values in format 0x0004130?.
# Author: Bartosz Inglot
# Created: 2015-09-03
# Licence: GNU General Public License v2.0 (GPL-2.0)
import sys, os, mmap, re
# Hard-coded values that the code relies on:
JOB_COMMENT = 'Created by NetScheduleJobAdd.'
EXIT_CODE_AND_STATUS_REGEX = re.compile(r'\x00\x00\x00\x00.\x13\x04\x00')
We assume that the variable section's length is not larger than 320 bytes,
it's an arbitrary number. If the job failes to parse correctly, increase it.
MAX_JOB_FILE_SIZE = FIXED_SECTION_LEN + 512 #: increase if .JOB fails to parse
def find_beginning(buf, offset):
There should be 5 variable length values before the fixed length section,
Each of them terminates with double null, let's jump 5 x double-nulls back,
we'll land somewhere in the fixed length section (can't land exactly
where it ends because there's no unique value separating the two
sections), read a chunk of memory before and after where we landed and
find in this chunk a unique value that is always at a given offset in the
fixed length section.
The unique value that was used is '0000 0000 ??13 0400', which are Exit
Code (offset: 40-44) and Status (offset: 44-48). Once identified, we just
jump back to the beginning of the fix length section and grab enough bytes
to carve the entire job (the excess bytes are ignored by the parser).
def go_back_to_nulls(buf, offset):
previous = None
while True:
current = buf.read_byte() - 1) # return to where we read from
if current == '\x00' and previous == '\x00':
return buf.tell() - 1) # jump back by 1
previous = current
new_offset = offset + 2 # adding 2 because we'll subtract 2 in the loop
for _ in xrange(5):
# subtracting 2 to avoid '\x00\x??\x00\x00\x00' being hit on twice
new_offset = go_back_to_nulls(buf, new_offset - 2)
# grab a chunk of memory that will be searched for EXIT_CODE_AND_STATUS_REGEX
if new_offset - FIXED_SECTION_LEN < 0:
return None - FIXED_SECTION_LEN)
snippet = + 8)
match =
if not match:
# failed verification, probably an FP
return None
status_code_offset = match.start()
return (new_offset - FIXED_SECTION_LEN + status_code_offset - EXIT_CODE_OFFSET)
def carve_out(buf, offset):
Flush the job file.
def main(args):
if len(args) != 3:
print('Usage: %s BLOB.BIN OUT_DIR' % os.path.basename(args[0]))
in_file, out_dir = args[1:]
if not os.path.isdir(out_dir):
print('[*] Created output folder: ' + os.path.abspath(out_dir))
# The magic string is a unicode comment that's preceded by its size
# (including the bytes for the size)
magic_string = ('%c%s' % (len(JOB_COMMENT)+1, JOB_COMMENT)).encode('utf-16-le')
i = 1
with open(args[1], 'r+b') as i_file:
print('[*] Searching...')
mm = mmap.mmap(i_file.fileno(), 0)
offset = mm.find(magic_string)
while offset >= 0:
job_offset = find_beginning(mm, offset)
if job_offset:
print('[+] Found hit: 0x%x' % job_offset)
data = carve_out(mm, job_offset)
o_file = file(os.path.join(out_dir, 'carved_%s.job' % i), 'wb')
i += 1
print('[-] Failed verification')
offset = mm.find(magic_string)
print('[*] Done')
if __name__ == '__main__':