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#!/usr/bin/env perl
# This shows how Error.pm-based objects can be thrown
# by Bio::Root::Root::throw() when Error.pm is available.
# When Error.pm isn't available, Bio::Root::Root::throw()
# works as usual.
#
# It also demonstrates what happens when you use an outer eval{}
# instead of a try{} to trap thrown Error.pm-based exceptions.
# The behavior is the same as when Error.pm is not used.
# This is important for backward compatibility.
#
# Author: Steve Chervitz <sac@bioperl.org>
#
use strict;
use lib qw(lib/ ../../);
# Uncomment this line to force Bio::Root::Root::throw() to
# not use Error.pm even if it's available.
# Some of the tests in this script will be skipped .
#BEGIN { $main::DONT_USE_ERROR = 1; }
use Bio::Root::Root;
#use Bio::Root::Exception; # Not necessary since Bio::Root::Root uses it.
use Error qw(:try);
my $foo = Bio::Root::Root->new();
if (!$main::DONT_USE_ERROR) {
try {
# This is the new, fancier way to handle exceptions.
# You must have Error.pm to do this (tarball included in this dir).
print "[1] Throwing Error within try block via call to Bio::Root::Root::throw()\n";
$foo->throw( -class => 'Bio::Root::Exception',
-text => "Oopsie!",
-value => "123"
);
}
catch Bio::Root::Exception with {
my $err = shift;
print "[1] Caught Bio::Root::Exception:\n$err";
}
otherwise {
my $err = shift;
print "[1] Caught other Error: ", ref($err), "\n$err";
};
print "\n\n";
}
eval {
# This example demonstrates the traditional method for throwing
# an exception using Bio::Root::Root->throw('string').
# Notice how an exception of type Bio::Root::Exception is created.
print "[2] Calling Bio::Root::Root->throw('string') within an eval{}\n";
$foo->throw("Error message string.");
};
if($@) {
print "[2] Caught eval{}-based exception: ", ref($@), "\n$@";
}
else {
print "[2] Nothing to catch.\n";
}
print "\n\n";
eval {
# This example shows that calling Error::throw directly within
# an eval{} doesn't lead to a true value in $@ if
# the error lacks a value.
print "[3] Attempting to throw a valueless Error within an eval{} block\n (this should fail to be caught by Error.pm v0.13 but is caught by v0.14 and greater).\n";
if( $ENV{OSTYPE} =~ /cygwin/ ) {
die "[3] This causes a segmentation fault with cygwin perl! Skipping.\n";
}
throw Error::Simple ("A simple error.");
};
if($@) {
print "[3] Caught eval{}-based exception: ", ref($@), "\n$@\n";
}
else {
print "[3] Nothing to catch.\n";
}
print "\n\n";
eval {
# This example shows that calling Error::throw directly within
# an eval{} *does* lead to a true value in $@ if the error
# contains a non-zero value.
print "[4] Attempting to throw a valued Error within an eval{} block.\n";
throw Error::Simple ("A simple error.", 42);
};
if($@) {
print "[4] Caught eval{}-based exception: ", ref($@), "\n$@\n";
}
else {
print "[4] Nothing to catch.\n";
}
print "\n\n";
if (!$main::DONT_USE_ERROR) {
eval {
# This example shows what happens if we try to create a
# Bio::Root::IOException (a subclass of Bio::Root::Exception)
# with a zero value. Bio::Root::Exception::new() catches this
# faux pas and substitutes a value that will register as true in if($@).
print "[5] Attempting to throw a zero-valued Bio::Root::IOException\n within an eval{} block.\n";
throw Bio::Root::IOException ( -text =>"An error with zero value.",
-value => 0);
};
if($@) {
print "[5] Caught eval{}-based zero-valued exception: ", ref($@), "\n$@\n";
}
else {
print "[5] Nothing to catch.\n";
}
print "\n\n";
}
eval {
# If Error::throw is called *indirectly* within an eval{}
# (i.e., by calling a method which then calls Error::throw),
# $@ is defined and it consists of a reference to the Error.pm object.
print "[6] Attempting to throw Error indirectly within an eval{} block \n via Bio::Root::Root::throw()\n";
$foo->throw( -class => 'Bio::Root::Exception',
-text => "Oopsie!",
-value => "456"
);
};
if($@) {
print "[6] Caught eval{}-based exception: ", ref($@), "\n$@";
}
else {
print "[6] Nothing to catch.\n";
}
print "Done.\n";