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# BioPerl module for Meme
# Please direct questions and support issues to <>
# Cared for by Sendu Bala <>
# Copyright Sendu Bala
# You may distribute this module under the same terms as perl itself
# POD documentation - main docs before the code
=head1 NAME
Bio::Tools::Run::Meme - Wrapper for Meme Program
use Bio::Tools::Run::Meme;
my $factory = Bio::Tools::Run::Meme->new(-dna => 1, -mod => 'zoops');
# return a Bio::AlignIO given Bio::PrimarySeqI objects
my $alignio = $factory->run($seq1, $seq2, $seq3...);
# add a Bio::Map::Prediction to the appropriate maps given Bio::Map::GeneMap
# objects (predict on the full map sequences supplied) or Bio::Map::Gene
# objects (predict on the full map sequences of the maps the supplied Genes
# are on) or Bio::Map::PositionWithSequence objects
my $prediction = $factory->run($biomap1, $biomap2, $biomap3...);
This is a wrapper for running meme, a transcription factor binding site
prediction program. It can be found here:
You can try supplying normal meme command-line arguments to new(), eg.
new(-mod => 'oops') or calling arg-named methods (excluding the initial
hyphen(s), eg. $factory->mod('oops') to set the -mod option to 'oops').
You will need to enable this MEME wrapper to find the meme program. During
standard installation of meme you will have set up an environment variable
called MEME_BIN which is used for this purpose.
=head2 Mailing Lists
User feedback is an integral part of the evolution of this and other
Bioperl modules. Send your comments and suggestions preferably to one
of the Bioperl mailing lists. Your participation is much appreciated. - General discussion - About the mailing lists
=head2 Support
Please direct usage questions or support issues to the mailing list:
rather than to the module maintainer directly. Many experienced and
reponsive experts will be able look at the problem and quickly
address it. Please include a thorough description of the problem
with code and data examples if at all possible.
=head2 Reporting Bugs
Report bugs to the Bioperl bug tracking system to help us keep track
the bugs and their resolution. Bug reports can be submitted via the
=head1 AUTHOR - Sendu Bala
The rest of the documentation details each of the object
methods. Internal methods are usually preceded with a "_".
package Bio::Tools::Run::Meme;
use strict;
use Bio::SeqIO;
use Bio::AlignIO;
use Bio::Map::Prediction;
use Bio::Map::Position;
use base qw(Bio::Tools::Run::WrapperBase);
our $PROGRAM_NAME = 'meme';
# methods for the meme args we support
our @PARAMS = qw(mod nmotifs evt nsites minsites maxsites wnsites w minw maxw
wg ws bfile maxiter distance prior b plib spfuzz spmap cons
maxsize p time sf);
our @SWITCHES = qw(dna protein nomatrim noendgaps revcomp pal);
# just to be explicit, args we don't support (yet) or we handle ourselves
our @UNSUPPORTED = qw(h text nostatus);
=head2 new
Title : new
Usage : $rm->new($seq)
Function: creates a new wrapper
Returns: Bio::Tools::Run::Meme
Args : Most options understood by meme can be supplied as key =>
value pairs, with a boolean value for switches. -quiet can also be
set to silence meme completely.
These options can NOT be used with this wrapper (they are handled
internally or don't make sense in this context):
-h -text -nostatus
sub new {
my ($class, @args) = @_;
my $self = $class->SUPER::new(@args);
$self->_set_from_args(\@args, -methods => [@PARAMS, @SWITCHES, 'quiet'],
-create => 1);
return $self;
=head2 program_name
Title : program_name
Usage : $factory>program_name()
Function: holds the program name
Returns: string
Args : None
sub program_name {
=head2 program_dir
Title : program_dir
Usage : $factory->program_dir(@params)
Function: returns the program directory, obtained from ENV variable.
Returns: string
Args :
sub program_dir {
return $PROGRAM_DIR;
=head2 version
Title : version
Usage : n/a
Function: Determine the version number of the program, which is
non-discoverable for Meme
Returns : undef
Args : none
sub version {
=head2 run
Title : run
Usage : $rm->run($seq1, $seq2, $seq3...);
Function: Run Meme on the sequences/Bio::Map::* set as the argument
Returns : Bio::AlignIO if sequence objects supplied, OR
Bio::Map::Prediction if Bio::Map::* objects supplied
undef if no executable found
Args : list of Bio::PrimarySeqI compliant objects, OR
list of Bio::Map::GeneMap objects, OR
list of Bio::Map::Gene objects, OR
list of Bio::Map::PositionWithSequence objects
sub run {
my ($self, @things) = @_;
my $infile = $self->_setinput(@things);
return $self->_run($infile);
=head2 _run
Title : _run
Usage : $rm->_run ($filename,$param_string)
Function: internal function that runs meme
Returns : as per run(), undef if no executable found
Args : the filename to the input sequence file
sub _run {
my ($self, $infile) = @_;
my $exe = $self->executable || return;
my $outfile = $infile.".out";
my $command = $exe.$self->_setparams($infile, $outfile);
$self->debug("meme command = $command\n");
open(my $pipe, "$command |") || $self->throw("meme call ($command) failed to start: $? | $!");
my $error = '';
while (<$pipe>) {
print unless $self->quiet;
$error .= $_;
close($pipe) || ($error ? $self->throw("meme call ($command) failed: $error") : $self->throw("meme call ($command) crashed: $?"));
#my $status = system($cmd_str);
#$self->throw("Meme call ($cmd_str) crashed: $?\n") unless $status == 0;
my $aio = Bio::AlignIO->new(-format => 'meme', -file => $outfile);
unless ($self->{map_mode}) {
# return directly the AlignIO
return $aio;
else {
# use the AlignIO meme parser to generate a Bio::Map::Prediction and
# return that
my $pred = Bio::Map::Prediction->new(-source => "meme");
while (my $aln = $aio->next_aln) {
foreach my $seq ($aln->each_seq) {
my $id = $seq->id;
unless ($id) {
$self->warn("Got a sequence in the alignment with no id, but I need one to determine the map");
my ($uid) = $id =~ /^([^\[]+)/;
my $map = Bio::Map::GeneMap->get(-uid => $uid);
my ($start, $end) = ($seq->start, $seq->end);
if ($seq->strand == -1) {
my $length;
my ($pos_s, $pos_e) = $id =~ /\[(\d+)\.\.(\d+)\]$/;
if (defined($pos_s) && defined($pos_e)) {
$length = $pos_e - $pos_s + 1;
else {
$length = length($map->seq);
my $motif_length = $end - $start + 1;
$end = $length - $start + 1;
$start = $end - $motif_length + 1;
Bio::Map::Position->new(-element => $pred,
-start => $start,
-end => $end,
-map => $map);
delete $self->{map_mode};
return $pred;
=head2 _setparams()
Title : _setparams
Usage : Internal function, not to be called directly
Function: Create parameter inputs for meme program
Returns : parameter string to be passed to meme
Args : none
sub _setparams {
my ($self, $infile, $outfile) = @_;
my $param_string = ' '.$infile;
# -text and -nostatus must be set
$param_string .= ' -text -nostatus';
$param_string .= $self->SUPER::_setparams(-params => \@PARAMS,
-switches => \@SWITCHES,
-dash => 1);
$param_string .= " > $outfile";
my $null = ($^O =~ m/mswin/i) ? 'NUL' : '/dev/null';
$param_string .= " 2> $null" if $self->quiet || $self->verbose < 0;
return $param_string;
=head2 _setinput()
Title : _setinput
Usage : Internal function, not to be called directly
Function: writes input sequence to file and return the file name
Returns : string (file name)
Args : as per run()
sub _setinput {
my ($self, @inputs) = @_;
$self->throw("At least two sequence or map objects must be supplied") unless @inputs >= 2;
ref($inputs[0]) || $self->throw("Inputs must be object references");
my ($fh, $outfile) = $self->io->tempfile(-dir => $self->tempdir);
my $out = Bio::SeqIO->new(-fh => $fh, '-format' => 'fasta');
my %done;
foreach my $input (@inputs) {
if ($input->isa('Bio::Map::MappableI')) {
# we want to work on all its maps, since mappables themselves don't
# have sequences
push(@inputs, $input->known_maps);
$input->can('seq') || $self->throw("Supplied an input [$input] with no seq() method!");
if ($input->isa('Bio::Map::EntityI')) {
$self->{map_mode} = 1;
if ($input->isa('Bio::Map::MapI')) {
# change the id of the seq so we'll know what input object it
# came from later
my $id = $input->unique_id;
next if $done{$id};
$done{$id} = 1;
#*** should this be automatic in GeneMap? Anyway, we don't want
# to alter users genemap id here permanently...
else {
my $id = $input->id;
unless ($id) {
return $outfile;
=head1 Bio::Tools::Run::Wrapper methods
=head2 no_param_checks
Title : no_param_checks
Usage : $obj->no_param_checks($newval)
Function: Boolean flag as to whether or not we should
trust the sanity checks for parameter values
Returns : value of no_param_checks
Args : newvalue (optional)
=head2 save_tempfiles
Title : save_tempfiles
Usage : $obj->save_tempfiles($newval)
Returns : value of save_tempfiles
Args : newvalue (optional)
=head2 outfile_name
Title : outfile_name
Usage : my $outfile = $codeml->outfile_name();
Function: Get/Set the name of the output file for this run
(if you wanted to do something special)
Returns : string
Args : [optional] string to set value to
=head2 tempdir
Title : tempdir
Usage : my $tmpdir = $self->tempdir();
Function: Retrieve a temporary directory name (which is created)
Returns : string which is the name of the temporary directory
Args : none
=head2 cleanup
Title : cleanup
Usage : $codeml->cleanup();
Function: Will cleanup the tempdir directory
Returns : none
Args : none
=head2 io
Title : io
Usage : $obj->io($newval)
Function: Gets a L<Bio::Root::IO> object
Returns : L<Bio::Root::IO>
Args : none