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# Copyright 2008-2010 by Peter Cock. All rights reserved.
# This code is part of the Biopython distribution and governed by its
# license. Please see the LICENSE file that should have been included
# as part of this package.
"""Bio.SeqIO support for the "ace" file format.
You are expected to use this module via the Bio.SeqIO functions.
See also the Bio.Sequencing.Ace module which offers more than just accessing
the contig consensus sequences in an ACE file as SeqRecord objects.
from Bio.Seq import Seq
from Bio.SeqRecord import SeqRecord
from Bio.Alphabet import generic_nucleotide, generic_dna, generic_rna, Gapped
from Bio.Sequencing import Ace
def AceIterator(handle):
"""Returns SeqRecord objects from an ACE file.
This uses the Bio.Sequencing.Ace module to do the hard work. Note that
by iterating over the file in a single pass, we are forced to ignore any
WA, CT, RT or WR footer tags.
Ace files include the base quality for each position, which are taken
to be PHRED style scores. Just as if you had read in a FASTQ or QUAL file
using PHRED scores using Bio.SeqIO, these are stored in the SeqRecord's
letter_annotations dictionary under the "phred_quality" key.
>>> from Bio import SeqIO
>>> handle = open("Ace/consed_sample.ace", "rU")
>>> for record in SeqIO.parse(handle, "ace"):
... print, record.seq[:10]+"...", len(record)
... print max(record.letter_annotations["phred_quality"])
Contig1 agccccgggc... 1475
However, ACE files do not include a base quality for any gaps in the
consensus sequence, and these are represented in Biopython with a quality
of zero. Using zero is perhaps misleading as there may be very strong
evidence to support the gap in the consensus. Previous versions of
Biopython therefore used None instead, but this complicated usage, and
prevented output of the gapped sequence as FASTQ format.
>>> from Bio import SeqIO
>>> handle = open("Ace/contig1.ace", "rU")
>>> for record in SeqIO.parse(handle, "ace"):
... print, "..." + record.seq[85:95]+"..."
... print record.letter_annotations["phred_quality"][85:95]
... print max(record.letter_annotations["phred_quality"])
Contig1 ...AGAGG-ATGC...
[57, 57, 54, 57, 57, 0, 57, 72, 72, 72]
Contig2 ...GAATTACTAT...
[68, 68, 68, 68, 68, 68, 68, 68, 68, 68]
for ace_contig in Ace.parse(handle):
#Convert the ACE contig record into a SeqRecord...
consensus_seq_str = ace_contig.sequence
#Assume its DNA unless there is a U in it,
if "U" in consensus_seq_str:
if "T" in consensus_seq_str:
#Very odd! Error?
alpha = generic_nucleotide
alpha = generic_rna
alpha = generic_dna
if "*" in consensus_seq_str:
#For consistency with most other file formats, map
#any * gaps into - gaps.
assert "-" not in consensus_seq_str
consensus_seq = Seq(consensus_seq_str.replace("*", "-"),
Gapped(alpha, gap_char="-"))
consensus_seq = Seq(consensus_seq_str, alpha)
#TODO? - Base segments (BS lines) which indicates which read
#phrap has chosen to be the consensus at a particular position.
#Perhaps as SeqFeature objects?
#TODO - Supporting reads (RD lines, plus perhaps QA and DS lines)
#Perhaps as SeqFeature objects?
seq_record = SeqRecord(consensus_seq,,
#Consensus base quality (BQ lines). Note that any gaps (originally
#as * characters) in the consensus do not get a quality entry, so
#we assign a quality of None (zero would be missleading as there may
#be excelent support for having a gap here).
quals = []
i = 0
for base in consensus_seq:
if base == "-":
i += 1
assert i == len(ace_contig.quality)
seq_record.letter_annotations["phred_quality"] = quals
yield seq_record
#All done
def _test():
"""Run the Bio.SeqIO module's doctests.
This will try and locate the unit tests directory, and run the doctests
from there in order that the relative paths used in the examples work.
import doctest
import os
if os.path.isdir(os.path.join("..", "..", "Tests", "Ace")):
print "Running doctests..."
cur_dir = os.path.abspath(os.curdir)
os.chdir(os.path.join("..", "..", "Tests"))
assert os.path.isfile("Ace/consed_sample.ace")
del cur_dir
print "Done"
elif os.path.isdir(os.path.join("Tests", "Ace")):
print "Running doctests..."
cur_dir = os.path.abspath(os.curdir)
del cur_dir
print "Done"
if __name__ == "__main__":
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