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# Copyright 2007 by Michiel de Hoon. All rights reserved.
# This code is part of the Biopython distribution and governed by its
# license. Please see the LICENSE file that should have been included
# as part of this package.
This module provides code to work with the sprotXX.dat file from
Tested with:
Release 56.9, 03-March-2009.
Record Holds SwissProt data.
Reference Holds reference data from a SwissProt record.
read Read one SwissProt record
parse Read multiple SwissProt records
from Bio._py3k import _as_string
class Record(object):
"""Holds information from a SwissProt record.
entry_name Name of this entry, e.g. RL1_ECOLI.
data_class Either 'STANDARD' or 'PRELIMINARY'.
molecule_type Type of molecule, 'PRT',
sequence_length Number of residues.
accessions List of the accession numbers, e.g. ['P00321']
created A tuple of (date, release).
sequence_update A tuple of (date, release).
annotation_update A tuple of (date, release).
description Free-format description.
gene_name Gene name. See userman.txt for description.
organism The source of the sequence.
organelle The origin of the sequence.
organism_classification The taxonomy classification. List of strings.
taxonomy_id A list of NCBI taxonomy id's.
host_organism A list of names of the hosts of a virus, if any.
host_taxonomy_id A list of NCBI taxonomy id's of the hosts, if any.
references List of Reference objects.
comments List of strings.
cross_references List of tuples (db, id1[, id2][, id3]). See the docs.
keywords List of the keywords.
features List of tuples (key name, from, to, description).
from and to can be either integers for the residue
numbers, '<', '>', or '?'
seqinfo tuple of (length, molecular weight, CRC32 value)
sequence The sequence.
def __init__(self):
self.entry_name = None
self.data_class = None
self.molecule_type = None
self.sequence_length = None
self.accessions = []
self.created = None
self.sequence_update = None
self.annotation_update = None
self.description = []
self.gene_name = ''
self.organism = []
self.organelle = ''
self.organism_classification = []
self.taxonomy_id = []
self.host_organism = []
self.host_taxonomy_id = []
self.references = []
self.comments = []
self.cross_references = []
self.keywords = []
self.features = []
self.seqinfo = None
self.sequence = ''
class Reference(object):
"""Holds information from one reference in a SwissProt entry.
number Number of reference in an entry.
positions Describes extent of work. list of strings.
comments Comments. List of (token, text).
references References. List of (dbname, identifier)
authors The authors of the work.
title Title of the work.
location A citation for the work.
def __init__(self):
self.number = None
self.positions = []
self.comments = []
self.references = []
self.authors = []
self.title = []
self.location = []
def parse(handle):
while True:
record = _read(handle)
if not record:
yield record
def read(handle):
record = _read(handle)
if not record:
raise ValueError("No SwissProt record found")
# We should have reached the end of the record by now
remainder =
if remainder:
raise ValueError("More than one SwissProt record found")
return record
# Everything below is considered private
def _read(handle):
record = None
unread = ""
for line in handle:
#This is for Python 3 to cope with a binary handle (byte strings),
#or a text handle (unicode strings):
line = _as_string(line)
key, value = line[:2], line[5:].rstrip()
if unread:
value = unread + " " + value
unread = ""
if key=='**':
#See Bug 2353, some files from the EBI have extra lines
#starting "**" (two asterisks/stars). They appear
#to be unofficial automated annotations. e.g.
#** ################# INTERNAL SECTION ##################
#**HA SAM; Annotated by PicoHamap 1.88; MF_01138.1; 09-NOV-2003.
elif key=='ID':
record = Record()
_read_id(record, line)
_sequence_lines = []
elif key=='AC':
accessions = [word for word in value.rstrip(";").split("; ")]
elif key=='DT':
_read_dt(record, line)
elif key=='DE':
elif key=='GN':
if record.gene_name:
record.gene_name += " "
record.gene_name += value
elif key=='OS':
elif key=='OG':
record.organelle += line[5:]
elif key=='OC':
cols = [col for col in value.rstrip(";.").split("; ")]
elif key=='OX':
_read_ox(record, line)
elif key=='OH':
_read_oh(record, line)
elif key=='RN':
reference = Reference()
_read_rn(reference, value)
elif key=='RP':
assert record.references, "RP: missing RN"
elif key=='RC':
assert record.references, "RC: missing RN"
reference = record.references[-1]
unread = _read_rc(reference, value)
elif key=='RX':
assert record.references, "RX: missing RN"
reference = record.references[-1]
_read_rx(reference, value)
elif key=='RL':
assert record.references, "RL: missing RN"
reference = record.references[-1]
# In UniProt release 1.12 of 6/21/04, there is a new RG
# (Reference Group) line, which references a group instead of
# an author. Each block must have at least 1 RA or RG line.
elif key=='RA':
assert record.references, "RA: missing RN"
reference = record.references[-1]
elif key=='RG':
assert record.references, "RG: missing RN"
reference = record.references[-1]
elif key=="RT":
assert record.references, "RT: missing RN"
reference = record.references[-1]
elif key=='CC':
_read_cc(record, line)
elif key=='DR':
_read_dr(record, value)
elif key=='PE':
#TODO - Record this information?
elif key=='KW':
cols = value.rstrip(";.").split('; ')
elif key=='FT':
_read_ft(record, line)
elif key=='SQ':
cols = value.split()
assert len(cols) == 7, "I don't understand SQ line %s" % line
# Do more checking here?
record.seqinfo = int(cols[1]), int(cols[3]), cols[5]
elif key==' ':
_sequence_lines.append(value.replace(" ", "").rstrip())
elif key=='//':
# Join multiline data into one string
record.description = " ".join(record.description)
record.organism = " ".join(record.organism)
record.organelle = record.organelle.rstrip()
for reference in record.references:
reference.authors = " ".join(reference.authors).rstrip(";")
reference.title = " ".join(reference.title).rstrip(";")
if reference.title.startswith('"') and reference.title.endswith('"'):
reference.title = reference.title[1:-1] #remove quotes
reference.location = " ".join(reference.location)
record.sequence = "".join(_sequence_lines)
return record
raise ValueError("Unknown keyword '%s' found" % key)
if record:
raise ValueError("Unexpected end of stream.")
def _read_id(record, line):
cols = line[5:].split()
#Prior to release 51, included with MoleculeType:
#ID EntryName DataClass; MoleculeType; SequenceLength AA.
#Newer files lack the MoleculeType:
#ID EntryName DataClass; SequenceLength AA.
if len(cols) == 5:
record.entry_name = cols[0]
record.data_class = cols[1].rstrip(";")
record.molecule_type = cols[2].rstrip(";")
record.sequence_length = int(cols[3])
elif len(cols) == 4:
record.entry_name = cols[0]
record.data_class = cols[1].rstrip(";")
record.molecule_type = None
record.sequence_length = int(cols[2])
raise ValueError("ID line has unrecognised format:\n"+line)
# check if the data class is one of the allowed values
allowed = ('STANDARD', 'PRELIMINARY', 'IPI', 'Reviewed', 'Unreviewed')
if record.data_class not in allowed:
raise ValueError("Unrecognized data class %s in line\n%s" % \
(record.data_class, line))
# molecule_type should be 'PRT' for PRoTein
# Note that has been removed in recent releases (set to None)
if record.molecule_type not in (None, 'PRT'):
raise ValueError("Unrecognized molecule type %s in line\n%s" % \
(record.molecule_type, line))
def _read_dt(record, line):
value = line[5:]
uprline = value.upper()
cols = value.rstrip().split()
if 'CREATED' in uprline \
or 'LAST SEQUENCE UPDATE' in uprline \
# Old style DT line
# =================
# e.g.
# DT 01-FEB-1995 (Rel. 31, Created)
# DT 01-FEB-1995 (Rel. 31, Last sequence update)
# DT 01-OCT-2000 (Rel. 40, Last annotation update)
# or:
# DT 08-JAN-2002 (IPI Human rel. 2.3, Created)
# ...
# find where the version information will be located
# This is needed for when you have cases like IPI where
# the release verison is in a different spot:
# DT 08-JAN-2002 (IPI Human rel. 2.3, Created)
uprcols = uprline.split()
rel_index = -1
for index in range(len(uprcols)):
if 'REL.' in uprcols[index]:
rel_index = index
assert rel_index >= 0, \
"Could not find Rel. in DT line: %s" % line
version_index = rel_index + 1
# get the version information
str_version = cols[version_index].rstrip(",")
# no version number
if str_version == '':
version = 0
# dot versioned
elif '.' in str_version:
version = str_version
# integer versioned
version = int(str_version)
date = cols[0]
if 'CREATED' in uprline:
record.created = date, version
elif 'LAST SEQUENCE UPDATE' in uprline:
record.sequence_update = date, version
elif 'LAST ANNOTATION UPDATE' in uprline:
record.annotation_update = date, version
assert False, "Shouldn't reach this line!"
elif 'INTEGRATED INTO' in uprline \
or 'SEQUENCE VERSION' in uprline \
or 'ENTRY VERSION' in uprline:
# New style DT line
# =================
# As of UniProt Knowledgebase release 7.0 (including
# Swiss-Prot release 49.0 and TrEMBL release 32.0) the
# format of the DT lines and the version information
# in them was changed - the release number was dropped.
# For more information see bug 1948 and
# e.g.
# DT 01-JAN-1998, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.
# DT 15-OCT-2001, sequence version 3.
# DT 01-APR-2004, entry version 14.
#This is a new style DT line...
# The date should be in string cols[1]
# Get the version number if there is one.
# For the three DT lines above: 0, 3, 14
version = int(cols[-1])
except ValueError:
version = 0
date = cols[0].rstrip(",")
# Re-use the historical property names, even though
# the meaning has changed slighty:
if "INTEGRATED" in uprline:
record.created = date, version
elif 'SEQUENCE VERSION' in uprline:
record.sequence_update = date, version
elif 'ENTRY VERSION' in uprline:
record.annotation_update = date, version
assert False, "Shouldn't reach this line!"
raise ValueError("I don't understand the date line %s" % line)
def _read_ox(record, line):
# The OX line is in the format:
# If there are too many id's to fit onto a line, then the ID's
# continue directly onto the next line, e.g.
# OX ID[, ID]...;
# Currently, the description is always "NCBI_TaxID".
# To parse this, I need to check to see whether I'm at the
# first line. If I am, grab the description and make sure
# it's an NCBI ID. Then, grab all the id's.
if record.taxonomy_id:
ids = line[5:].rstrip().rstrip(";")
descr, ids = line[5:].rstrip().rstrip(";").split("=")
assert descr == "NCBI_TaxID", "Unexpected taxonomy type %s" % descr
record.taxonomy_id.extend(ids.split(', '))
def _read_oh(record, line):
# Line type OH (Organism Host) for viral hosts
assert line[5:].startswith("NCBI_TaxID="), "Unexpected %s" % line
line = line[16:].rstrip()
assert line[-1]=="." and line.count(";")==1, line
taxid, name = line[:-1].split(";")
def _read_rn(reference, rn):
assert rn[0] == '[' and rn[-1] == ']', "Missing brackets %s" % rn
reference.number = int(rn[1:-1])
def _read_rc(reference, value):
cols = value.split(';')
if value[-1]==';':
unread = ""
cols, unread = cols[:-1], cols[-1]
for col in cols:
if not col: # last column will be the empty string
# The token is everything before the first '=' character.
i = col.find("=")
if i>=0:
token, text = col[:i], col[i+1:]
comment = token.lstrip(), text
comment = reference.comments[-1]
comment = "%s %s" % (comment, col)
reference.comments[-1] = comment
return unread
def _read_rx(reference, value):
# The basic (older?) RX line is of the form:
# RX MEDLINE; 85132727.
# but there are variants of this that need to be dealt with (see below)
# CLD1_HUMAN in Release 39 and DADR_DIDMA in Release 33
# have extraneous information in the RX line. Check for
# this and chop it out of the line.
# (noticed by
value = value.replace(' [NCBI, ExPASy, Israel, Japan]','')
# RX lines can also be used of the form
# RX PubMed=9603189;
# reported by
# and these can be more complicated like:
# RX MEDLINE=95385798; PubMed=7656980;
# RX PubMed=15060122; DOI=10.1136/jmg 2003.012781;
# We look for these cases first and deal with them
warn = False
if "=" in value:
cols = value.split("; ")
cols = [x.strip() for x in cols]
cols = [x for x in cols if x]
for col in cols:
x = col.split("=")
if len(x) != 2 or x == ("DOI", "DOI"):
warn = True
assert len(x) == 2, "I don't understand RX line %s" % value
reference.references.append((x[0], x[1].rstrip(";")))
# otherwise we assume we have the type 'RX MEDLINE; 85132727.'
cols = value.split("; ")
# normally we split into the three parts
if len(cols) != 2:
warn = True
reference.references.append((cols[0].rstrip(";"), cols[1].rstrip(".")))
if warn:
import warnings
from Bio import BiopythonParserWarning
warnings.warn("Possibly corrupt RX line %r" % value,
def _read_cc(record, line):
key, value = line[5:8], line[9:].rstrip()
if key=='-!-': # Make a new comment
elif key==' ': # add to the previous comment
if not record.comments:
# TCMO_STRGA in Release 37 has comment with no topic
record.comments[-1] += " " + value
def _read_dr(record, value):
# Remove the comments at the end of the line
i = value.find(' [')
if i >= 0:
value = value[:i]
cols = value.rstrip(".").split('; ')
def _read_ft(record, line):
line = line[5:] # get rid of junk in front
name = line[0:8].rstrip()
from_res = int(line[9:15])
except ValueError:
from_res = line[9:15].lstrip()
to_res = int(line[16:22])
except ValueError:
to_res = line[16:22].lstrip()
#if there is a feature_id (FTId), store it away
if line[29:35]==r"/FTId=":
ft_id = line[35:70].rstrip()[:-1]
description = ""
ft_id =""
description = line[29:70].rstrip()
if not name: # is continuation of last one
assert not from_res and not to_res
name, from_res, to_res, old_description,old_ft_id = record.features[-1]
del record.features[-1]
description = ("%s %s" % (old_description, description)).strip()
# special case -- VARSPLIC, reported by
if name == "VARSPLIC":
# Remove unwanted spaces in sequences.
# During line carryover, the sequences in VARSPLIC can get mangled
# with unwanted spaces like:
# We want to check for this case and correct it as it happens.
descr_cols = description.split(" -> ")
if len(descr_cols) == 2:
first_seq, second_seq = descr_cols
extra_info = ''
# we might have more information at the end of the
# second sequence, which should be in parenthesis
extra_info_pos = second_seq.find(" (")
if extra_info_pos != -1:
extra_info = second_seq[extra_info_pos:]
second_seq = second_seq[:extra_info_pos]
# now clean spaces out of the first and second string
first_seq = first_seq.replace(" ", "")
second_seq = second_seq.replace(" ", "")
# reassemble the description
description = first_seq + " -> " + second_seq + extra_info
record.features.append((name, from_res, to_res, description,ft_id))
if __name__ == "__main__":
print "Quick self test..."
example_filename = "../../Tests/SwissProt/sp008"
import os
if not os.path.isfile(example_filename):
print "Missing test file %s" % example_filename
#Try parsing it!
handle = open(example_filename)
records = parse(handle)
for record in records:
print record.entry_name
print ",".join(record.accessions)
print record.keywords
print repr(record.organism)
print record.sequence[:20] + "..."
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