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This file provides documentation for modules in Biopython that have been moved
or deprecated in favor of other modules. This provides some quick and easy
to find documentation about how to update your code to work again.
Bio.SeqUtils
============
The functions 'complement' and 'antiparallel' in Bio.SeqUtils have been
deprecated as of Release 1.31. Use the functions 'complement' and
'reverse_complement' in Bio.Seq instead.
Bio.GFF
=======
The functions 'forward_complement' and 'antiparallel' in Bio.GFF.easy have been
deprecated as of Release 1.31. Use the functions 'complement' and
'reverse_complement' in Bio.Seq instead.
Bio.sequtils
============
Deprecated as of Release 1.30.
Use Bio.SeqUtils instead.
Bio.SVM
=======
Deprecated as of Release 1.30.
The Support Vector Machine code in Biopython has been superceeded by a
more robust (and maintained) SVM library, which includes a python
interface. We recommend using LIBSVM:
http://www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/~cjlin/libsvm/
Bio.RecordFile
==============
Deprecated as of Release 1.30.
RecordFile wasn't completely implemented and duplicates the work
of most standard parsers. We recommend using a specific iterator
(Bio.Fasta.Iterator for example) without a parser to get back
text records.
Bio.kMeans and Bio.xkMeans
==========================
Deprecated as of Release 1.30.
The k-Means algorithm is an algorithm for unsupervised clustering of data.
Biopython includes an implementation of the k-means clustering algorithm
in kMeans.py. Recently, a larger set of clustering algorithms entered
Biopython as Bio.Cluster. As the kcluster routine in Bio.Cluster also implements
the k-means clustering algorithm, the kMeans.py module has been deprecated.
Below you will find a description of how to switch from kMeans.py to
Bio.Cluster's kcluster.
The function kcluster in Bio.Cluster performs k-means or k-medians clustering.
The corresponding function in kMeans.py is called cluster. This function takes
the following arguments:
o data
o k
o distance_fn
o init_centroids_fn
o calc_centroid_fn
o max_iterations
o update_fn
The function kcluster in Bio.Cluster takes the following arguments:
o data
o nclusters
o mask
o weight
o transpose
o npass
o method
o dist
o initialid
Arguments for kMeans.py's cluster, and their equivalents in Bio.Cluster
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
o data:
In kMeans.py, data is a list of vectors, each containing the same number of
data points. Within the context of clustering genes based on their gene
expression values, each vector would correspond to the gene expression data of
one particular gene, and the values in the vector would correspond to the
measured gene expression value by the different microarrays. The cluster
routine in kMeans.py always performs a row-wise clustering by grouping vectors.
The argument data to Bio.Cluster's kcluster has the same structure as in
kMeans.py. However, Bio.Cluster allows row-wise and column-wise clustering by
the transpose argument. If transpose==0 (the default value), kcluster performs
row-wise clustering, consistent with kMeans.py. If transpose==1, kcluster
performs column-wise clustering. The same behavior can be obtained, of course,
by transposing the data array before calling kcluster.
o k:
The desired number of clusters is specified by the input argument k in
kMeans.py. The corresponding argument in Bio.Cluster's kcluster is nclusters.
o distance_fn:
In kMeans.py, the argument distance_fn represents the distance function to
calculate the distances between items and cluster centroids. This argument
corresponds to a true Python function. The default value is the Euclidean
distance, implemented as distance.euclidean in distance.py. User-defined
distance functions can also be used.
The k-means routine in Bio.Cluster does not allow user-specified distance
functions. Instead, it provides the following nine built-in distance functions,
depending on the argument dist:
dist=='e': Euclidean distance
dist=='h': Harmonically summed Euclidean distance
dist=='b': City-block distance
dist=='c': Pearson correlation
dist=='a': absolute value of the Pearson correlation
dist=='u': uncentered correlation
dist=='x': absolute uncentered correlation
dist=='s': Spearmans rank correlation
dist=='k': Kendalls tau
User-defined distance functions are possible only by modifying the C code in
cluster.c (which may not be as hard as it sounds). The default distance function
is the Euclidean distance (distance=='e'). Note that in Bio.Cluster the
Euclidean distance is defined as the sum of squared differences, whereas in
kMeans.py the square root of this quantity is taken. This does not affect the
clustering result.
o init_centroids_fn:
This function specifies the initial choice for the cluster centroids. By
default, cluster in kMeans.py uses a random initial choice of cluster centroids
by randomly choosing k data vectors from the input vectors in the data input
argument. Alternatively, the user can specify a user-defined function to choose
the initial cluster centroids.
In Bio.Cluster, the k-means algorithm in kcluster starts from an initial cluster
assignment instead of an initial choice of cluster centroids. As far as I know,
these two initialization methods are equivalent in practice. Similar to the
cluster routine in kMeans.py, Bio.Cluster's kcluster performs a random initial
assignment of items to clusters. Alternatively, users can specify a
(deterministic) initial clustering via the initialid argument. This argument is
None by default. If not None, it should be a 1D array (or list) containing the
number (between 0 and nclusters-1) of the cluster to which each item is
assigned initially.
Note that the k-means routine in Bio.Cluster performs automatic repeats of the
algorithm, each time starting from a different random initial clustering. See
the comment for the npass argument below.
o calc_centroid_fn:
This argument specifies how to calculate the cluster centroids, given the data
vectors of the items that belong to each cluster. By default, the mean over the
vectors is calculated. A user-defined function can also be used.
Bio.Cluster's kcluster does not allow user-defined functions. Instead, the
method to calculate the cluster centroid is determined by the argument method,
which can be either 'a' (arithmetic mean) or 'm' (median). The default is to
calculate the mean ('a').
o max_iterations:
The cluster routine in kMeans.py has an argument max_iterations, which is used
to stop the iteration it the routine does not converge after the given number of
iterations.
The kcluster routine in Bio.Cluster does not have such an argument. The failure
of a k-means algorithm to converge is due to the occurrence of periodic
clustering solutions during the course of the k-means algorithm. The kcluster
routine in Bio.Cluster automatically checks for the occurrence of such a
periodicity in the solutions. If a periodic behavior is detected, the algorithm
is interrupted and the last clustering solution is returned. Accordingly, the
kcluster routine is guaranteed to return a clustering solution. Also see the
discussion of the npass argument below.
o update_fn:
The argument update_fn to cluster in kMeans.py is a hook function that is
called at the beginning of every iteration and passed the iteration number,
cluster centroids, and current cluster assignments. It is used by xkMeans.py,
which provides a visualization of k-means clustering. Currently there is no
equivalent in Bio.Cluster.
Other arguments for Bio.Cluster's kcluster.
-------------------------------------------
Three arguments in Bio.Cluster's kcluster do not have a direct equivalent in
kMeans.py's cluster.
o mask:
Microarray experiments tend to suffer from a large number of missing data. The
argument mask to Bio.Cluster's kcluster lets the user specify which data are
missing. This argument is an array with the same shape as data, and contains
a 1 for each data point that is present, and a 0 for a missing data point:
mask[i,j]==1: data[i,j] is valid
mask[i,j]==0: data[i,j] is a missing data point
Missing data points are ignored by the clustering algorithm. By default, mask
is an array containing 1's everywhere.
o weight:
The weight argument is used to put different weights on different data point.
For example, when clustering genes based on their gene expression profile, we
may want to attach a bigger weight to some microarrays compared to others. By
default, the weight argument contains equal weights of 1.0 for all data points.
Note that for row-wise clustering, the weight argument is a 1D vector whose
length is equal to the number of columns. For column-wise clustering, the length
of this argument is equal to the number of rows.
o npass:
Typical implementations of the k-means clustering algorithm rely on a random
initialization. Unlike Self-Organizing Maps, however, the k-means algorithm has
a clearly defined goal, which is to minimize the within-cluster sum of
distances. Different k-means clustering solutions (based on different initial
clusterings) can therefore be compared to each other directly. In order to
increase the chance of finding the optimal k-means clustering solution, the
k-means routine in Bio.Cluster automatically repeats the algorithm npass times,
each time starting from a different initial random clustering. The best
clustering solution, as well as in how many of the npass attempts it was found,
is returned to the user. For more information, see the output variable nfound
below.
Return values
-------------
The cluster routine in kMeans.py returns two values:
o centroids
o clusters
The kcluster routine in Bio.Cluster returns four values:
o clusterid
o centroids
o error
o nfound
o centroids:
The centroids return value contains the centroids of the k clusters that were
found, and corresponds to the centroids return value from Bio.Cluster's
kcluster routine.
o clusters:
The clusters return value contains the number of the cluster to which each
vector was assigned. The corresponding return value in Bio.Cluster's kcluster
is clusterid.
o error:
The error return value from Bio.Cluster's kcluster is the within-cluster sum of
distances for the optimal clustering solution that was found. This value can be
used to compare different clustering solutions to each other.
o nfound:
The nfound return value from Bio.Cluster's kcluster shows in how many of the
npass runs the optimal clustering solution was found. Accordingly, nfound is at
least 1 and at most equal to npass. A large value for nfound is an indication
that the clustering solution that was found is optimal. On the other hand, if
nfound is equal to 1, it is very well possible that a better clustering solution
exists than the one found by kcluster.
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