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# Copyright 2005-2008 by Frank Kauff & Cymon J. Cox. All rights reserved.
# This code is part of the Biopython distribution and governed by its
# license. Please see the LICENSE file that should have been included
# as part of this package.
# Bug reports welcome: or on Biopython's bugzilla.
"""Nexus class. Parse the contents of a NEXUS file.
Based upon 'NEXUS: An extensible file format for systematic information'
Maddison, Swofford, Maddison. 1997. Syst. Biol. 46(4):590-621
from __future__ import print_function
from Bio._py3k import zip
from Bio._py3k import range
from Bio._py3k import basestring
from functools import reduce
import copy
import math
import random
import sys
from Bio import File
from Bio.Alphabet import IUPAC
from Bio.Data import IUPACData
from Bio.Seq import Seq
from .Trees import Tree
__docformat__ = "restructuredtext en"
SPECIAL_COMMANDS = ['charstatelabels', 'charlabels', 'taxlabels', 'taxset',
'charset', 'charpartition', 'taxpartition', 'matrix',
'tree', 'utree', 'translate', 'codonposset', 'title']
KNOWN_NEXUS_BLOCKS = ['trees', 'data', 'characters', 'taxa', 'sets', 'codons']
PUNCTUATION = '()[]{}/\,;:=*\'"`+-<>'
MRBAYESSAFE = 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ1234567890_'
WHITESPACE = ' \t\n'
# SPECIALCOMMENTS = ['!','&','%','/','\\','@'] # original list of special comments
SPECIALCOMMENTS = ['&'] # supported special comment ('tree' command), all others are ignored
CHARSET = 'chars'
TAXSET = 'taxa'
CODONPOSITIONS = 'codonpositions'
DEFAULTNEXUS = '#NEXUS\nbegin data; dimensions ntax=0 nchar=0; format datatype=dna; end; '
class NexusError(Exception):
class CharBuffer(object):
"""Helps reading NEXUS-words and characters from a buffer (semi-PRIVATE).
This class is not intended for public use (any more).
def __init__(self, string):
if string:
self.buffer = list(string)
self.buffer = []
def peek(self):
if self.buffer:
return self.buffer[0]
return None
def peek_nonwhitespace(self):
b = ''.join(self.buffer).strip()
if b:
return b[0]
return None
def __next__(self):
if self.buffer:
return self.buffer.pop(0)
return None
if sys.version_info[0] < 3:
def next(self):
"""Deprecated Python 2 style alias for Python 3 style __next__ method."""
return self.__next__()
def next_nonwhitespace(self):
while True:
p = next(self)
if p is None:
if p not in WHITESPACE:
return p
return None
def skip_whitespace(self):
while self.buffer[0] in WHITESPACE:
self.buffer = self.buffer[1:]
def next_until(self, target):
for t in target:
pos = self.buffer.index(t)
except ValueError:
found = ''.join(self.buffer[:pos])
self.buffer = self.buffer[pos:]
return found
return None
def peek_word(self, word):
return ''.join(self.buffer[:len(word)]) == word
def next_word(self):
"""Return the next NEXUS word from a string.
This deals with single and double quotes, whitespace and punctuation.
word = []
quoted = False
first = self.next_nonwhitespace() # get first character
if not first: # return empty if only whitespace left
return None
if first == "'": # word starts with a quote
quoted = "'"
elif first == '"':
quoted = '"'
elif first in PUNCTUATION: # if it's punctuation, return immediately
return first
while True:
c = self.peek()
if c == quoted: # a quote?
word.append(next(self)) # store quote
if self.peek() == quoted: # double quote
next(self) # skip second quote
elif quoted: # second single quote ends word
elif quoted:
word.append(next(self)) # if quoted, then add anything
elif not c or c in PUNCTUATION or c in WHITESPACE:
# if not quoted and special character, stop
word.append(next(self)) # standard character
return ''.join(word)
def rest(self):
"""Return the rest of the string without parsing."""
return ''.join(self.buffer)
class StepMatrix(object):
"""Calculate a stepmatrix for weighted parsimony.
See Wheeler (1990), Cladistics 6:269-275.
def __init__(self, symbols, gap): = {}
self.symbols = sorted(symbols)
if gap:
for x in self.symbols:
for y in [s for s in self.symbols if s != x]:
self.set(x, y, 0)
def set(self, x, y, value):
if x > y:
x, y = y, x[x + y] = value
def add(self, x, y, value):
if x > y:
x, y = y, x[x + y] += value
def sum(self):
return reduce(lambda x, y: x + y,
def transformation(self):
total = self.sum()
if total != 0:
for k in[k] =[k] / float(total)
return self
def weighting(self):
for k in
if[k] != 0:[k] = -math.log([k])
return self
def smprint(self, name='your_name_here'):
matrix = 'usertype %s stepmatrix=%d\n' % (name, len(self.symbols))
matrix += ' %s\n' % ' '.join(self.symbols)
for x in self.symbols:
matrix += '[%s]'.ljust(8) % x
for y in self.symbols:
if x == y:
matrix += ' . '
if x > y:
x1, y1 = y, x
x1, y1 = x, y
if[x1 + y1] == 0:
matrix += 'inf. '
matrix += '%2.2f'.ljust(10) % ([x1 + y1])
matrix += '\n'
matrix += ';\n'
return matrix
def safename(name, mrbayes=False):
"""Return a taxon identifier according to NEXUS standard.
Wrap quotes around names with punctuation or whitespace, and double
single quotes.
mrbayes=True: write names without quotes, whitespace or punctuation
for the mrbayes software package.
if mrbayes:
safe = name.replace(' ', '_')
safe = ''.join(c for c in safe if c in MRBAYESSAFE)
safe = name.replace("'", "''")
if set(safe).intersection(set(WHITESPACE + PUNCTUATION)):
safe = "'" + safe + "'"
return safe
def quotestrip(word):
"""Remove quotes and/or double quotes around identifiers."""
if not word:
return None
while (word.startswith("'") and word.endswith("'")) or (word.startswith('"') and word.endswith('"')):
word = word[1:-1]
return word
def get_start_end(sequence, skiplist=None):
"""Return position of first and last character which is not in skiplist.
Skiplist defaults to ['-','?'].
if skiplist is None:
skiplist = ["-", "?"]
length = len(sequence)
if length == 0:
return None, None
end = length - 1
while end >= 0 and (sequence[end] in skiplist):
end -= 1
start = 0
while start < length and (sequence[start] in skiplist):
start += 1
if start == length and end == -1: # empty sequence
return -1, -1
return start, end
def _sort_keys_by_values(p):
"""Returns a sorted list of keys of p sorted by values of p."""
return sorted((pn for pn in p if p[pn]), key=lambda pn: p[pn])
def _make_unique(l):
"""Check that all values in list are unique and return a pruned and sorted list."""
return sorted(set(l))
def _unique_label(previous_labels, label):
"""Returns a unique name if label is already in previous_labels."""
while label in previous_labels:
if label.split('.')[-1].startswith('copy'):
label = '.'.join(label.split('.')[:-1]) \
+ '.copy' + str(eval('0' + label.split('.')[-1][4:]) + 1)
label += '.copy'
return label
def _seqmatrix2strmatrix(matrix):
"""Converts a Seq-object matrix to a plain sequence-string matrix."""
return dict((t, str(matrix[t])) for t in matrix)
def _compact4nexus(orig_list):
"""Transform [1 2 3 5 6 7 8 12 15 18 20] (baseindex 0, used in the Nexus class)
into '2-4 6-9 13-19\\3 21' (baseindex 1, used in programs like Paup or MrBayes.).
if not orig_list:
return ''
orig_list = sorted(set(orig_list))
shortlist = []
clist = orig_list[:]
clist.append(clist[-1] + .5) # dummy value makes it easier
while len(clist) > 1:
step = 1
for i, x in enumerate(clist):
if x == clist[0] + i * step: # are we still in the right step?
elif i == 1 and len(clist) > 3 and clist[i + 1] - x == x - clist[0]:
# second element, and possibly at least 3 elements to link,
# and the next one is in the right step
step = x - clist[0]
else: # pattern broke, add all values before current position to new list
sub = clist[:i]
if len(sub) == 1:
shortlist.append(str(sub[0] + 1))
if step == 1:
shortlist.append('%d-%d' % (sub[0] + 1, sub[-1] + 1))
shortlist.append('%d-%d\\%d' % (sub[0] + 1, sub[-1] + 1, step))
clist = clist[i:]
return ' '.join(shortlist)
def combine(matrices):
"""Combine matrices in [(name,nexus-instance),...] and return new nexus instance.
Character sets, character partitions and taxon sets are prefixed, readjusted
and present in the combined matrix.
if not matrices:
return None
name = matrices[0][0]
combined = copy.deepcopy(matrices[0][1]) # initiate with copy of first matrix
mixed_datatypes = (len(set(n[1].datatype for n in matrices)) > 1)
if mixed_datatypes:
# dealing with mixed matrices is application specific.
# You take care of that yourself!
combined.datatype = 'None'
# raise NexusError('Matrices must be of same datatype')
combined.charlabels = None
combined.statelabels = None
combined.interleave = False
combined.translate = None
# rename taxon sets and character sets and name them with prefix
for cn, cs in combined.charsets.items():
combined.charsets['%s.%s' % (name, cn)] = cs
del combined.charsets[cn]
for tn, ts in combined.taxsets.items():
combined.taxsets['%s.%s' % (name, tn)] = ts
del combined.taxsets[tn]
# previous partitions usually don't make much sense in combined matrix
# just initiate one new partition parted by single matrices
combined.charpartitions = {'combined': {name: list(range(combined.nchar))}}
for n, m in matrices[1:]: # add all other matrices
both = [t for t in combined.taxlabels if t in m.taxlabels]
combined_only = [t for t in combined.taxlabels if t not in both]
m_only = [t for t in m.taxlabels if t not in both]
for t in both:
# concatenate sequences and unify gap and missing character symbols
combined.matrix[t] += Seq(str(m.matrix[t]).replace(,, combined.missing), combined.alphabet)
# replace date of missing taxa with symbol for missing data
for t in combined_only:
combined.matrix[t] += Seq(combined.missing * m.nchar, combined.alphabet)
for t in m_only:
combined.matrix[t] = Seq(combined.missing * combined.nchar, combined.alphabet) + \
Seq(str(m.matrix[t]).replace(,, combined.missing), combined.alphabet)
combined.taxlabels.extend(m_only) # new taxon list
for cn, cs in m.charsets.items(): # adjust character sets for new matrix
combined.charsets['%s.%s' % (n, cn)] = [x + combined.nchar for x in cs]
if m.taxsets:
if not combined.taxsets:
combined.taxsets = {}
# update taxon sets
combined.taxsets.update(dict(('%s.%s' % (n, tn), ts)
for tn, ts in m.taxsets.items()))
# update new charpartition
combined.charpartitions['combined'][n] = list(range(combined.nchar, combined.nchar + m.nchar))
# update charlabels
if m.charlabels:
if not combined.charlabels:
combined.charlabels = {}
combined.charlabels.update(dict((combined.nchar + i, label)
for (i, label) in m.charlabels.items()))
combined.nchar += m.nchar # update nchar and ntax
combined.ntax += len(m_only)
# some prefer partitions, some charsets:
# make separate charset for ecah initial dataset
for c in combined.charpartitions['combined']:
combined.charsets[c] = combined.charpartitions['combined'][c]
return combined
def _kill_comments_and_break_lines(text):
"""Delete []-delimited comments out of a file and break into lines separated by ';'.
Nested and multiline comments are allowed. [ and ] symbols within single
or double quotes are ignored, newline ends a quote, all symbols with quotes are
treated the same (thus not quoting inside comments like [this character ']' ends a comment])
Special [&...] and [\...] comments remain untouched, if not inside standard comment.
Quotes inside special [& and [\ are treated as normal characters,
but no nesting inside these special comments allowed (like [& [\ ]]).
';' ist deleted from end of line.
NOTE: this function is very slow for large files, and obsolete when using C extension cnexus
contents = iter(text)
newtext = []
newline = []
quotelevel = ''
speciallevel = False
commlevel = 0
# Parse with one character look ahead (for special comments)
t2 = next(contents)
while True:
t = t2
t2 = next(contents)
except StopIteration:
t2 = None
if t is None:
if t == quotelevel and not (commlevel or speciallevel):
# matching quote ends quotation
quotelevel = ''
elif not quotelevel and not (commlevel or speciallevel) and (t == '"' or t == "'"):
# single or double quote starts quotation
quotelevel = t
elif not quotelevel and t == '[':
# opening bracket outside a quote
if t2 in SPECIALCOMMENTS and commlevel == 0 and not speciallevel:
speciallevel = True
commlevel += 1
elif not quotelevel and t == ']':
# closing bracket ioutside a quote
if speciallevel:
speciallevel = False
commlevel -= 1
if commlevel < 0:
raise NexusError('Nexus formatting error: unmatched ]')
if commlevel == 0:
# copy if we're not in comment
if t == ';' and not quotelevel:
newline = []
# level of comments should be 0 at the end of the file
if newline:
if commlevel > 0:
raise NexusError('Nexus formatting error: unmatched [')
return newtext
def _adjust_lines(lines):
"""Adjust linebreaks to match ';', strip leading/trailing whitespace.
Lines are adjusted so that no linebreaks occur within a commandline
(except matrix command line)
formatted_lines = []
for l in lines:
# Convert line endings
l = l.replace('\r\n', '\n').replace('\r', '\n').strip()
if l.lower().startswith('matrix'):
l = l.replace('\n', ' ')
if l:
return formatted_lines
def _replace_parenthesized_ambigs(seq, rev_ambig_values):
"""Replaces ambigs in xxx(ACG)xxx format by IUPAC ambiguity code."""
opening = seq.find('(')
while opening > -1:
closing = seq.find(')')
if closing < 0:
raise NexusError('Missing closing parenthesis in: ' + seq)
elif closing < opening:
raise NexusError('Missing opening parenthesis in: ' + seq)
ambig = ''.join(sorted(seq[opening + 1:closing]))
ambig_code = rev_ambig_values[ambig.upper()]
if ambig != ambig.upper():
ambig_code = ambig_code.lower()
seq = seq[:opening] + ambig_code + seq[closing + 1:]
opening = seq.find('(')
return seq
class Commandline(object):
"""Represent a commandline as command and options."""
def __init__(self, line, title):
self.options = {}
options = []
self.command = None
# Assume matrix (all other command lines have been stripped of \n)
self.command, options = line.strip().split('\n', 1)
except ValueError: # Not matrix
# self.command,options=line.split(' ',1) # no: could be tab or spaces (translate...)
self.command = line.split()[0]
options = ' '.join(line.split()[1:])
self.command = self.command.strip().lower()
if self.command in SPECIAL_COMMANDS:
# special command that need newlines and order of options preserved
self.options = options.strip()
if len(options) > 0:
options = options.replace('=', ' = ').split()
valued_indices = [(n - 1, n, n + 1) for n in range(len(options))
if options[n] == '=' and n != 0 and n != len((options))]
indices = []
for sl in valued_indices:
token_indices = [n for n in range(len(options)) if n not in indices]
for opt in valued_indices:
# self.options[options[opt[0]].lower()] = options[opt[2]].lower()
self.options[options[opt[0]].lower()] = options[opt[2]]
for token in token_indices:
self.options[options[token].lower()] = None
except ValueError:
raise NexusError('Incorrect formatting in line: %s' % line)
class Block(object):
"""Represent a NEXUS block with block name and list of commandlines."""
def __init__(self, title=None):
self.title = title
self.commandlines = []
class Nexus(object):
def __init__(self, input=None):
self.ntax = 0 # number of taxa
self.nchar = 0 # number of characters
self.unaltered_taxlabels = [] # taxlabels as the appear in the input file (incl. duplicates, etc.)
self.taxlabels = [] # labels for taxa, ordered by their id
self.charlabels = None # ... and for characters
self.statelabels = None # ... and for states
self.datatype = 'dna' # (standard), dna, rna, nucleotide, protein
self.respectcase = False # case sensitivity
self.missing = '?' # symbol for missing characters = '-' # symbol for gap
self.symbols = None # set of symbols
self.equate = None # set of symbol synonyms
self.matchchar = None # matching char for matrix representation
self.labels = None # left, right, no
self.transpose = False # whether matrix is transposed
self.interleave = False # whether matrix is interleaved
self.tokens = False # unsupported
self.eliminate = None # unsupported
self.matrix = None # ...
self.unknown_blocks = [] # blocks we don't care about
self.taxsets = {}
self.charsets = {}
self.charpartitions = {}
self.taxpartitions = {}
self.trees = [] # list of Trees (instances of Tree class)
self.translate = None # Dict to translate taxon <-> taxon numbers
self.structured = [] # structured input representation
self.set = {} # dict of the set command to set various options
self.options = {} # dict of the options command in the data block
self.codonposset = None # name of the charpartition that defines codon positions
# some defaults
self.options['gapmode'] = 'missing'
if input:
def get_original_taxon_order(self):
"""Included for backwards compatibility (DEPRECATED)."""
return self.taxlabels
def set_original_taxon_order(self, value):
"""Included for backwards compatibility (DEPRECATED)."""
self.taxlabels = value
original_taxon_order = property(get_original_taxon_order, set_original_taxon_order)
def read(self, input):
"""Read and parse NEXUS input (a filename, file-handle, or string)."""
# 1. Assume we have the name of a file in the execution dir or a
# file-like object.
# Note we need to add parsing of the path to dir/filename
with File.as_handle(input, 'rU') as fp:
file_contents =
self.filename = getattr(fp, 'name', 'Unknown_nexus_file')
except (TypeError, IOError, AttributeError):
# 2 Assume we have a string from a
if isinstance(input, basestring):
file_contents = input
self.filename = 'input_string'
raise NexusError('Unrecognized input: %s ...' % input[:100])
file_contents = file_contents.strip()
if file_contents.startswith('#NEXUS'):
file_contents = file_contents[6:]
commandlines = _get_command_lines(file_contents)
# get rid of stupid 'NEXUS token - in merged treefiles, this might appear multiple times'
for i, cl in enumerate(commandlines):
if cl[:6].upper() == '#NEXUS':
commandlines[i] = cl[6:].strip()
# now loop through blocks (we parse only data in known blocks, thus ignoring non-block commands
nexus_block_gen = self._get_nexus_block(commandlines)
while True:
title, contents = next(nexus_block_gen)
except StopIteration:
self._parse_nexus_block(title, contents)
self._unknown_nexus_block(title, contents)
def _get_nexus_block(self, file_contents):
"""Generator for looping through Nexus blocks."""
inblock = False
blocklines = []
while file_contents:
cl = file_contents.pop(0)
if cl.lower().startswith('begin'):
if not inblock:
inblock = True
title = cl.split()[1].lower()
raise NexusError('Illegal block nesting in block %s' % title)
elif cl.lower().startswith('end'):
if inblock:
inblock = False
yield title, blocklines
blocklines = []
raise NexusError('Unmatched \'end\'.')
elif inblock:
def _unknown_nexus_block(self, title, contents):
block = Block()
block.title = title
def _parse_nexus_block(self, title, contents):
"""Parse a known Nexus Block (PRIVATE)."""
# attached the structered block representation
self._apply_block_structure(title, contents)
# now check for taxa,characters,data blocks. If this stuff is defined more than once
# the later occurences will override the previous ones.
block = self.structured[-1]
for line in block.commandlines:
getattr(self, '_' + line.command)(line.options)
except AttributeError:
raise NexusError('Unknown command: %s ' % line.command)
def _title(self, options):
def _link(self, options):
def _dimensions(self, options):
if 'ntax' in options:
self.ntax = eval(options['ntax'])
if 'nchar' in options:
self.nchar = eval(options['nchar'])
def _format(self, options):
# print options
# we first need to test respectcase, then symbols (which depends on respectcase)
# then datatype (which, if standard, depends on symbols and respectcase in order to generate
# dicts for ambiguous values and alphabet
if 'respectcase' in options:
self.respectcase = True
# adjust symbols to for respectcase
if 'symbols' in options:
self.symbols = options['symbols']
if (self.symbols.startswith('"') and self.symbols.endswith('"')) or\
(self.symbols.startswith("'") and self.symbols.endswith("'")):
self.symbols = self.symbols[1:-1].replace(' ', '')
if not self.respectcase:
self.symbols = self.symbols.lower() + self.symbols.upper()
self.symbols = list(set(self.symbols))
if 'datatype' in options:
self.datatype = options['datatype'].lower()
if self.datatype == 'dna' or self.datatype == 'nucleotide':
self.alphabet = IUPAC.IUPACAmbiguousDNA() # fresh instance!
self.ambiguous_values = IUPACData.ambiguous_dna_values.copy()
self.unambiguous_letters = IUPACData.unambiguous_dna_letters
elif self.datatype == 'rna':
self.alphabet = IUPAC.IUPACAmbiguousDNA() # fresh instance!
self.ambiguous_values = IUPACData.ambiguous_rna_values.copy()
self.unambiguous_letters = IUPACData.unambiguous_rna_letters
elif self.datatype == 'protein':
# TODO - Should this not be ExtendedIUPACProtein?
self.alphabet = IUPAC.IUPACProtein() # fresh instance
self.ambiguous_values = {'B': 'DN', 'Z': 'EQ', 'X': IUPACData.protein_letters}
# that's how PAUP handles it
self.unambiguous_letters = IUPACData.protein_letters + '*' # stop-codon
elif self.datatype == 'standard':
raise NexusError('Datatype standard is not yet supported.')
# self.alphabet = None
# self.ambiguous_values = {}
# if not self.symbols:
# self.symbols = '01' # if nothing else defined, then 0 and 1 are the default states
# self.unambiguous_letters = self.symbols
raise NexusError('Unsupported datatype: ' + self.datatype)
self.valid_characters = ''.join(self.ambiguous_values) + self.unambiguous_letters
if not self.respectcase:
self.valid_characters = self.valid_characters.lower() + self.valid_characters.upper()
# we have to sort the reverse ambig coding dict key characters:
# to be sure that it's 'ACGT':'N' and not 'GTCA':'N'
rev = dict((i[1], i[0]) for i in self.ambiguous_values.items() if i[0] != 'X')
self.rev_ambiguous_values = {}
for (k, v) in rev.items():
key = sorted(c for c in k)
self.rev_ambiguous_values[''.join(key)] = v
# overwrite symbols for datype rna,dna,nucleotide
if self.datatype in ['dna', 'rna', 'nucleotide']:
self.symbols = self.alphabet.letters
if self.missing not in self.ambiguous_values:
self.ambiguous_values[self.missing] = self.unambiguous_letters +
self.ambiguous_values[] =
elif self.datatype == 'standard':
if not self.symbols:
self.symbols = ['1', '0']
if 'missing' in options:
self.missing = options['missing'][0]
if 'gap' in options: = options['gap'][0]
if 'equate' in options:
self.equate = options['equate']
if 'matchchar' in options:
self.matchchar = options['matchchar'][0]
if 'labels' in options:
self.labels = options['labels']
if 'transpose' in options:
raise NexusError('TRANSPOSE is not supported!')
self.transpose = True
if 'interleave' in options:
if options['interleave'] is None or options['interleave'].lower() == 'yes':
self.interleave = True
if 'tokens' in options:
self.tokens = True
if 'notokens' in options:
self.tokens = False
def _set(self, options):
self.set = options
def _options(self, options):
self.options = options
def _eliminate(self, options):
self.eliminate = options
def _taxlabels(self, options):
"""Get taxon labels (PRIVATE).
As the taxon names are already in the matrix, this is superfluous
except for transpose matrices, which are currently unsupported anyway.
Thus, we ignore the taxlabels command to make handling of duplicate
taxon names easier.
# self.taxlabels = []
# opts = CharBuffer(options)
# while True:
# taxon = quotestrip(opts.next_word())
# if not taxon:
# break
# self.taxlabels.append(taxon)
def _check_taxlabels(self, taxon):
"""Check for presence of taxon in self.taxlabels."""
# According to NEXUS standard, underscores shall be treated as spaces...,
# so checking for identity is more difficult
nextaxa = dict((t.replace(' ', '_'), t) for t in self.taxlabels)
nexid = taxon.replace(' ', '_')
return nextaxa.get(nexid)
def _charlabels(self, options):
self.charlabels = {}
opts = CharBuffer(options)
while True:
# get id and state
w = opts.next_word()
if w is None: # McClade saves and reads charlabel-lists with terminal comma?!
identifier = self._resolve(w, set_type=CHARSET)
state = quotestrip(opts.next_word())
self.charlabels[identifier] = state
# check for comma or end of command
c = opts.next_nonwhitespace()
if c is None:
elif c != ',':
raise NexusError('Missing \',\' in line %s.' % options)
def _charstatelabels(self, options):
# warning: charstatelabels supports only charlabels-syntax!
def _statelabels(self, options):
# self.charlabels = options
# print 'Command statelabels is not supported and will be ignored.'
def _matrix(self, options):
if not self.ntax or not self.nchar:
raise NexusError('Dimensions must be specified before matrix!')
self.matrix = {}
taxcount = 0
first_matrix_block = True
# eliminate empty lines and leading/trailing whitespace
lines = [l.strip() for l in options.split('\n') if l.strip() != '']
lineiter = iter(lines)
while True:
l = next(lineiter)
except StopIteration:
if taxcount < self.ntax:
raise NexusError('Not enough taxa in matrix.')
elif taxcount > self.ntax:
raise NexusError('Too many taxa in matrix.')
# count the taxa and check for interleaved matrix
taxcount += 1
# print taxcount
if taxcount > self.ntax:
if not self.interleave:
raise NexusError('Too many taxa in matrix - should matrix be interleaved?')
taxcount = 1
first_matrix_block = False
# get taxon name and sequence
linechars = CharBuffer(l)
id = quotestrip(linechars.next_word())
l =
chars = ''
if self.interleave:
# interleaved matrix
# print 'In interleave'
if l:
chars = ''.join(l.split())
chars = ''.join(next(lineiter).split())
# non-interleaved matrix
chars = ''.join(l.split())
while len(chars) < self.nchar:
l = next(lineiter)
chars += ''.join(l.split())
iupac_seq = Seq(_replace_parenthesized_ambigs(chars, self.rev_ambiguous_values), self.alphabet)
# first taxon has the reference sequence if matchhar is used
if taxcount == 1:
refseq = iupac_seq
if self.matchchar:
while True:
p = str(iupac_seq).find(self.matchchar)
if p == -1:
iupac_seq = Seq(str(iupac_seq)[:p] + refseq[p] + str(iupac_seq)[p + 1:], self.alphabet)
# check for invalid characters
for c in str(iupac_seq):
if c not in self.valid_characters and c != and c != self.missing:
raise NexusError("Taxon %s: Illegal character %s in sequence %s "
"(check dimensions/interleaving)" % (id, c, iupac_seq))
# add sequence to matrix
if first_matrix_block:
id = _unique_label(list(self.matrix.keys()), id)
self.matrix[id] = iupac_seq
# taxon names need to be in the same order in each interleaved block
id = _unique_label(self.taxlabels[:taxcount - 1], id)
taxon_present = self._check_taxlabels(id)
if taxon_present:
self.matrix[taxon_present] += iupac_seq
raise NexusError("Taxon %s not in first block of interleaved "
"matrix. Check matrix dimensions and interleave." % id)
# check all sequences for length according to nchar
for taxon in self.matrix:
if len(self.matrix[taxon]) != self.nchar:
raise NexusError('Matrix Nchar %d does not match data length (%d) for taxon %s'
% (self.nchar, len(self.matrix[taxon]), taxon))
# check that taxlabels is identical with matrix.keys. If not, it's a problem
matrixkeys = sorted(self.matrix)
taxlabelssort = sorted(self.taxlabels[:])
assert matrixkeys == taxlabelssort, \
"ERROR: TAXLABELS must be identical with MATRIX. " + \
"Please Report this as a bug, and send in data file."
def _translate(self, options):
self.translate = {}
opts = CharBuffer(options)
while True:
# get id and state
identifier = int(opts.next_word())
label = quotestrip(opts.next_word())
self.translate[identifier] = label
# check for comma or end of command
c = opts.next_nonwhitespace()
if c is None:
elif c != ',':
raise NexusError('Missing \',\' in line %s.' % options)
except NexusError:
raise NexusError('Format error in line %s.' % options)
def _utree(self, options):
"""Some software (clustalx) uses 'utree' to denote an unrooted tree."""
def _tree(self, options):
opts = CharBuffer(options)
if opts.peek_nonwhitespace() == '*':
# a star can be used to make it the default tree in some software packages
dummy = opts.next_nonwhitespace()
name = opts.next_word()
if opts.next_nonwhitespace() != '=':
raise NexusError('Syntax error in tree description: %s'
% options[:50])
rooted = False
weight = 1.0
while opts.peek_nonwhitespace() == '[':
opts.next_nonwhitespace() # discard opening bracket
symbol = next(opts)
if symbol != '&':
raise NexusError('Illegal special comment [%s...] in tree description: %s'
% (symbol, options[:50]))
special = next(opts)
value = opts.next_until(']')
next(opts) # discard closing bracket
if special == 'R':
rooted = True
elif special == 'U':
rooted = False
elif special == 'W':
weight = float(value)
tree = Tree(name=name, weight=weight, rooted=rooted,
# if there's an active translation table, translate
if self.translate:
for n in tree.get_terminals():
tree.node(n).data.taxon = safename(self.translate[int(tree.node(n).data.taxon)])
except (ValueError, KeyError):
raise NexusError('Unable to substitute %s using \'translate\' data.'
% tree.node(n).data.taxon)
def _apply_block_structure(self, title, lines):
block = Block('')
block.title = title
for line in lines:
block.commandlines.append(Commandline(line, title))
def _taxset(self, options):
name, taxa = self._get_indices(options, set_type=TAXSET)
self.taxsets[name] = _make_unique(taxa)
def _charset(self, options):
name, sites = self._get_indices(options, set_type=CHARSET)
self.charsets[name] = _make_unique(sites)
def _taxpartition(self, options):
taxpartition = {}
quotelevel = False
opts = CharBuffer(options)
name = self._name_n_vector(opts)
if not name:
raise NexusError('Formatting error in taxpartition: %s ' % options)
# now collect thesubbpartitions and parse them
# subpartitons separated by commas - which unfortunately could be part of a quoted identifier...
# this is rather unelegant, but we have to avoid double-parsing and potential change of special nexus-words
sub = ''
while True:
w = next(opts)
if w is None or (w == ',' and not quotelevel):
subname, subindices = self._get_indices(sub, set_type=TAXSET, separator=':')
taxpartition[subname] = _make_unique(subindices)
sub = ''
if w is None:
if w == "'":
quotelevel = not quotelevel
sub += w
self.taxpartitions[name] = taxpartition
def _codonposset(self, options):
"""Read codon positions from a codons block as written from McClade.
Here codonposset is just a fancy name for a character partition with
the name CodonPositions and the partitions N,1,2,3
prev_partitions = list(self.charpartitions.keys())
# mcclade calls it CodonPositions, but you never know...
codonname = [n for n in self.charpartitions if n not in prev_partitions]
if codonname == [] or len(codonname) > 1:
raise NexusError('Formatting Error in codonposset: %s ' % options)
self.codonposset = codonname[0]
def _codeset(self, options):
def _charpartition(self, options):
charpartition = {}
quotelevel = False
opts = CharBuffer(options)
name = self._name_n_vector(opts)
if not name:
raise NexusError('Formatting error in charpartition: %s ' % options)
# now collect thesubbpartitions and parse them
# subpartitons separated by commas - which unfortunately could be part of a quoted identifier...
sub = ''
while True:
w = next(opts)
if w is None or (w == ',' and not quotelevel):
subname, subindices = self._get_indices(sub, set_type=CHARSET, separator=':')
charpartition[subname] = _make_unique(subindices)
sub = ''
if w is None:
if w == "'":
quotelevel = not quotelevel
sub += w
self.charpartitions[name] = charpartition
def _get_indices(self, options, set_type=CHARSET, separator='='):
"""Parse the taxset/charset specification (PRIVATE).
e.g. '1 2 3 - 5 dog cat 10 - 20 \\ 3'
--> [0,1,2,3,4,'dog','cat',9,12,15,18]
opts = CharBuffer(options)
name = self._name_n_vector(opts, separator=separator)
indices = self._parse_list(opts, set_type=set_type)
if indices is None:
raise NexusError('Formatting error in line: %s ' % options)
return name, indices
def _name_n_vector(self, opts, separator='='):
"""Extract name and check that it's not in vector format."""
rest =
name = opts.next_word()
# we ignore * before names
if name == '*':
name = opts.next_word()
if not name:
raise NexusError('Formatting error in line: %s ' % rest)
name = quotestrip(name)
if opts.peek_nonwhitespace == '(':
open = opts.next_nonwhitespace()
qualifier = open.next_word()
close = opts.next_nonwhitespace()
if qualifier.lower() == 'vector':
raise NexusError('Unsupported VECTOR format in line %s'
% (opts))
elif qualifier.lower() != 'standard':
raise NexusError('Unknown qualifier %s in line %s'
% (qualifier, opts))
if opts.next_nonwhitespace() != separator:
raise NexusError('Formatting error in line: %s ' % rest)
return name
def _parse_list(self, options_buffer, set_type):
"""Parse a NEXUS list (PRIVATE).
e.g. [1, 2, 4-8\\2, dog, cat] --> [1,2,4,6,8,17,21],
(assuming dog is taxon no. 17 and cat is taxon no. 21).
plain_list = []
if options_buffer.peek_nonwhitespace():
# capture all possible exceptions and treat them as formatting
# errors, if they are not NexusError
while True:
identifier = options_buffer.next_word() # next list element
if not identifier: # end of list?
start = self._resolve(identifier, set_type=set_type)
if options_buffer.peek_nonwhitespace() == '-': # followd by -
end = start
step = 1
# get hyphen and end of range
hyphen = options_buffer.next_nonwhitespace()
end = self._resolve(options_buffer.next_word(), set_type=set_type)
if set_type == CHARSET:
if options_buffer.peek_nonwhitespace() == '\\': # followd by \
backslash = options_buffer.next_nonwhitespace()
step = int(options_buffer.next_word()) # get backslash and step
plain_list.extend(range(start, end + 1, step))
if isinstance(start, list) or isinstance(end, list):
raise NexusError('Name if character sets not allowed in range definition: %s'
% identifier)
start = self.taxlabels.index(start)
end = self.taxlabels.index(end)
taxrange = self.taxlabels[start:end + 1]
if isinstance(start, list): # start was the name of charset or taxset
else: # start was an ordinary identifier
except NexusError:
return None
return plain_list
def _resolve(self, identifier, set_type=None):
"""Translate identifier in list into character/taxon index.
Characters (which are referred to by their index in
Plain numbers are returned minus 1 (Nexus indices to python indices)
Text identifiers are translated into their indices (if plain character identifiers),
the first hit in charlabels is returned (charlabels don't need to be unique)
or the range of indices is returned (if names of character sets).
Taxa (which are referred to by their unique name in
Plain numbers are translated in their taxon name, underscores and spaces are considered equal.
Names are returned unchanged (if plain taxon identifiers), or the names in
the corresponding taxon set is returned.
identifier = quotestrip(identifier)
if not set_type:
raise NexusError('INTERNAL ERROR: Need type to resolve identifier.')
if set_type == CHARSET:
n = int(identifier)
except ValueError:
if self.charlabels and identifier in self.charlabels.values():
for k in self.charlabels:
if self.charlabels[k] == identifier:
return k
elif self.charsets and identifier in self.charsets:
return self.charsets[identifier]
raise NexusError('Unknown character identifier: %s'
% identifier)
if n <= self.nchar:
return n - 1
raise NexusError('Illegal character identifier: %d>nchar (=%d).'
% (identifier, self.nchar))
elif set_type == TAXSET:
n = int(identifier)
except ValueError:
taxlabels_id = self._check_taxlabels(identifier)
if taxlabels_id:
return taxlabels_id
elif self.taxsets and identifier in self.taxsets:
return self.taxsets[identifier]
raise NexusError('Unknown taxon identifier: %s'
% identifier)
if n > 0 and n <= self.ntax:
return self.taxlabels[n - 1]
raise NexusError('Illegal taxon identifier: %d>ntax (=%d).'
% (identifier, self.ntax))
raise NexusError('Unknown set specification: %s.' % set_type)
def _stateset(self, options):
# Not implemented
def _changeset(self, options):
# Not implemented
def _treeset(self, options):
# Not implemented
def _treepartition(self, options):
# Not implemented
def write_nexus_data_partitions(self, matrix=None, filename=None, blocksize=None,
interleave=False, exclude=[], delete=[],
charpartition=None, comment='', mrbayes=False):
"""Writes a nexus file for each partition in charpartition.
Only non-excluded characters and non-deleted taxa are included,
just the data block is written.
if not matrix:
matrix = self.matrix
if not matrix:
if not filename:
filename = self.filename
if charpartition:
pfilenames = {}
for p in charpartition:
total_exclude = [] + exclude
total_exclude.extend(c for c in range(self.nchar) if c not in charpartition[p])
total_exclude = _make_unique(total_exclude)
pcomment = comment + '\nPartition: ' + p + '\n'
dot = filename.rfind('.')
if dot > 0:
pfilename = filename[:dot] + '_' + p + '.data'
pfilename = filename + '_' + p
pfilenames[p] = pfilename
self.write_nexus_data(filename=pfilename, matrix=matrix, blocksize=blocksize,
interleave=interleave, exclude=total_exclude, delete=delete,
comment=pcomment, append_sets=False, mrbayes=mrbayes)
return pfilenames
fn = self.filename + '.data'
self.write_nexus_data(filename=fn, matrix=matrix, blocksize=blocksize,
interleave=interleave, exclude=exclude, delete=delete,
comment=comment, append_sets=False, mrbayes=mrbayes)
return fn
def write_nexus_data(self, filename=None, matrix=None, exclude=[], delete=[],
blocksize=None, interleave=False, interleave_by_partition=False,
comment=None, omit_NEXUS=False, append_sets=True, mrbayes=False,
"""Writes a nexus file with data and sets block to a file or handle.
Character sets and partitions are appended by default, and are
adjusted according to excluded characters (i.e. character sets
still point to the same sites (not necessarily same positions),
without including the deleted characters.
- filename - Either a filename as a string (which will be opened,
written to and closed), or a handle object (which will
be written to but NOT closed).
- interleave_by_partition - Optional name of partition (string)
- omit_NEXUS - Boolean. If true, the '#NEXUS' line normally at the
start of the file is omitted.
Returns the filename/handle used to write the data.
if not matrix:
matrix = self.matrix
if not matrix:
if not filename:
filename = self.filename
if [t for t in delete if not self._check_taxlabels(t)]:
raise NexusError('Unknown taxa: %s'
% ', '.join(set(delete).difference(set(self.taxlabels))))
if interleave_by_partition:
if interleave_by_partition not in self.charpartitions:
raise NexusError('Unknown partition: %r' % interleave_by_partition)
partition = self.charpartitions[interleave_by_partition]
# we need to sort the partition names by starting position before we exclude characters
names = _sort_keys_by_values(partition)
newpartition = {}
for p in partition:
newpartition[p] = [c for c in partition[p] if c not in exclude]
# how many taxa and how many characters are left?
undelete = [taxon for taxon in self.taxlabels if taxon in matrix and taxon not in delete]
cropped_matrix = _seqmatrix2strmatrix(self.crop_matrix(matrix, exclude=exclude, delete=delete))
ntax_adjusted = len(undelete)
nchar_adjusted = len(cropped_matrix[undelete[0]])
if not undelete or (undelete and undelete[0] == ''):
with File.as_handle(filename, mode='w') as fh:
if not omit_NEXUS:
if comment:
fh.write('[' + comment + ']\n')
fh.write('begin data;\n')
fh.write('\tdimensions ntax=%d nchar=%d;\n' % (ntax_adjusted, nchar_adjusted))
fh.write('\tformat datatype=' + self.datatype)
if self.respectcase:
fh.write(' respectcase')
if self.missing:
fh.write(' missing=' + self.missing)
fh.write(' gap=' +
if self.matchchar:
fh.write(' matchchar=' + self.matchchar)
if self.labels:
fh.write(' labels=' + self.labels)
if self.equate:
fh.write(' equate=' + self.equate)
if interleave or interleave_by_partition:
fh.write(' interleave')
# if self.taxlabels:
# fh.write('taxlabels '+' '.join(self.taxlabels)+';\n')
if self.charlabels:
newcharlabels = self._adjust_charlabels(exclude=exclude)
clkeys = sorted(newcharlabels)
fh.write('charlabels '
+ ', '.join("%s %s" % (k + 1, safename(newcharlabels[k])) for k in clkeys)
+ ';\n')
if not blocksize:
if interleave:
blocksize = 70
blocksize = self.nchar
# delete deleted taxa and ecxclude excluded characters...
namelength = max(len(safename(t, mrbayes=mrbayes)) for t in undelete)
if interleave_by_partition:
# interleave by partitions, but adjust partitions with regard to excluded characters
seek = 0
for p in names:
fh.write('[%s: %s]\n' % (interleave_by_partition, p))
if len(newpartition[p]) > 0:
for taxon in undelete:
fh.write(safename(taxon, mrbayes=mrbayes).ljust(namelength + 1))
fh.write(cropped_matrix[taxon][seek:seek + len(newpartition[p])] + '\n')
seek += len(newpartition[p])
elif interleave:
for seek in range(0, nchar_adjusted, blocksize):
for taxon in undelete:
fh.write(safename(taxon, mrbayes=mrbayes).ljust(namelength + 1))
fh.write(cropped_matrix[taxon][seek:seek + blocksize] + '\n')
for taxon in undelete:
if blocksize < nchar_adjusted:
fh.write(safename(taxon, mrbayes=mrbayes) + '\n')
fh.write(safename(taxon, mrbayes=mrbayes).ljust(namelength + 1))
taxon_seq = cropped_matrix[taxon]
for seek in range(0, nchar_adjusted, blocksize):
fh.write(taxon_seq[seek:seek + blocksize] + '\n')
del taxon_seq
if append_sets:
if codons_block:
fh.write(self.append_sets(exclude=exclude, delete=delete, mrbayes=mrbayes, include_codons=False))
fh.write(self.append_sets(exclude=exclude, delete=delete, mrbayes=mrbayes, codons_only=True))
fh.write(self.append_sets(exclude=exclude, delete=delete, mrbayes=mrbayes))
return filename
def append_sets(self, exclude=[], delete=[], mrbayes=False, include_codons=True, codons_only=False):
"""Returns a sets block."""
if not self.charsets and not self.taxsets and not self.charpartitions:
return ''
if codons_only:
setsb = ['\nbegin codons']
setsb = ['\nbegin sets']
# - now if characters have been excluded, the character sets need to be adjusted,
# so that they still point to the right character positions
# calculate a list of offsets: for each deleted character, the following character position
# in the new file will have an additional offset of -1
offset = 0
offlist = []
for c in range(self.nchar):
if c in exclude:
offset += 1
offlist.append(-1) # dummy value as these character positions are excluded
offlist.append(c - offset)
# now adjust each of the character sets
if not codons_only:
for n, ns in self.charsets.items():
cset = [offlist[c] for c in ns if c not in exclude]
if cset:
setsb.append('charset %s = %s' % (safename(n), _compact4nexus(cset)))
for n, s in self.taxsets.items():
tset = [safename(t, mrbayes=mrbayes) for t in s if t not in delete]
if tset:
setsb.append('taxset %s = %s' % (safename(n), ' '.join(tset)))
for n, p in self.charpartitions.items():
if not include_codons and n == CODONPOSITIONS:
elif codons_only and n != CODONPOSITIONS:
# as characters have been excluded, the partitions must be adjusted
# if a partition is empty, it will be omitted from the charpartition command
# (although paup allows charpartition part=t1:,t2:,t3:1-100)
names = _sort_keys_by_values(p)
newpartition = {}
for sn in names:
nsp = [offlist[c] for c in p[sn] if c not in exclude]
if nsp:
newpartition[sn] = nsp
if newpartition:
if include_codons and n == CODONPOSITIONS:
command = 'codonposset'
command = 'charpartition'
setsb.append('%s %s = %s' % (command, safename(n),
', '.join('%s: %s' % (sn, _compact4nexus(newpartition[sn]))
for sn in names if sn in newpartition)))
# now write charpartititions, much easier than charpartitions
for n, p in self.taxpartitions.items():
names = _sort_keys_by_values(p)
newpartition = {}
for sn in names:
nsp = [t for t in p[sn] if t not in delete]
if nsp:
newpartition[sn] = nsp
if newpartition:
setsb.append('taxpartition %s = %s' % (safename(n),
', '.join('%s: %s' % (safename(sn),
' '.join(safename(x) for x in newpartition[sn]))
for sn in names if sn in newpartition)))
# add 'end' and return everything
if len(setsb) == 2: # begin and end only
return ''
return ';\n'.join(setsb)
def export_fasta(self, filename=None, width=70):
"""Writes matrix into a fasta file."""
if not filename:
if '.' in self.filename and self.filename.split('.')[-1].lower() in ['paup', 'nexus', 'nex', 'dat']:
filename = '.'.join(self.filename.split('.')[:-1]) + '.fas'
filename = self.filename + '.fas'
with open(filename, 'w') as fh:
for taxon in self.taxlabels:
fh.write('>' + safename(taxon) + '\n')
for i in range(0, len(str(self.matrix[taxon])), width):
fh.write(str(self.matrix[taxon])[i:i + width] + '\n')
return filename
def export_phylip(self, filename=None):
"""Writes matrix into a PHYLIP file.
Note that this writes a relaxed PHYLIP format file, where the names
are not truncated, nor checked for invalid characters."""
if not filename:
if '.' in self.filename and self.filename.split('.')[-1].lower() in ['paup', 'nexus', 'nex', 'dat']:
filename = '.'.join(self.filename.split('.')[:-1]) + '.phy'
filename = self.filename + '.phy'
with open(filename, 'w') as fh:
fh.write('%d %d\n' % (self.ntax, self.nchar))
for taxon in self.taxlabels:
fh.write('%s %s\n' % (safename(taxon), str(self.matrix[taxon])))
return filename
def constant(self, matrix=None, delete=[], exclude=[]):
"""Return a list with all constant characters."""
if not matrix:
matrix = self.matrix
undelete = [t for t in self.taxlabels if t in matrix and t not in delete]
if not undelete:
return None
elif len(undelete) == 1:
return [x for x in range(len(matrix[undelete[0]])) if x not in exclude]
# get the first sequence and expand all ambiguous values
constant = [(x, self.ambiguous_values.get(n.upper(), n.upper())) for
x, n in enumerate(str(matrix[undelete[0]])) if x not in exclude]
for taxon in undelete[1:]:
newconstant = []
for site in constant:
# print '%d (paup=%d)' % (site[0],site[0]+1),
seqsite = matrix[taxon][site[0]].upper()
# print seqsite,'checked against',site[1],'\t',
if seqsite == self.missing \
or (seqsite == and self.options['gapmode'].lower() == 'missing') \
or seqsite == site[1]:
# missing or same as before -> ok
elif seqsite in site[1] \
or site[1] == self.missing \
or (self.options['gapmode'].lower() == 'missing' and site[1] ==
# subset of an ambig or only missing in previous -> take subset
newconstant.append((site[0], self.ambiguous_values.get(seqsite, seqsite)))
elif seqsite in self.ambiguous_values:
# is it an ambig: check the intersection with prev. values
intersect = set(self.ambiguous_values[seqsite]).intersection(set(site[1]))
if intersect:
newconstant.append((site[0], ''.join(intersect)))
# print 'ok'
# else:
# print 'failed'
# else:
# print 'failed'
constant = newconstant
cpos = [s[0] for s in constant]
return cpos
def cstatus(self, site, delete=[], narrow=True):
"""Summarize character.
narrow=True: paup-mode (a c ? --> ac; ? ? ? --> ?)
narrow=false: (a c ? --> a c g t -; ? ? ? --> a c g t -)
undelete = [t for t in self.taxlabels if t not in delete]
if not undelete:
return None
cstatus = []
for t in undelete:
c = self.matrix[t][site].upper()
if self.options.get('gapmode') == 'missing' and c ==
c = self.missing
if narrow and c == self.missing:
if c not in cstatus:
cstatus.extend(b for b in self.ambiguous_values[c] if b not in cstatus)
if self.missing in cstatus and narrow and len(cstatus) > 1:
cstatus = [c for c in cstatus if c != self.missing]
return cstatus
def weighted_stepmatrix(self, name='your_name_here', exclude=[], delete=[]):
"""Calculates a stepmatrix for weighted parsimony.
See Wheeler (1990), Cladistics 6:269-275 and
Felsenstein (1981), Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 16:183-196
m = StepMatrix(self.unambiguous_letters,
for site in [s for s in range(self.nchar) if s not in exclude]:
cstatus = self.cstatus(site, delete)
for i, b1 in enumerate(cstatus[:-1]):
for b2 in cstatus[i + 1:]:
m.add(b1.upper(), b2.upper(), 1)
return m.transformation().weighting().smprint(name=name)
def crop_matrix(self, matrix=None, delete=[], exclude=[]):
"""Return a matrix without deleted taxa and excluded characters."""
if not matrix:
matrix = self.matrix
if [t for t in delete if not self._check_taxlabels(t)]:
raise NexusError('Unknown taxa: %s'
% ', '.join(set(delete).difference(self.taxlabels)))
if exclude != []:
undelete = [t for t in self.taxlabels if t in matrix and t not in delete]
if not undelete:
return {}
m = [str(matrix[k]) for k in undelete]
sitesm = [s for i, s in enumerate(zip(*m)) if i not in exclude]
if sitesm == []:
return dict((t, Seq('', self.alphabet)) for t in undelete)
m = [Seq(s, self.alphabet) for s in (''.join(x) for x in zip(*sitesm))]
return dict(zip(undelete, m))
return dict((t, matrix[t]) for t in self.taxlabels if t in matrix and t not in delete)
def bootstrap(self, matrix=None, delete=[], exclude=[]):
"""Return a bootstrapped matrix."""
if not matrix:
matrix = self.matrix
seqobjects = isinstance(matrix[list(matrix.keys())[0]], Seq) # remember if Seq objects
cm = self.crop_matrix(delete=delete, exclude=exclude) # crop data out
if not cm: # everything deleted?
return {}
elif not cm[list(cm.keys())[0]]: # everything excluded?
return cm
undelete = [t for t in self.taxlabels if t in cm]
if seqobjects:
sitesm = list(zip(*[str(cm[t]) for t in undelete]))
alphabet = matrix[list(matrix.keys())[0]].alphabet
sitesm = list(zip(*[cm[t] for t in undelete]))
bootstrapsitesm = [sitesm[random.randint(0, len(sitesm) - 1)] for i in range(len(sitesm))]
bootstrapseqs = [''.join(x) for x in zip(*bootstrapsitesm)]
if seqobjects:
bootstrapseqs = [Seq(s, alphabet) for s in bootstrapseqs]
return dict(zip(undelete, bootstrapseqs))
def add_sequence(self, name, sequence):
"""Adds a sequence (string) to the matrix."""
if not name:
raise NexusError('New sequence must have a name')
diff = self.nchar - len(sequence)
if diff < 0:
self.insert_gap(self.nchar, -diff)
elif diff > 0:
sequence += self.missing * diff
if name in self.taxlabels:
unique_name = _unique_label(self.taxlabels, name)
# print "WARNING: Sequence name %s is already present. Sequence was added as %s." % (name,unique_name)
unique_name = name
assert unique_name not in self.matrix, "ERROR. There is a discrepancy between taxlabels and matrix keys. Report this as a bug."
self.matrix[unique_name] = Seq(sequence, self.alphabet)
self.ntax += 1
def insert_gap(self, pos, n=1, leftgreedy=False):
"""Add a gap into the matrix and adjust charsets and partitions.
pos=0: first position
pos=nchar: last position
def _adjust(set, x, d, leftgreedy=False):
"""Adjusts character sets if gaps are inserted, taking care of
new gaps within a coherent character set."""
# if 3 gaps are inserted at pos. 9 in a set that looks like 1 2 3 8 9 10 11 13 14 15
# then the adjusted set will be 1 2 3 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
# but inserting into position 8 it will stay like 1 2 3 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
addpos = 0
for i, c in enumerate(set):
if c >= x:
set[i] = c + d
# if we add gaps within a group of characters, we want the gap position included in this group
if c == x:
if leftgreedy or (i > 0 and set[i - 1] == c - 1):
addpos = i
if addpos > 0:
set[addpos:addpos] = list(range(x, x + d))
return set
if pos < 0 or pos > self.nchar:
raise NexusError('Illegal gap position: %d' % pos)
if n == 0:
sitesm = list(zip(*[str(self.matrix[t]) for t in self.taxlabels]))
sitesm[pos:pos] = [['-'] * len(self.taxlabels)] * n
mapped = [''.join(x) for x in zip(*sitesm)]
listed = [(taxon, Seq(mapped[i], self.alphabet)) for i, taxon in enumerate(self.taxlabels)]
self.matrix = dict(listed)
self.nchar += n
# now adjust character sets
for i, s in self.charsets.items():
self.charsets[i] = _adjust(s, pos, n, leftgreedy=leftgreedy)
for p in self.charpartitions:
for sp, s in self.charpartitions[p].items():
self.charpartitions[p][sp] = _adjust(s, pos, n, leftgreedy=leftgreedy)
# now adjust character state labels
self.charlabels = self._adjust_charlabels(insert=[pos] * n)
return self.charlabels
def _adjust_charlabels(self, exclude=None, insert=None):
"""Return adjusted indices of self.charlabels if characters are excluded or inserted."""
if exclude and insert:
raise NexusError('Can\'t exclude and insert at the same time')
if not self.charlabels:
return None
labels = sorted(self.charlabels)
newcharlabels = {}
if exclude:
excount = 0
for c in labels:
if c not in exclude:
while c > exclude[excount]:
excount += 1
newcharlabels[c - excount] = self.charlabels[c]
elif insert:
icount = 0
for c in labels:
while c >= insert[icount]:
icount += 1
newcharlabels[c + icount] = self.charlabels[c]
return self.charlabels
return newcharlabels
def invert(self, charlist):
"""Returns all character indices that are not in charlist."""
return [c for c in range(self.nchar) if c not in charlist]
def gaponly(self, include_missing=False):
"""Return gap-only sites."""
gap = set(
if include_missing:
sitesm = zip(*[str(self.matrix[t]) for t in self.taxlabels])
return [i for i, site in enumerate(sitesm) if set(site).issubset(gap)]
def terminal_gap_to_missing(self, missing=None, skip_n=True):
"""Replaces all terminal gaps with missing character.
Mixtures like ???------??------- are properly resolved."""
if not missing:
missing = self.missing
replace = [self.missing,]
if not skip_n:
replace.extend(['n', 'N'])
for taxon in self.taxlabels:
sequence = str(self.matrix[taxon])
length = len(sequence)
start, end = get_start_end(sequence, skiplist=replace)
if start == -1 and end == -1:
sequence = missing * length
sequence = sequence[:end + 1] + missing * (length - end - 1)
sequence = start * missing + sequence[start:]
assert length == len(sequence), 'Illegal sequence manipulation in Nexus.terminal_gap_to_missing in taxon %s' % taxon
self.matrix[taxon] = Seq(sequence, self.alphabet)
import cnexus
except ImportError:
def _get_command_lines(file_contents):
lines = _kill_comments_and_break_lines(file_contents)
commandlines = _adjust_lines(lines)
return commandlines
def _get_command_lines(file_contents):
decommented = cnexus.scanfile(file_contents)
# check for unmatched parentheses
if decommented == '[' or decommented == ']':
raise NexusError('Unmatched %s' % decommented)
# cnexus can't return lists, so in analogy we separate
# commandlines with chr(7) (a character that shouldn't be part of a
# nexus file under normal circumstances)
commandlines = _adjust_lines(decommented.split(chr(7)))
return commandlines
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