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General Info

This python script runs a two-population dust evolution model according to Birnstiel, Klahr, Ercolano, A&A (2012). Parameters can be set by using the arguments, otherwise default parameters are used (see output). The parameters, their meaning and units can be seen by executing ./ -h.

This code is published on

For bug reports, questions, ... contact me via my website.


If you use this code in a publication, please cite at least Birnstiel, Klahr, Ercolano, A&A (2012), and possibly Birnstiel et al. (ApJL) 2015 if you use the size distribution reconstruction. I addition to that, it would be best practice to include the hash of the version you used to make sure results are reproducible, as the code can change.


  • v0.2: restructuring of the code and packaging as a python package. The code can now be installed with python install. This includes an executable script.

Output Description

Output is written in the folder data/ by default (can be specified with option -dir). The following files are created:

File Description Units
x.dat Radial grid cm
T.dat Temperature K
a.dat Grain size grid cm
a_df.dat drift-fragmentation limit on radial grid cm
a_dr.dat drift size limit on radial grid cm
a_fr.dat fragmentation limit on radial grid cm
a_t.dat maximum particle size as function of radius and time cm
constants.dat lists several constants see file contents
sigma_d.dat dust surface density as function of radius and time g cm^-2
sigma_d_a.dat final dust surface density distribution (fct. of particle size and radius) g cm^-2
sigma_g.dat gas surface density as function of radius and time g cm^-2
time.dat times at which the snapshots were taken s
v_0.dat small grain velocity as function of radius and time cm s^-1
v_1.dat large grain velocity as function of radius and time cm s^-1
v_gas.dat gas velocity as function of radius and time cm s^-1

Package dependencies

astropy, numpy, scipy, configobj

Upcoming features:

  • proper integration of $da/dt$ instead of using exponential approximation.

DOI GPLv3 astropy arxiv arxiv arxiv


Implementation of the 2-population model for dust evolution in protoplanetary disks after Birnstiel, Klahr, & Ercolano, A&A 2012




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