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This is the core functionality of bitcoin-s.

Quick Build Guide

This repostitory includes the following functionality:

Design Principles

  • Immutable data structures everywhere
  • Algebraic Data Types to allow the compiler to check for exhaustiveness on match statements
  • Using property based testing to test robustness of code

Setting up libsecp256k1

libsecp256k1 needs to be built with the java interface enabled. Use the following commands to build secp256k1 with jni enabled. Here is the official documentation for doing this in secp256k1

$ cd secp256k1
$ sh && ./configure --enable-jni --enable-experimental --enable-module-ecdh && make
$ sudo make install #optional, this installs the lib on your system

Now you should be able to run secp256k1 with something like this. Or you can just copy to your system library path.

$ sbt -Djava.library.path=/usr/local/lib test

Property based testing

This library aims to achieve high level of correctness via property based testing. At the simplest level, you can think of property based testing as specifying a invariant that must always hold true. Here is an example of a property in the bitcoin-s-core test suite

  property("Serialization symmetry") =
    Prop.forAll(TransactionGenerators.transactions) { tx =>
      Transaction(tx.hex) == tx

What this property says is that for every transaction we can generate with TransactionGenerators.transactions we must be able to serialize it to hex format, then deserialize it back to a transaction and get the original tx back.

A more complex example of property based testing is checking that a multi signature transaction was signed correctly. First we generate a supposedly validly signed multisig transaction with TransactionGenerators.signedMultiSigTransaction. These transactions have varying m of n requirements. An interesting corner case if when you have 0 of n signatures. Which means no signature is required. Property based testing is really good at fleshing out these corner cases. We check to see if this transaction is valid by running it through our ScriptInterpreter. If we have built our functionality correctly the ScriptInterpreter should always return ScriptOk indicating the script was valid.

  property("generate valid signatures for a multisignature transaction") =
    Prop.forAllNoShrink(TransactionGenerators.signedMultiSigTransaction) {
      case (txSignatureComponent: TxSigComponent, _)  =>
        //run it through the interpreter
        val program = ScriptProgram(txSignatureComponent)
        val result =
        result == ScriptOk


  • Simple TransactionBuilder similar nbitcoin
  • Hardware wallet support (trezor, ledger etc)
  • Lightning network scriptpubkey types (some work done here)
  • sbt respository
  • Java support
  • Android support

Creating fat jar

Here is how you build a bitcoin-s-core fat jar file. Note this command will run the entire test suite in bitcoin-s-core.

$ sbt assembly
[info] ScalaCheck
[info] Passed: Total 149, Failed 0, Errors 0, Passed 149
[info] ScalaTest
[info] Run completed in 5 minutes, 33 seconds.
[info] Total number of tests run: 744
[info] Suites: completed 97, aborted 0
[info] Tests: succeeded 744, failed 0, canceled 0, ignored 0, pending 0
[info] All tests passed.
[info] Passed: Total 909, Failed 0, Errors 0, Passed 909
[info] Checking every *.class/*.jar file's SHA-1.
[info] Merging files...
[warn] Merging 'META-INF/MANIFEST.MF' with strategy 'discard'
[warn] Strategy 'discard' was applied to a file
[info] SHA-1: 6ea465dcc996cefb68fc334778cac60d892bd7f0
[info] Packaging /home/chris/dev/bitcoin-s-core/target/scala-2.11/bitcoin-s-core-assembly-0.0.1.jar ...
[info] Done packaging.
[success] Total time: 337 s, completed Jul 20, 2017 1:53:11 PM


Every bitcoin protocol data structure (and some other data structures) extends NetworkElement. NetworkElement provides easier methods to convert the data structure to hex or a byte representation. When paired with our Factory we can easily serialize and deserialize data structures. Most data structures have companion objects that extends Factory to be able to easily create protocol data structures. An example of this is the ScriptPubKey companion object. You can use this companion object to create a SPK from hex or a byte array.

Here is an example scala console session with bitcoins-core

$ sbt console
[info] Loading global plugins from /home/chris/.sbt/0.13/plugins
[info] Loading project definition from /home/chris/dev/bitcoin-s-core/project
[info] Set current project to bitcoin-s-core (in build file:/home/chris/dev/bitcoin-s-core/)
[info] Starting scala interpreter...
Welcome to Scala version 2.11.7 (Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM, Java 1.8.0_151).
Type in expressions to have them evaluated.
Type :help for more information.

scala> import org.bitcoins.core.protocol.transaction._
import org.bitcoins.core.protocol.transaction._

scala> val hexTx = "0100000001ccf318f0cbac588a680bbad075aebdda1f211c94ba28125b0f627f9248310db3000000006b4830450221008337ce3ce0c6ac0ab72509f8$9c1d52701817a2362d6357457b63e3bdedc0c0602202908963b9cf1a095ab3b34b95ce2bc0d67fb0f19be1cc5f7b3de0b3a325629bf01210241d746ca08da0a668735c3e01c1$a02045f2f399c5937079b6434b5a31dfe353ffffffff0210335d05000000001976a914b1d7591b69e9def0feb13254bace942923c7922d88ac48030000000000001976a9145e$90c865c2f6f7a9710a474154ab1423abb5b9288ac00000000"
hexTx: String = 0100000001ccf318f0cbac588a680bbad075aebdda1f211c94ba28125b0f627f9248310db3000000006b4830450221008337ce3ce0c6ac0ab72509f889c1$52701817a2362d6357457b63e3bdedc0c0602202908963b9cf1a095ab3b34b95ce2bc0d67fb0f19be1cc5f7b3de0b3a325629bf01210241d746ca08da0a668735c3e01c1fa02$45f2f399c5937079b6434b5a31dfe353ffffffff0210335d05000000001976a914b1d7591b69e9def0feb13254bace942923c7922d88ac48030000000000001976a9145e690c$65c2f6f7a9710a474154ab1423abb5b9288ac00000000

scala> val tx = Transaction(hexTx)
SLF4J: Failed to load class "org.slf4j.impl.StaticLoggerBinder".
SLF4J: Defaulting to no-operation (NOP) logger implementation
SLF4J: See for further details.
tx: org.bitcoins.core.protocol.transaction.Transaction = BaseTransactionImpl(UInt32Impl(1),List(TransactionInputImpl(TransactionOutPointImpl$DoubleSha256DigestImpl(ccf318f0cbac588a680bbad075aebdda1f211c94ba28125b0f627f9248310db3),UInt32Impl(0)),P2PKHScriptSignatureImpl(6b483045022$008337ce3ce0c6ac0ab72509f889c1d52701817a2362d6357457b63e3bdedc0c0602202908963b9cf1a095ab3b34b95ce2bc0d67fb0f19be1cc5f7b3de0b3a325629bf012102$1d746ca08da0a668735c3e01c1fa02045f2f399c5937079b6434b5a31dfe353),UInt32Impl(4294967295))),List(TransactionOutputImpl(SatoshisImpl(Int64Impl($9994000)),P2PKHScriptPubKeyImpl(1976a914b1d7591b69e9def0feb13254bace942923c7922d88ac)), TransactionOutputImpl(SatoshisImpl(Int64Impl(840)),P$PKHScriptPubKeyImpl(1976a9145e690c865c2f6f7a9710a474154ab1423abb5b9288ac))),UInt32Impl(0))

scala> val hexAgain = tx.hex
hexAgain: String = 0100000001ccf318f0cbac588a680bbad075aebdda1f211c94ba28125b0f627f9248310db3000000006b4830450221008337ce3ce0c6ac0ab72509f88$c1d52701817a2362d6357457b63e3bdedc0c0602202908963b9cf1a095ab3b34b95ce2bc0d67fb0f19be1cc5f7b3de0b3a325629bf01210241d746ca08da0a668735c3e01c1f$02045f2f399c5937079b6434b5a31dfe353ffffffff0210335d05000000001976a914b1d7591b69e9def0feb13254bace942923c7922d88ac48030000000000001976a9145e6$0c865c2f6f7a9710a474154ab1423abb5b9288ac00000000

This gives us an example of a bitcoin transaction that is encoded in hex format that is deserialized to a native Scala object called a Transaction. You could also serialize the transaction to bytes using tx.bytes instead of tx.hex. These methods are available on every data structure that extends NetworkElement, like ECPrivateKey, ScriptPubKey, ScriptWitness, and Block.

Transactions are run through the interpreter to check the validity of the Transaction. These are packaged up into an object called ScriptProgram, which contains the following:

  • The transaction that is being checked
  • The specific input index that it is checking
  • The scriptPubKey for the crediting transaction
  • The flags used to verify the script

Here is an example of a transaction spending a scriptPubKey which is correctly evaluated with our interpreter implementation:

chris@chris:~/dev/bitcoins-core$ sbt console
[info] Loading project definition from /home/chris/dev/bitcoins-core/project
[info] Set current project to bitcoins (in build file:/home/chris/dev/bitcoins-core/)
[info] Starting scala interpreter...
Welcome to Scala version 2.11.7 (Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM, Java 1.8.0_92).
Type in expressions to have them evaluated.
Type :help for more information.

scala> import org.bitcoins.core.protocol.script._
import org.bitcoins.core.protocol.script._

scala> import org.bitcoins.core.protocol.transaction._
import org.bitcoins.core.protocol.transaction._

scala> import org.bitcoins.core.script._
import org.bitcoins.core.script._

scala> import org.bitcoins.core.script.interpreter._
import org.bitcoins.core.script.interpreter._

scala> import org.bitcoins.core.policy._
import org.bitcoins.core.policy._

scala> val spendingTx = Transaction("0100000001ccf318f0cbac588a680bbad075aebdda1f211c94ba28125b0f627f9248310db3000000006b4830450221008337ce3ce0c6ac0ab72509f889c1d52701817a2362d6357457b63e3bdedc0c0602202908963b9cf1a095ab3b34b95ce2bc0d67fb0f19be1cc5f7b3de0b3a325629bf01210241d746ca08da0a668735c3e01c1fa02045f2f399c5937079b6434b5a31dfe353ffffffff0210335d05000000001976a914b1d7591b69e9def0feb13254bace942923c7922d88ac48030000000000001976a9145e690c865c2f6f7a9710a474154ab1423abb5b9288ac00000000")
spendingTx: org.bitcoins.core.protocol.transaction.Transaction = TransactionImpl(1,List(TransactionInputImpl(TransactionOutPointImpl(b30d3148927f620f5b1228ba941c211fdabdae75d0ba0b688a58accbf018f3cc,0),P2PKHScriptSignatureImpl(4830450221008337ce3ce0c6ac0ab72509f889c1d52701817a2362d6357457b63e3bdedc0c0602202908963b9cf1a095ab3b34b95ce2bc0d67fb0f19be1cc5f7b3de0b3a325629bf01210241d746ca08da0a668735c3e01c1fa02045f2f399c5937079b6434b5a31dfe353,List(BytesToPushOntoStackImpl(72), ScriptConstantImpl(30450221008337ce3ce0c6ac0ab72509f889c1d52701817a2362d6357457b63e3bdedc0c0602202908963b9cf1a095ab3b34b95ce2bc0d67fb0f19be1cc5f7b3de0b3a325629bf01), BytesToPushOntoStackImpl(33), ScriptConstantImpl(0241d746ca08da0a668735c3e01c1fa02045f2f399c5937079b6434b5a31dfe353))),4294967295)),List(TransactionOutputImpl(8...
scala> val scriptPubKey = ScriptPubKey("76a91431a420903c05a0a7de2de40c9f02ebedbacdc17288ac")
scriptPubKey: org.bitcoins.core.protocol.script.ScriptPubKey = P2PKHScriptPubKeyImpl(76a91431a420903c05a0a7de2de40c9f02ebedbacdc17288ac,List(OP_DUP, OP_HASH160, BytesToPushOntoStackImpl(20), ScriptConstantImpl(31a420903c05a0a7de2de40c9f02ebedbacdc172), OP_EQUALVERIFY, OP_CHECKSIG))

scala> val inputIndex = 0
inputIndex: Int = 0

scala> val program = ScriptProgram(spendingTx,scriptPubKey,inputIndex, Policy.standardScriptVerifyFlags)
program: org.bitcoins.core.script.PreExecutionScriptProgram = PreExecutionScriptProgramImpl(TransactionSignatureComponentImpl(TransactionImpl(1,List(TransactionInputImpl(TransactionOutPointImpl(b30d3148927f620f5b1228ba941c211fdabdae75d0ba0b688a58accbf018f3cc,0),P2PKHScriptSignatureImpl(4830450221008337ce3ce0c6ac0ab72509f889c1d52701817a2362d6357457b63e3bdedc0c0602202908963b9cf1a095ab3b34b95ce2bc0d67fb0f19be1cc5f7b3de0b3a325629bf01210241d746ca08da0a668735c3e01c1fa02045f2f399c5937079b6434b5a31dfe353,List(BytesToPushOntoStackImpl(72), ScriptConstantImpl(30450221008337ce3ce0c6ac0ab72509f889c1d52701817a2362d6357457b63e3bdedc0c0602202908963b9cf1a095ab3b34b95ce2bc0d67fb0f19be1cc5f7b3de0b3a325629bf01), BytesToPushOntoStackImpl(33), ScriptConstantImpl(0241d746ca08da0a668735c3e01c1fa02045f2f399c5937079...
res0: org.bitcoins.core.script.result.ScriptResult = ScriptOk

Running tests

To run the entire test suite all you need to do is run the following command

chris@chris:~/dev/bitcoins-core$ sbt test
[info] Elapsed time: 4 min 36.760 sec 
[info] ScalaCheck
[info] Passed: Total 149, Failed 0, Errors 0, Passed 149
[info] ScalaTest
[info] Run completed in 4 minutes, 55 seconds.
[info] Total number of tests run: 744
[info] Suites: completed 97, aborted 0
[info] Tests: succeeded 744, failed 0, canceled 0, ignored 0, pending 0
[info] All tests passed.
[info] Passed: Total 909, Failed 0, Errors 0, Passed 909
[success] Total time: 297 s, completed Jul 20, 2017 10:34:16 AM

To run a specific suite of tests you can specify the suite name in the following way

chris@chris:~/dev/bitcoins-core$ sbt
> test-only *ScriptInterpreterTest*
[info] ScriptInterpreterTest:
[info] ScriptInterpreter
[info] - must evaluate all the scripts from the bitcoin core script_tests.json
[info] Run completed in 8 seconds, 208 milliseconds.
[info] Total number of tests run: 1
[info] Suites: completed 1, aborted 0
[info] Tests: succeeded 1, failed 0, canceled 0, ignored 0, pending 0
[info] All tests passed.

Interacting with bitcoind

Please see our other project bitcoin-s-rpc-client

Stand alone SPV Node

Please see our other project bitcoin-s-spv-node