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core-intro
Core module

The core module is the core (duh!) functionality of Bitcoin-S. The goal is to provide basic data structures that are found in the Bitcoin and Lightning protocols while minimizing external depedencies for security purposes. We aim to have an extremely high level of test coverage in this module to flesh out bugs. We use property based testing heavily in this library to ensure high quality of code.

The basics

Every bitcoin protocol data structure (and some other data structures) extends NetworkElement. NetworkElement provides methods to convert the data structure to hex or byte representation. When paired with Factory we can easily serialize and deserialize data structures.

Most data structures have companion objects that extends Factory to be able to easily create protocol data structures. An example of this is the ScriptPubKey companion object. You can use this companion object to create a ScriptPubKey from a hex string or a byte array.

Main modules in core

  1. protocol - basic protocol data structures. Useful for serializing/deserializing things
  2. crypto - cryptograhic functionality used in Bitcoin and Lightning
  3. script - an implementation of Script - the programming language in Bitcoin
  4. wallet - implements signing logic for Bitcoin transactions. This module is not named well as there is NO functionality to persist wallet state to disk as it stands. This will most likely be renamed in the future.
  5. config - Contains information about a chain's genesis block and DNS seeds
  6. number - Implements number types that are native in C, i.e. UInt8, UInt32, UInt64, etc.
  7. currency - Implements currency units in the Bitcoin protocol
  8. bloom - Implements Bloom filters and merkle blocks needed for BIP37
  9. hd - Contains implementations of hierarchical deterministic (HD) paths, that when combined with ExtPrivKey and ExtPubKey in crypto can implement BIP32, BIP44, BIP49 and BIP84.

Examples

Serializing and deserializing a Transaction

Here is an example scala console session with bitcoins-core

import org.bitcoins.core.protocol.transaction._

val hexTx = "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"

val tx = Transaction.fromHex(hexTx)

tx.hex == hexTx

This gives us an example of a hex encoded Bitcoin transaction that is deserialized to a native Scala object called a Transaction. You could also serialize the transaction to bytes using tx.bytes instead of tx.hex. These methods are available on every data structure that extends NetworkElement, like ECPrivateKey, ScriptPubKey, ScriptWitness, and Block.

Generating a BIP39 mnemonic phrase and an xpriv

See our HD example

Building a signed transaction

Bitcoin Core supports building unsigned transactions and then signing them with a set of private keys. The first important thing to look at is UTXOSpendingInfo. This contains all of the information needed to create a validly signed ScriptSignature that spends this output.

Our TxBuilder class requires you to provide the following:

  1. destinations - the places we are sending bitcoin to. These are TransactionOutputs you are sending coins too
  2. utxos - these are the UTXOs used to fund your transaction. These must exist in your wallet, and you must know how to spend them (i.e. have the private key)
  3. feeRate - the fee rate you want to pay for this transaction
  4. changeSPK - where the change (i.e. creditingAmount - destinationAmount - fee) from the transaction will be sent
  5. network - the network(/api/org/bitcoins/core/config/NetworkParameters) we are transacting on

After providing this information, you can generate a validly signed bitcoin transaction by calling the sign method.

To see a complete example of this, see our TxBuilder example

Verifying a transaction's script is valid (does not check if UTXO is valid)

Transactions are run through the interpreter to check their validity. These are packaged up into an object called ScriptProgram, which contains the following:

  • The transaction that is being checked
  • The specific input index that it is checking
  • The scriptPubKey for the crediting transaction
  • The flags used to verify the script

Here is an example of a transaction spending a scriptPubKey which is correctly evaluated with our interpreter implementation:

import org.bitcoins.core.protocol.script._
import org.bitcoins.core.protocol.transaction._
import org.bitcoins.core.script._
import org.bitcoins.core.script.interpreter._
import org.bitcoins.core.policy._
import org.bitcoins.core.number._
import org.bitcoins.core.crypto._
import org.bitcoins.core.currency._

val spendingTx = Transaction.fromHex("0100000001ccf318f0cbac588a680bbad075aebdda1f211c94ba28125b0f627f9248310db3000000006b4830450221008337ce3ce0c6ac0ab72509f889c1d52701817a2362d6357457b63e3bdedc0c0602202908963b9cf1a095ab3b34b95ce2bc0d67fb0f19be1cc5f7b3de0b3a325629bf01210241d746ca08da0a668735c3e01c1fa02045f2f399c5937079b6434b5a31dfe353ffffffff0210335d05000000001976a914b1d7591b69e9def0feb13254bace942923c7922d88ac48030000000000001976a9145e690c865c2f6f7a9710a474154ab1423abb5b9288ac00000000")

val scriptPubKey = ScriptPubKey.fromAsmHex("76a91431a420903c05a0a7de2de40c9f02ebedbacdc17288ac")

val output = TransactionOutput(CurrencyUnits.zero, scriptPubKey)

val inputIndex = UInt32.zero

val btxsc = BaseTxSigComponent(spendingTx,inputIndex,output,Policy.standardScriptVerifyFlags)

val preExecution = PreExecutionScriptProgram(btxsc)
val result = ScriptInterpreter.run(preExecution)
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