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fac04cb refactor: Add lock annotations to Active* methods (MacroFake)
fac15ff Fix logical race in rest_getutxos (MacroFake)
fa97a52 Fix UB/data-race in RPCNotifyBlockChange (MacroFake)
fa530bc Add ChainstateManager::GetMutex(), an alias for ::cs_main (MacroFake)

Pull request description:

  This fixes two issues:

  * A data race in `ActiveChain`, which returns a reference to the chain (a `std::vector`), which is not thread safe. See also below traceback.
  * A corrupt rest response, which returns a blockheight and blockhash, which are unrelated to each other and to the result, as the chain might advance between each call without cs_main held.

  The issues are fixed by taking cs_main and holding it for the required time.

  ```
  ==================
  WARNING: ThreadSanitizer: data race (pid=32335)
    Write of size 8 at 0x7b3c000008f0 by thread T22 (mutexes: write M131626, write M151, write M131553):
      #0 std::__1::enable_if<(is_move_constructible<CBlockIndex**>::value) && (is_move_assignable<CBlockIndex**>::value), void>::type std::__1::swap<CBlockIndex**>(CBlockIndex**&, CBlockIndex**&) /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/__utility/swap.h:39:7 (bitcoind+0x501239)
      #1 std::__1::vector<CBlockIndex*, std::__1::allocator<CBlockIndex*> >::__swap_out_circular_buffer(std::__1::__split_buffer<CBlockIndex*, std::__1::allocator<CBlockIndex*>&>&) /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/vector:977:5 (bitcoind+0x501239)
      #2 std::__1::vector<CBlockIndex*, std::__1::allocator<CBlockIndex*> >::__append(unsigned long) /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/vector:1117:9 (bitcoind+0x501239)
      #3 std::__1::vector<CBlockIndex*, std::__1::allocator<CBlockIndex*> >::resize(unsigned long) /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/vector:2046:15 (bitcoind+0x4ffe29)
      #4 CChain::SetTip(CBlockIndex*) src/chain.cpp:19:12 (bitcoind+0x4ffe29)
      #5 CChainState::ConnectTip(BlockValidationState&, CBlockIndex*, std::__1::shared_ptr<CBlock const> const&, ConnectTrace&, DisconnectedBlockTransactions&) src/validation.cpp:2748:13 (bitcoind+0x475d00)
      #6 CChainState::ActivateBestChainStep(BlockValidationState&, CBlockIndex*, std::__1::shared_ptr<CBlock const> const&, bool&, ConnectTrace&) src/validation.cpp:2884:18 (bitcoind+0x47739e)
      #7 CChainState::ActivateBestChain(BlockValidationState&, std::__1::shared_ptr<CBlock const>) src/validation.cpp:3011:22 (bitcoind+0x477baf)
      #8 node::ThreadImport(ChainstateManager&, std::__1::vector<fs::path, std::__1::allocator<fs::path> >, ArgsManager const&) src/node/blockstorage.cpp:883:30 (bitcoind+0x23cd74)
      #9 AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7::operator()() const src/init.cpp:1657:9 (bitcoind+0x15863e)
      #10 decltype(static_cast<AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7&>(fp)()) std::__1::__invoke<AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7&>(AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7&) /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/type_traits:3918:1 (bitcoind+0x15863e)
      #11 void std::__1::__invoke_void_return_wrapper<void, true>::__call<AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7&>(AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7&) /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/__functional/invoke.h:61:9 (bitcoind+0x15863e)
      #12 std::__1::__function::__alloc_func<AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7, std::__1::allocator<AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7>, void ()>::operator()() /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/__functional/function.h:171:16 (bitcoind+0x15863e)
      #13 std::__1::__function::__func<AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7, std::__1::allocator<AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7>, void ()>::operator()() /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/__functional/function.h:345:12 (bitcoind+0x15863e)
      #14 std::__1::__function::__value_func<void ()>::operator()() const /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/__functional/function.h:498:16 (bitcoind+0x88891f)
      #15 std::__1::function<void ()>::operator()() const /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/__functional/function.h:1175:12 (bitcoind+0x88891f)
      #16 util::TraceThread(char const*, std::__1::function<void ()>) src/util/thread.cpp:18:9 (bitcoind+0x88891f)
      #17 decltype(static_cast<void (*>(fp)(static_cast<char const*>(fp0), static_cast<AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7>(fp0))) std::__1::__invoke<void (*)(char const*, std::__1::function<void ()>), char const*, AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7>(void (*&&)(char const*, std::__1::function<void ()>), char const*&&, AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7&&) /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/type_traits:3918:1 (bitcoind+0x157e6a)
      #18 void std::__1::__thread_execute<std::__1::unique_ptr<std::__1::__thread_struct, std::__1::default_delete<std::__1::__thread_struct> >, void (*)(char const*, std::__1::function<void ()>), char const*, AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7, 2ul, 3ul>(std::__1::tuple<std::__1::unique_ptr<std::__1::__thread_struct, std::__1::default_delete<std::__1::__thread_struct> >, void (*)(char const*, std::__1::function<void ()>), char const*, AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7>&, std::__1::__tuple_indices<2ul, 3ul>) /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/thread:280:5 (bitcoind+0x157e6a)
      #19 void* std::__1::__thread_proxy<std::__1::tuple<std::__1::unique_ptr<std::__1::__thread_struct, std::__1::default_delete<std::__1::__thread_struct> >, void (*)(char const*, std::__1::function<void ()>), char const*, AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7> >(void*) /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/thread:291:5 (bitcoind+0x157e6a)
    Previous read of size 8 at 0x7b3c000008f0 by main thread:
      #0 std::__1::vector<CBlockIndex*, std::__1::allocator<CBlockIndex*> >::size() const /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/vector:680:61 (bitcoind+0x15179d)
      #1 CChain::Tip() const src/./chain.h:449:23 (bitcoind+0x15179d)
      #2 ChainstateManager::ActiveTip() const src/./validation.h:927:59 (bitcoind+0x15179d)
      #3 AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*) src/init.cpp:1841:35 (bitcoind+0x15179d)
      #4 AppInit(node::NodeContext&, int, char**) src/bitcoind.cpp:231:43 (bitcoind+0x133fd2)
      #5 main src/bitcoind.cpp:275:13 (bitcoind+0x133fd2)
    Location is heap block of size 232 at 0x7b3c00000870 allocated by main thread:
      #0 operator new(unsigned long) <null> (bitcoind+0x132668)
      #1 ChainstateManager::InitializeChainstate(CTxMemPool*, std::__1::optional<uint256> const&) src/validation.cpp:4851:21 (bitcoind+0x48e26b)
      #2 node::LoadChainstate(bool, ChainstateManager&, CTxMemPool*, bool, Consensus::Params const&, bool, long, long, long, bool, bool, std::__1::function<bool ()>, std::__1::function<void ()>) src/node/chainstate.cpp:31:14 (bitcoind+0x24de07)
      #3 AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*) src/init.cpp:1438:32 (bitcoind+0x14e994)
      #4 AppInit(node::NodeContext&, int, char**) src/bitcoind.cpp:231:43 (bitcoind+0x133fd2)
      #5 main src/bitcoind.cpp:275:13 (bitcoind+0x133fd2)
    Mutex M131626 (0x7b3c00000898) created at:
      #0 pthread_mutex_lock <null> (bitcoind+0xda898)
      #1 std::__1::mutex::lock() <null> (libc++.so.1+0x49f35)
      #2 node::ThreadImport(ChainstateManager&, std::__1::vector<fs::path, std::__1::allocator<fs::path> >, ArgsManager const&) src/node/blockstorage.cpp:883:30 (bitcoind+0x23cd74)
      #3 AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7::operator()() const src/init.cpp:1657:9 (bitcoind+0x15863e)
      #4 decltype(static_cast<AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7&>(fp)()) std::__1::__invoke<AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7&>(AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7&) /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/type_traits:3918:1 (bitcoind+0x15863e)
      #5 void std::__1::__invoke_void_return_wrapper<void, true>::__call<AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7&>(AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7&) /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/__functional/invoke.h:61:9 (bitcoind+0x15863e)
      #6 std::__1::__function::__alloc_func<AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7, std::__1::allocator<AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7>, void ()>::operator()() /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/__functional/function.h:171:16 (bitcoind+0x15863e)
      #7 std::__1::__function::__func<AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7, std::__1::allocator<AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7>, void ()>::operator()() /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/__functional/function.h:345:12 (bitcoind+0x15863e)
      #8 std::__1::__function::__value_func<void ()>::operator()() const /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/__functional/function.h:498:16 (bitcoind+0x88891f)
      #9 std::__1::function<void ()>::operator()() const /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/__functional/function.h:1175:12 (bitcoind+0x88891f)
      #10 util::TraceThread(char const*, std::__1::function<void ()>) src/util/thread.cpp:18:9 (bitcoind+0x88891f)
      #11 decltype(static_cast<void (*>(fp)(static_cast<char const*>(fp0), static_cast<AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7>(fp0))) std::__1::__invoke<void (*)(char const*, std::__1::function<void ()>), char const*, AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7>(void (*&&)(char const*, std::__1::function<void ()>), char const*&&, AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7&&) /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/type_traits:3918:1 (bitcoind+0x157e6a)
      #12 void std::__1::__thread_execute<std::__1::unique_ptr<std::__1::__thread_struct, std::__1::default_delete<std::__1::__thread_struct> >, void (*)(char const*, std::__1::function<void ()>), char const*, AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7, 2ul, 3ul>(std::__1::tuple<std::__1::unique_ptr<std::__1::__thread_struct, std::__1::default_delete<std::__1::__thread_struct> >, void (*)(char const*, std::__1::function<void ()>), char const*, AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7>&, std::__1::__tuple_indices<2ul, 3ul>) /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/thread:280:5 (bitcoind+0x157e6a)
      #13 void* std::__1::__thread_proxy<std::__1::tuple<std::__1::unique_ptr<std::__1::__thread_struct, std::__1::default_delete<std::__1::__thread_struct> >, void (*)(char const*, std::__1::function<void ()>), char const*, AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7> >(void*) /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/thread:291:5 (bitcoind+0x157e6a)
    Mutex M151 (0x55aacb8ea030) created at:
      #0 pthread_mutex_init <null> (bitcoind+0xbed2f)
      #1 std::__1::recursive_mutex::recursive_mutex() <null> (libc++.so.1+0x49fb3)
      #2 __libc_start_main <null> (libc.so.6+0x29eba)
    Mutex M131553 (0x7b4c000042e0) created at:
      #0 pthread_mutex_init <null> (bitcoind+0xbed2f)
      #1 std::__1::recursive_mutex::recursive_mutex() <null> (libc++.so.1+0x49fb3)
      #2 std::__1::__unique_if<CTxMemPool>::__unique_single std::__1::make_unique<CTxMemPool, CBlockPolicyEstimator*, int const&>(CBlockPolicyEstimator*&&, int const&) /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/__memory/unique_ptr.h:728:32 (bitcoind+0x15c81d)
      #3 AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*) src/init.cpp:1426:24 (bitcoind+0x14e7b4)
      #4 AppInit(node::NodeContext&, int, char**) src/bitcoind.cpp:231:43 (bitcoind+0x133fd2)
      #5 main src/bitcoind.cpp:275:13 (bitcoind+0x133fd2)
    Thread T22 'b-loadblk' (tid=32370, running) created by main thread at:
      #0 pthread_create <null> (bitcoind+0xbd5bd)
      #1 std::__1::__libcpp_thread_create(unsigned long*, void* (*)(void*), void*) /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/__threading_support:443:10 (bitcoind+0x155e06)
      #2 std::__1:🧵:thread<void (*)(char const*, std::__1::function<void ()>), char const (&) [8], AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7, void>(void (*&&)(char const*, std::__1::function<void ()>), char const (&) [8], AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*)::$_7&&) /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/thread:307:16 (bitcoind+0x155e06)
      #3 AppInitMain(node::NodeContext&, interfaces::BlockAndHeaderTipInfo*) src/init.cpp:1656:29 (bitcoind+0x150164)
      #4 AppInit(node::NodeContext&, int, char**) src/bitcoind.cpp:231:43 (bitcoind+0x133fd2)
      #5 main src/bitcoind.cpp:275:13 (bitcoind+0x133fd2)
  SUMMARY: ThreadSanitizer: data race /usr/lib/llvm-13/bin/../include/c++/v1/__utility/swap.h:39:7 in std::__1::enable_if<(is_move_constructible<CBlockIndex**>::value) && (is_move_assignable<CBlockIndex**>::value), void>::type std::__1::swap<CBlockIndex**>(CBlockIndex**&, CBlockIndex**&)
  ==================
  ```

  From https://cirrus-ci.com/task/5612886578954240?logs=ci#L4868

ACKs for top commit:
  achow101:
    re-ACK fac04cb
  theStack:
    Code-review ACK fac04cb

Tree-SHA512: 9d619f99ff6373874c7ffe1db20674575605646b4b54b692fb54515a4a49f110a770026d7320ed6dfeaa7976be4cd89e93f821acdbf22c7662bd1c5be0cedcd2
a75b779

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Bitcoin Core integration/staging tree

https://bitcoincore.org

For an immediately usable, binary version of the Bitcoin Core software, see https://bitcoincore.org/en/download/.

What is Bitcoin Core?

Bitcoin Core connects to the Bitcoin peer-to-peer network to download and fully validate blocks and transactions. It also includes a wallet and graphical user interface, which can be optionally built.

Further information about Bitcoin Core is available in the doc folder.

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The contribution workflow is described in CONTRIBUTING.md and useful hints for developers can be found in doc/developer-notes.md.

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